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Technical Paper

Large-Eddy Simulations of Spray Variability Effects on Flow Variability in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine Under Non-Combusting Operating Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0196
Large-eddy Simulations (LES) have been carried out to investigate spray variability and its effect on cycle-to-cycle flow variability in a direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine under non-reacting conditions. Initial simulations were performed of an injector in a constant volume spray chamber to validate the simulation spray set-up. Comparisons showed good agreement in global spray measures such as the penetration. Local mixing data and shot-to-shot variability were also compared using Rayleigh-scattering images and probability contours. The simulations were found to reasonably match the local mixing data and shot-to-shot variability using a random-seed perturbation methodology. After validation, the same spray set-up with only minor changes was used to simulate the same injector in an optically accessible DISI engine. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurements were used to quantify the flow velocity in a horizontal plane intersecting the spark plug gap.
Technical Paper

Multi-dimensional Modeling of Non-equilibrium Plasma for Automotive Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0198
While spark-ignition (SI) engine technology is aggressively moving towards challenging (dilute and boosted) combustion regimes, advanced ignition technologies generating non-equilibrium types of plasma are being considered by the automotive industry as a potential replacement for the conventional spark-plug technology. However, there are currently no models that can describe the low-temperature plasma (LTP) ignition process in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes that are typically used in the multi-dimensional engine modeling community. A key question for the engine modelers that are trying to describe the non-equilibrium ignition physics concerns the plasma characteristics. A key challenge is also represented by the plasma formation timescale (nanoseconds) that can hardly be resolved within a full engine cycle simulation.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Dynamic Coupling of Internal Nozzle Flow and Spray Formation for Gasoline Direct Injection Applications

2018-04-03
2018-01-0314
A numerical study has been carried out to assess the effects of needle movement and internal nozzle flow on spray formation for a multi-hole Gasoline Direct Injection system. The coupling of nozzle flow and spray formation is dynamic in nature and simulations with pragmatic choice of spatial and temporal resolutions are needed to analyze the sprays in a GDI system. The dynamic coupling of nozzle flow and spray formation will be performed using an Eulerian-Lagrangian Spray Atomization (ELSA) approach. In this approach, the liquid fuel will remain in the Eulerian framework while exiting the nozzle, while, depending on local instantaneous liquid concentration in a given cell and amount of liquid in the neighboring cells, part of the liquid mass will be transferred to the Lagrangian framework in the form of Lagrangian parcels.
Technical Paper

A PEV Emulation Approach to Development and Validation of Grid Friendly Optimized Automated Load Control Vehicle Charging Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-0409
There are many challenges in implementing grid aware plug-in electric vehicle (PEV) charging systems with local load control. New opportunities for innovative load control were created as a result of changes to the 2014 National Electric Code (NEC) about automatic load control definitions for EV charging infrastructure. Stakeholders in optimized dispatch of EV charging assets include the end users (EV drivers), site owner/operators, facility managers and utilities. NEC definition changes allow for ‘over subscription’ of more potential EV charging station load than can be continuously supported if the total load at any time is within the supply system safety limit. Local load control can be implemented via compact submeter(s) with locally hosted control algorithms using direct communication to the managed electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE).
Technical Paper

Model Validation of the Chevrolet Volt 2016

2018-04-03
2018-01-0420
Validation of a vehicle simulation model of the Chevrolet Volt 2016 was conducted. The Chevrolet Volt 2016 is equipped with the new “Voltec” extended-range propulsion system introduced into the market in 2016. The second generation Volt powertrain system operates in five modes, including two electric vehicle modes and three extended-range modes. Model development and validation were conducted using the test data performed on the chassis dynamometer set in a thermal chamber of Argonne National Laboratory’s Advanced Powertrain Research Facility. First, the components of the vehicle, such as the engine, motor, battery, wheels, and chassis, were modeled, including thermal aspects based on the test data. For example, engine efficiency changes dependent on the coolant temperature, or chassis heating or air-conditioning operations according to the ambient and cabin temperature, were applied.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Three Pressure Analysis (TPA) GT-Power Model of the CFR F1/F2 Engine for Estimating Cylinder Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-0848
The CFR engine is the widely accepted platform to test standard Research Octane Number (RON) and Motored Octane Number (MON) for determining anti-knock characteristics of motor fuels. With increasing interest in engine downsizing, up-torquing, and alternative fuels for modern spark ignition (SI) engines, there is a need to better understand the conditions that fuels are subjected to in the CFR engine during octane rating. To take into account fuel properties, such as fuel heat of vaporization, laminar flame speed and auto-ignition chemistry; and understand their impacts on combustion knock, it is essential to estimate accurate cylinder conditions. In this study, the CFR F1/F2 engine was modeled using GT-Power with the Three Pressure Analysis (TPA) and the model was validated for different fuels and engine conditions.
Technical Paper

