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Journal Article

Comparison of Near-Field Structure and Growth of a Diesel Spray Using Light-Based Optical Microscopy and X-Ray Radiography

A full understanding and characterization of the near-field of diesel sprays is daunting because the dense spray region inhibits most diagnostics. While x-ray diagnostics permit quantification of fuel mass along a line of sight, most laboratories necessarily use simple lighting to characterize the spray spreading angle, using it as an input for CFD modeling, for example. Questions arise as to what is meant by the “boundary” of the spray since liquid fuel concentration is not easily quantified in optical imaging. In this study we seek to establish a relationship between spray boundary obtained via optical diffused backlighting and the fuel concentration derived from tomographic reconstruction of x-ray radiography. Measurements are repeated in different facilities at the same specified operating conditions on the “Spray A” fuel injector of the Engine Combustion Network, which has a nozzle diameter of 90 μm.
Journal Article

Comparison of Powertrain Configuration for Plug-in HEVs from a Fuel Economy Perspective

With the success of hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) and the still uncertain long-term solution for vehicle transportation, Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) appear to be a viable short-term solution and are of increasing interest to car manufacturers. Like HEVs, PHEVs offer two power sources that are able to independently propel the vehicle. They also offer additional electrical energy onboard. In addition to choices about the size of components for PHEVs, choices about powertrain configuration must be made. In this paper, we consider three potential architectures for PHEVs for 10- and 40-mi All Electric Range (AER) and define the components and their respective sizes to meet the same set of performance requirements. The vehicle and component efficiencies in electric-only and charge-sustaining modes will be assessed.
Technical Paper

Comparison of RCCI Operation with and without EGR over the Full Operating Map of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Dual-fuel combustion using port-injection of low reactivity fuel combined with direct injection of a higher reactivity fuel, otherwise known as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI), has been shown as a method to achieve high efficiency combustion with moderate peak pressure rise rates, low engine-out soot and NOx emissions. A key requirement for extending to high-load operation is reduce the reactivity of the premixed charge prior to the diesel injection. One way to accomplish this is to use a very low reactivity fuel such as natural gas. In this work, experimental testing was conducted on a 13L multi-cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine modified to operate using RCCI combustion with port injection of natural gas and direct injection of diesel fuel. Natural gas/diesel RCCI engine operation is compared over the EPA Heavy-Duty 13 mode supplemental emissions test with and without EGR.
Technical Paper

Computing Statistical Averages from Large Eddy Simulation of Spray Flames

The primary strength of large eddy simulation (LES) is in directly resolving the instantaneous large-scale flow features which can then be used to study critical flame properties such as ignition, extinction, flame propagation and lift-off. However, validation of the LES results with experimental or direct numerical simulation (DNS) datasets requires the determination of statistically-averaged quantities. This is typically done by performing multiple realizations of LES and performing a statistical averaging among this sample. In this study, LES of n-dodecane spray flame is performed using a well-mixed turbulent combustion model along with a dynamic structure subgrid model. A high-resolution mesh is employed with a cell size of 62.5 microns in the entire spray and combustion regions. The computational cost of each calculation was in the order of 3 weeks on 200 processors with a peak cell count of about 22 million at 1 ms.
Technical Paper

Continuously Variable Transmission Modifications and Control for a Diesel Hybrid Electric Powertrain

The Center for Transportation Research (CTR) Vehicle Systems team modified a Nissan CK-2 Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT) for a diesel hybrid powertrain application. Mechanical and electrical modifications were made to the CVT, both internal and external to the transmission. The goal of this experiment was to investigate and demonstrate the potential of CVT for diesel engines hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs) in fuel economy and emissions. The test set-up consisted of a diesel engine coupled to an electric motor driving a Continuously Variable Transmission (CVT). This hybrid drive is connected to a dynamometer and a DC electrical power source creating a vehicle context by combining advanced computer models and emulation techniques. The experiment focuses on the impact particular transmission control strategies have on measured fuel economy and emissions specifically, nitrogen oxides (NOx) and particulate matter (PM).
Technical Paper

