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Technical Paper

Comparing Estimates of Fuel Economy Improvement Via Fuel-Cell Powertrains

2002-06-03
2002-01-1947
Several studies, conducted from 1997 to 2001, have employed vehicle and powertrain simulation models to estimate fuel economy gains for a variety of fuel-cell powertrains. Many of those studies have attempted to control for the comparability of performance between conventional and fuel-cell vehicles (FCVs), but different sets of performance goals and simulation models have been used. This paper reviews the estimates of fuel economy gain (in mpg) vs. varying measures of performance change for a set of those studies. We examine some of the potential causes for the variability of these estimates - fuel used, powertrain hybridization, vehicle raw energy requirements (load), and variations in analysts' assumptions/estimates - when substituting several types of fuel-cell powertrains. Our study includes development of a database and detailed examination of the relationships among powertrain and vehicle characteristics and fuel economy gain estimates for the selected studies.
Technical Paper

Near-Term Fuel Economy Potential for Light-Duty Trucks

2002-06-03
2002-01-1900
This paper assesses the technical potential, costs and benefits of improving the fuel economy of light-duty trucks over the next five to ten years in the United States using conventional technologies. We offer an in-depth analysis of several technology packages based on a detailed vehicle system modeling approach. Results are provided for fuel economy, cost, oil savings and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions. We examine a range of refinements to body, powertrain and electrical systems, reflecting current best practice and emerging technologies such as lightweight materials, high-efficiency IC engines, integrated starter-generator, 42 volt electrical system and advanced transmission. In this paper, multiple technological pathways are identified to significantly improve fleet average light-duty-truck fuel economy to 27.0 MPG or higher with net savings to consumers.
Technical Paper

Axial Flux Variable Gap Motor: Application in Vehicle Systems

2002-03-04
2002-01-1088
Alternative electric motor geometry with potentially increased efficiency is being considered for hybrid electric vehicle applications. An axial flux motor with a dynamically adjustable air gap (i.e., mechanical field weakening) has been tested, analyzed, and modeled for use in a vehicle simulation tool at Argonne National Laboratory. The advantage of adjusting the flux is that the motor torque-speed characteristics can better match the vehicle load. The challenge in implementing an electric machine with these qualities is to develop a control strategy that takes advantage of the available efficiency improvements without using excessive energy to mechanically adjust the air gap and thus reduce the potential energy savings. Motor efficiency was mapped in terms of speed, torque, supply voltage, and rotor-to-stator air gap.
Technical Paper

A Simple Fan Model for Underhood Thermal Management Analyses

2002-03-04
2002-01-1025
This work presents a simple fan model that is based on the actuator disk approximation, and the blade element and vortex theory of a propeller. A set of equations are derived that require as input the rotational speed of the fan, geometric fan data, and the lift and drag coefficients of the blades. These equations are solved iteratively to obtain the body forces generated by the fan in the axial and circumferential directions. These forces are used as momentum sources in a CFD code to simulate the effect of the fan in an underhood thermal management simulation. To validate this fan model, a fan experiment was simulated. The model was incorporated into the CFD code STAR-CD and predictions were generated for axial and circumferential air velocities at different radial positions and at different planes downstream of the fan. The agreement between experimental measurements and predictions is good.
Technical Paper

Modeling the Effects of Late Cycle Oxygen Enrichment on Diesel Engine Combustion and Emissions

2002-03-04
2002-01-1158
A multidimensional simulation of Auxiliary Gas Injection (AGI) for late cycle oxygen enrichment was exercised to assess the merits of AGI for reducing the emissions of soot from heavy duty diesel engines while not adversely affecting the NOx emissions of the engine. Here, AGI is the controlled enhancement of mixing within the diesel engine combustion chamber by high speed jets of air or another gas. The engine simulated was a Caterpillar 3401 engine. For a particular operating condition of this engine, the simulated soot emissions of the engine were reduced by 80% while not significantly affecting the engine-out NOx emissions compared to the engine operating without AGI. The effects of AGI duration, timing, and orientation are studied to confirm the window of opportunity for realizing lower engine-out soot while not increasing engine out NOx through controlled enhancement of in-cylinder mixing.
Technical Paper

Detailed Characterization of Morphology and Dimensions of Diesel Particulates via Thermophoretic Sampling

2001-09-24
2001-01-3572
A thermophoretic particulate sampling device was used to investigate the detailed morphology and microstructure of diesel particulates at various engine-operating conditions. A 75 HP Caterpillar single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine was operated to sample particulate matter from the high-temperature exhaust stream. The morphology and microstructure of the collected diesel particulates were analyzed using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and subsequent image processing/data acquisition system. The analysis revealed that spherical primary particles were agglomerated together to form large aggregate clusters for most of engine speed and load conditions. Measured primary particle sizes ranged from 34.4 to 28.5 nm at various engine-operating conditions. The smaller primary particles observed at high engine-operating conditions were believed to be caused by particle oxidation at the high combustion temperature.
Technical Paper