Quantifying Uncertainty in Predictions of Kinetically Modulated Combustion: Application to HCCI Using a Detailed Transportation Fuel Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-1251
Simulation of chemical kinetic processes in combustion engine environments has become ubiquitous towards the understanding of combustion phenomenology, the evaluation of controlling parameters, and the design of configurations and/or control strategies. Such calculations are not free from error however, and the interpretation of simulation results must be considered within the context of uncertainties in the chemical kinetic model. Uncertainties arise due to structural issues (e.g., included/missing reaction pathways), as well as inaccurate descriptions of kinetic rate parameters and thermochemistry. In fundamental apparatuses like rapid compression machines and shock tubes, computed constant-volume ignition delay times for simple, single-component fuels can have variations on the order of factors of 2-4.
Journal Article

Numerical Methodology for Optimization of Compression-Ignited Engines Considering Combustion Noise Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-0193
It is challenging to develop highly efficient and clean engines while meeting user expectations in terms of performance, comfort, and drivability. One of the critical aspects in this regard is combustion noise control. Combustion noise accounts for about 40 percent of the overall engine noise in typical turbocharged diesel engines. The experimental investigation of noise generation is difficult due to its inherent complexity and measurement limitations. Therefore, it is important to develop efficient numerical strategies in order to gain a better understanding of the combustion noise mechanisms. In this work, a novel methodology was developed, combining computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling and genetic algorithm (GA) technique to optimize the combustion system hardware design of a high-speed direct injection (HSDI) diesel engine, with respect to various emissions and performance targets including combustion noise.
Journal Article

X-Ray Radiography Measurements of the Thermal Energy in Spark Ignition Plasma at Variable Ambient Conditions

2017-09-04
2017-24-0178
The sparking behavior in an internal combustion engine affects the fuel efficiency, engine-out emissions, and general drivability of a vehicle. As emissions regulations become progressively stringent, combustion strategies, including exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), lean-burn, and turbocharging are receiving increasing attention as models of higher efficiency advanced combustion engines with reduced emissions levels. Because these new strategies affect the working environment of the spark plug, ongoing research strives to understand the influence of external factors on the spark ignition process. Due to the short time and length scales involved and the harsh environment, experimental quantification of the deposited energy from the sparking event is difficult to obtain. In this paper, we present the results of x-ray radiography measurements of spark ignition plasma generated by a conventional spark plug.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation of a Direct-Acting Piezoelectric Prototype Injector Nozzle Flow for Partial Needle Lifts

2017-09-04
2017-24-0101
Actual combustion strategies in internal combustion engines rely on fast and accurate injection systems to be successful. One of the injector designs that has shown good performance over the past years is the direct-acting piezoelectric. This system allows precise control of the injector needle position and hence the injected mass flow rate. Therefore, understanding how nozzle flow characteristics change as function of needle dynamics helps to choose the best lift law in terms of delivered fuel for a determined combustion strategy. Computational fluid dynamics is a useful tool for this task. In this work, nozzle flow of a prototype direct-acting piezoelectric has been simulated by using CONVERGE. Unsteady Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes approach is used to take into account the turbulence. Results are compared with experiments in terms of mass flow rate. The nozzle geometry and needle lift profiles were obtained by means of X-rays in previous works.
Journal Article