The New PNGV System Analysis Toolkit PSAT V4.1 - Evolution and Improvement

2001-08-20
2001-01-2536
Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), working with the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV), maintains hybrid vehicle simulation software, the PNGV System Analysis Toolkit (PSAT). PSAT, originally proprietary, has been used by both DOE and the “Big Three” as a modeling tool. The number of PSAT users has increased recently because 15 universities participating in the 2001 FutureTruck competition were given the software for their use. PSAT allows companies to look at new types of vehicles (hybrids) and choose the best configuration according to customer expectations within a minimum of time. PSAT, a forward-looking model, allows the user to simulate a large number of different configurations (conventional, series, parallel, and power split). PSAT is well suited for development of control strategies; by using accurate dynamics component models as its code, PSAT can be implemented directly and tested at the bench scale or in a vehicle.
Technical Paper

Effect of Soot Loading on the Thermal Characteristics of Diesel Engine Oils

2001-05-14
2001-01-1714
When compared with new oil, used diesel engine oils exhibited thermal conductivity that increases as the concentration of soot increases. The magnitude of the effect depends on the oil composition, and on the size and dispersion of the soot particles. Although soot in engine oil is generally deleterious to engine performance from the standpoint of wear and deposits, no negative effects were observed on the thermal performance of the oil itself; indeed, even slight positive effects are expected for oils that maintain soot in stable dispersion. Therefore, the thermal challenge for engine oils in diesel engines that use exhaust gas recirculation will be to prevent soot deposition on engine surfaces.
Technical Paper

A Preliminary Study of Energy Recovery in Vehicles by Using Regenerative Magnetic Shock Absorbers

2001-05-14
2001-01-2071
Road vehicles can expend a significant amount of energy in undesirable vertical motions that are induced by road bumps, and much of that is dissipated in conventional shock absorbers as they dampen the vertical motions. Presented in this paper are some of the results of a study aimed at determining the effectiveness of efficiently transforming that energy into electrical power by using optimally designed regenerative electromagnetic shock absorbers. In turn, the electrical power can be used to recharge batteries or other efficient energy storage devices (e.g., flywheels) rather than be dissipated. The results of the study are encouraging - they suggest that a significant amount of the vertical motion energy can be recovered and stored.
Technical Paper

Effects of Ethanol Additives on Diesel Particulate and NOx Emissions

2001-05-07
2001-01-1937
Particulate and nitrogen oxide emissions from a 1.9-liter Volkswagen diesel engine were measured for three different fuels: neat diesel fuel, a blend of diesel fuel with 10% ethanol, and a blend of diesel fuel with 15% ethanol. Engine-out emissions were measured on an engine dynamometer for five different speeds and five different torques using the standard engine-control unit. Results show that particulate emissions can be significantly reduced over approximately two-thirds of the engine map by using a diesel-ethanol blend. Nitrogen oxide emissions can also be significantly reduced over a smaller portion of the engine map by using a diesel-ethanol blend. Moreover, there is an overlap between the regions where particulate emissions can be reduced by up to 75% and nitrogen oxide emissions are reduced by up to 84% compared with neat diesel fuel.
Technical Paper

Challenges in Reforming Gasoline: All Components are Not Created Equal

2001-05-07
2001-01-1915
Gasoline is a complex fuel. Many of the constituents of gasoline that are beneficial for the internal combustion engine (ICE) are expected to be challenging for on-board reformers in fuel-cell vehicles. To address these issues, the autothermal reforming of gasoline and individual components of gasoline has been investigated. The results indicate that aromatic components require higher temperatures and longer contact times to reform than paraffinic components. Napthenic components require higher temperatures to reform, but can be reformed at higher space velocities than paraffinic components. The effects of sulfur are dependent on the catalyst. These results suggest that further evolution of gasoline could reduce the demands on the reformer and provide a better fuel for a fuel-cell vehicle.
Technical Paper

In-Situ Mapping and Analysis of the Toyota Prius HEV Engine

2000-08-21
2000-01-3096
The Prius is a major achievement by Toyota: it is the first mass-produced HEV with the first available HEV-optimized engine. Argonne National Laboratory's Advanced Powertrain Test Facility has been testing the Prius for model validation and technology performance and assessment. A significant part of the Prius test program is focused on testing and mapping the engine. A short-length torque sensor was installed in the powertrain in-situ. The torque sensor data allow insight into vehicle operational strategy, engine utilization, engine efficiency, and specific emissions. This paper describes the design and process necessary to install a torque sensor in a vehicle and shows the high-fidelity data measured during chassis dynamometer testing. The engine was found to have a maximum thermodynamic efficiency of 36.4%. Emissions and catalyst efficiency maps were also produced.
Technical Paper