Effects of Fuel Laminar Flame Speed Compared to Engine Tumble Ratio, Ignition Energy, and Injection Strategy on Lean and EGR Dilute Spark Ignition Combustion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0671
Previous studies have shown that fuels with higher laminar flame speed also have increased tolerance to EGR dilution. In this work, the effects of fuel laminar flame speed on both lean and EGR dilute spark ignition combustion stability were examined. Fuels blends of pure components (iso-octane, n-heptane, toluene, ethanol, and methanol) were derived at two levels of laminar flame speed. Each fuel blend was tested in a single-cylinder spark-ignition engine under both lean-out and EGR dilution sweeps until the coefficient of variance of indicated mean effective pressure increased above thresholds of 3% and 5%. The relative importance of fuel laminar flame speed to changes to engine design parameters (spark ignition energy, tumble ratio, and port vs. direct injection) was also assessed.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Transmission Warming Technologies at Various Ambient Conditions

2017-03-28
2017-01-0157
This work details two approaches for evaluating transmission warming technology: experimental dynamometer testing and development of a simplified transmission efficiency model to quantify effects under varied real world ambient and driving conditions. Two vehicles were used for this investigation: a 2013 Ford Taurus and a highly instrumented 2011 Ford Fusion (Taurus and Fusion). The Taurus included a production transmission warming system and was tested over hot and cold ambient temperatures with the transmission warming system enabled and disabled. A robot driver was used to minimize driver variability and increase repeatability. Additionally the instrumented Fusion was tested cold and with the transmission pre-heated prior to completing the test cycles. These data were used to develop a simplified thermally responsive transmission model to estimate effects of transmission warming in real world conditions.
Technical Paper

Long Term Impact of Vehicle Electrification on Vehicle Weight and Cost Breakdown

2017-03-28
2017-01-1174
Today’s value proposition of plug-in hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and battery electric vehicles (BEV) remain expensive. While the cost of lithium batteries has significantly decreased over the past few years, more improvement is necessary for PHEV and BEV to penetrate the mass market. However, the technology and cost improvements of the primary components used in electrified vehicles such as batteries, electric machines and power electronics have far exceeded the improvements in the main components used in conventional vehicles and this trend is expected to continue for the foreseeable future. Today’s weight and cost structures of electrified vehicles differ substantially from that of conventional vehicles but that difference will shrink over time. This paper highlights how the weight and cost structures, both in absolute terms and in terms of split between glider and powertrain, converge over time.
Journal Article

Numerical Investigation of a Gasoline-Like Fuel in a Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Global Sensitivity Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-0578
Fuels in the gasoline auto-ignition range (Research Octane Number (RON) > 60) have been demonstrated to be effective alternatives to diesel fuel in compression ignition engines. Such fuels allow more time for mixing with oxygen before combustion starts, owing to longer ignition delay. Moreover, by controlling fuel injection timing, it can be ensured that the in-cylinder mixture is “premixed enough” before combustion occurs to prevent soot formation while remaining “sufficiently inhomogeneous” in order to avoid excessive heat release rates. Gasoline compression ignition (GCI) has the potential to offer diesel-like efficiency at a lower cost and can be achieved with fuels such as low-octane straight run gasoline which require significantly less processing in the refinery compared to today’s fuels.
Journal Article

CFD-Guided Heavy Duty Mixing-Controlled Combustion System Optimization with a Gasoline-Like Fuel

2017-03-28
2017-01-0550
A computational fluid dynamics (CFD) guided combustion system optimization was conducted for a heavy-duty compression-ignition engine with a gasoline-like fuel that has an anti-knock index (AKI) of 58. The primary goal was to design an optimized combustion system utilizing the high volatility and low sooting tendency of the fuel for improved fuel efficiency with minimal hardware modifications to the engine. The CFD model predictions were first validated against experimental results generated using the stock engine hardware. A comprehensive design of experiments (DoE) study was performed at different operating conditions on a world-leading supercomputer, MIRA at Argonne National Laboratory, to accelerate the development of an optimized fuel-efficiency focused design while maintaining the engine-out NOx and soot emissions levels of the baseline production engine.
Journal Article

Effects of Cavitation and Hydraulic Flip in 3-Hole GDI Injectors

2017-03-28
2017-01-0848
The performance of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines is governed by multiple physical processes such as the internal nozzle flow and the mixing of the liquid stream with the gaseous ambient environment. A detailed knowledge of these processes even for complex injectors is very important for improving the design and performance of combustion engines all the way to pollutant formation and emissions. However, many processes are still not completely understood, which is partly caused by their restricted experimental accessibility. Thus, high-fidelity simulations can be helpful to obtain further understanding of GDI injectors. In this work, advanced simulation and experimental methods are combined in order to study the spray characteristics of two different 3-hole GDI injectors.
Journal Article

A Comparison of Experimental and Modeled Velocity in Gasoline Direct-Injection Sprays with Plume Interaction and Collapse

2017-03-28
2017-01-0837
Modeling plume interaction and collapse for direct-injection gasoline sprays is important because of its impact on fuel-air mixing and engine performance. Nevertheless, the aerodynamic interaction between plumes and the complicated two-phase coupling of the evaporating spray has shown to be notoriously difficult to predict. With the availability of high-speed (100 kHz) Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) experimental data, we compare velocity field predictions between plumes to observe the full temporal evolution leading up to plume merging and complete spray collapse. The target “Spray G” operating conditions of the Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is the focus of the work, including parametric variations in ambient gas temperature. We apply both LES and RANS spray models in different CFD platforms, outlining features of the spray that are most critical to model in order to predict the correct aerodynamics and fuel-air mixing.
Journal Article

High-Resolution X-Ray and Neutron Computed Tomography of an Engine Combustion Network Spray G Gasoline Injector

2017-03-28
2017-01-0824
Given the importance of the fuel-injection process on the combustion and emissions performance of gasoline direct injected engines, there has been significant recent interest in understanding the fluid dynamics within the injector, particularly around the needle and through the nozzles. The pressure losses and transients that occur in the flow passages above the needle are also of interest. Simulations of these injectors typically use the nominal design geometry, which does not always match the production geometry. Computed tomography (CT) using x-ray and neutron sources can be used to obtain the real geometry from production injectors, but there are trade-offs in using these techniques. X-ray CT provides high resolution, but cannot penetrate through the thicker parts of the injector. Neutron CT has excellent penetrating power but lower resolution.
Technical Paper

Coupled Eulerian Internal Nozzle Flow and Lagrangian Spray Simulations for GDI Systems

2017-03-28
2017-01-0834
An extensive numerical study of two-phase flow inside the nozzle holes and the issuing jets for a multi-hole direct injection gasoline injector is presented. The injector geometry is representative of the Spray G nozzle, an eight-hole counter-bored injector, from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). Homogeneous Relaxation Model (HRM) coupled with the mixture multiphase approach in the Eulerian framework has been utilized to capture the phase change phenomena inside the nozzle holes. Our previous studies have demonstrated that this approach is capable of capturing the effect of injection transients and thermodynamic conditions in the combustion chamber, by predicting phenomenon such as flash boiling. However, these simulations were expensive, especially if there is significant interest in predicting the spray behavior as well.
Technical Paper

Implementation of a Tabulated Flamelet Model for Compression Ignition Engine Applications

2017-03-28
2017-01-0564
Modeling unsteady turbulent flame development in lifted spray flames is important as a strong correlation exists between pollutant formation and the transient flame features such as auto-ignition, flame propagation and flame stabilization. Detailed chemistry mechanisms with large number of species are required to resolve the chemical kinetics accurately. These factors make high-fidelity simulation of engine combustion computationally expensive. In this work, a turbulent combustion model is proposed based on tabulation of flamelets. The aim is to develop a comprehensive combustion modeling approach incorporating detailed chemistry mechanisms, turbulence models and highly resolved grids leveraging the computational cost advantage of tabulation. A novel technique of implementing unsteady flamelet libraries without the use of progress variables is implemented for igniting sprays called Tabulated Flamelet Model (TFM).
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