Scenario Analysis of Hybrid Class 3-7 Heavy Vehicles

2000-03-06
2000-01-0989
The effects of hybridization on heavy-duty vehicles are not well understood. Heavy vehicles represent a broader range of applications than light-duty vehicles, resulting in a wide variety of chassis and engine combinations, as well as diverse driving conditions. Thus, the strategies, incremental costs, and energy/emission benefits associated with hybridizing heavy vehicles could differ significantly from those for passenger cars. Using a modal energy and emissions model, we quantify the potential energy savings of hybridizing commercial Class 3-7 heavy vehicles, analyze hybrid configuration scenarios, and estimate the associated investment cost and payback time.
Technical Paper

Membrane-Based Nitrogen-Enriched Air for NOx Reduction in Light-Duty Diesel Engines

2000-03-06
2000-01-0228
The effects of nitrogen-enriched air, supplied by an air separation membrane, on NOx emissions from a 1.9-L turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine were investigated. To enrich combustion air with more nitrogen, prototype air separation membranes were installed between the after-cooler and intake manifold without any additional controls. The effects of nitrogen-enriched combustion air on NOx emissions were compared with and without exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). At sufficient boost pressures (>50 kPag), nitrogen-enriched air from the membrane provided intake oxygen levels that were similar to those of EGR. Compared with EGR, nitrogen-enriched air provided 10-15% NOx reductions during medium to high engine loads and speeds. At part loads, when turbocharger boost pressure was low, the air separation membrane was not effective in enriching air with nitrogen. As a result, NOx reduction was lower, but it was 15-25% better than when EGR was not used.
Technical Paper

Gaseous and Particulate Emissions from a Vehicle with a Spark-Ignition Direct-Injection Engine

1999-03-01
1999-01-1282
Particulate and gaseous emissions from a Mitsubishi Legnum GDI™ wagon were measured for FTP-75, HWFET, SC03, and US06 cycles. The vehicle has a 1.8-L spark-ignition direct-injection engine. Such an engine is considered a potential alternative to the compression-ignition direct-injection engine for the PNGV program. Both engine-out and tailpipe emissions were measured. The fuels used were Phase-2 reformulated gasoline and Indolene. In addition to the emissions, exhaust oxygen content and exhaust-gas temperature at the converter inlet were measured. Results show that the particulate emissions are measurable and are significantly affected by the type of fuel used and the presence of an oxidation catalyst. Whether the vehicle can meet the PNGV goal of 0.01 g/mi for particulates depends on the type of fuel used. Both NMHC and NOx emissions exceed the PNGV goals of 0.125 g/mi and 0.2 g/mi, respectively. Meeting the NOx goal will be especially challenging.
Technical Paper

Total Fuel Cycle Impacts of Advanced Vehicles

1999-03-01
1999-01-0322
Recent advances in fuel-cell technology and low-emission, direct-injection spark-ignition and diesel engines for vehicles could significantly change the transportation vehicle power plant landscape in the next decade or so. This paper is a scoping study that compares total fuel cycle options for providing power to personal transport vehicles. The key question asked is, “How much of the energy from the fuel feedstock is available for motive power?” Emissions of selected criteria pollutants and greenhouse gases are qualitatively discussed. This analysis illustrates the differences among options; it is not intended to be exhaustive. Cases considered are hydrogen fuel from methane and from iso-octane in generic proton-exchange membrane (PEM) fuel-cell vehicles, methane and iso-octane in spark-ignition (SI) engine vehicles, and diesel fuel (from methane or petroleum) in direct-injection (DI) diesel engine vehicles.
Technical Paper

The Prospects for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Second-Stage Results of a Two-Stage Delphi Study

1996-08-01
961698
A two-stage Delphi study was conducted to collect information that would enable a technical and economic assessment of electric (EV) and hybrid electric (HEV) vehicles. The first-stage worldwide survey was completed in fall 1994 while the second-stage was completed by summer 1995. The paper reports results from the second round of the survey and the major differences between the two rounds. This second-stage international survey obtained information from 93 expert respondents from the automotive technology field. The second stage response provided the following key results. EVs will penetrate the market first followed by internal combustion engine powered HEVs while gas turbine and fuel cell powered HEVs will not have any significant penetration until after 2020. By 2020 EVs and internal combustion engine powered HEVs are projected to have approximately a 15% share of the new vehicle market.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Analysis of a Diesel Engine Using Oxygen-Enriched Air and Emulsified Fuels

1990-09-01
901565
Analytical studies of oxygen-enriched diesel engine combustion have indicated the various benefits as well as the need for using cheaper fuels with water addition. To verify analytical results, a series of single-cylinder diesel engine tests were conducted to investigate the concepts of oxygen enriched air (OEA) for combustion with water emulsified fuels. Cylinder pressure traces were obtained for inlet oxygen levels of 21% to 35% and fuel emulsions with water contents of 0% to 20%. Data for emulsified fuels included no. 2 and no. 4 diesel fuels. The excess oxygen for the tests was supplied from compressed bottled oxygen connected to the intake manifold. The cylinder pressure data was collected with an AVL pressure transducer and a personal computer-based data logging system. The crank angle was measured with an optical encoder. In each data run, 30 consecutive cycles were recorded and later averaged for analysis.
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