Control Analysis and Model Validation for BMW i3 Range Extender

The control analysis and model validation of a 2014 BMW i3-Range Extender (REX) was conducted based on the test data in this study. The vehicle testing was performed on a chassis dynamometer set within a thermal chamber at the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility at Argonne National Laboratory. The BMW i3-REX is a series-type plug-in hybrid range extended vehicle which consists of a 0.65L in-line 2-cylinder range-extending engine with a 26.6kW generator, 125kW permanent magnet synchronous AC motor, and 18.8kWh lithium-ion battery. Both component and vehicle model including thermal aspects, were developed based on the test data. For example, the engine fuel consumption rate, battery resistance, or cabin HVAC energy consumption are affected by the temperature. Second, the vehicle-level control strategy was analyzed at normal temperature conditions (22°C ambient temperature). The analysis focuses on the engine on/off strategy, battery SOC balancing, and engine operating conditions.
Journal Article

Control Analysis under Different Driving Conditions for Peugeot 3008 Hybrid 4

This paper includes analysis results for the control strategy of the Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4, a diesel-electric hybrid vehicle, under different thermal conditions. The analysis was based on testing results obtained under the different thermal conditions in the Advanced Powertrain Research Facility (APRF) at Argonne National Laboratory (ANL). The objectives were to determine the principal concepts of the control strategy for the vehicle at a supervisory level, and to understand the overall system behavior based on the concepts. Control principles for complex systems are generally designed to maximize the performance, and it is a serious challenge to determine these principles without detailed information about the systems. By analyzing the test results obtained in various driving conditions with the Peugeot 3008 Hybrid4, we tried to figure out the supervisory control strategy.
Technical Paper

Cost Effective Annual Use and Charging Frequency for Four Different Plug-in Powertrains

Vehicles with electrified powertrains, such as hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs), plug-in HEV (PHEVs), and AEVs (all-electric vehicles using grid-supplied battery energy exclusively), are potentially marketable because of low operating costs, but each comes with a significant initial cost penalty in comparison to a conventional vehicle (CV) powered by an internal combustion engine. Accordingly, a high rate of utilization is necessary for cost effectiveness. This paper examines the projected future (2020) cost effectiveness of several alternative powertrains within a standard compact sedan glider: an AEV and a set of selected input-split and output-split HEV and PHEV powertrains with various battery power and energy storage capabilities. Vehicle performance and consumption rates of fuel and electricity were estimated using vehicle simulations, and vehicle prices were estimated using cost models.
Technical Paper

Coupled Eulerian Internal Nozzle Flow and Lagrangian Spray Simulations for GDI Systems

An extensive numerical study of two-phase flow inside the nozzle holes and the issuing jets for a multi-hole direct injection gasoline injector is presented. The injector geometry is representative of the Spray G nozzle, an eight-hole counter-bored injector, from the Engine Combustion Network (ECN). Homogeneous Relaxation Model (HRM) coupled with the mixture multiphase approach in the Eulerian framework has been utilized to capture the phase change phenomena inside the nozzle holes. Our previous studies have demonstrated that this approach is capable of capturing the effect of injection transients and thermodynamic conditions in the combustion chamber, by predicting phenomenon such as flash boiling. However, these simulations were expensive, especially if there is significant interest in predicting the spray behavior as well.
Technical Paper

Critical Factors in the Development of Well-To-Wheel Analyses of Alternative Fuel and Advanced Powertrain Heavy-Duty Vehicles

A heavy-duty vehicle (HDV) module of the Greenhouse gases, Regulated Emissions, and Energy use in Transportation (GREETTM) model has been developed at Argonne National Laboratory. The fuel-cycle GREET model has been published extensively and contains data on fuel-cycles and vehicle operation of light-duty vehicles. The addition of the HDV module to the GREET model allows for well-to-wheel (WTW) analyses of heavy-duty advanced technology and alternative fuel vehicles (AFVs), which has been lacking in the literature. WTW analyses of HDVs becomes increasingly important to understand the fuel consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions impacts of newly enacted and future HDV regulations from the Environmental Protection Agency and the Department of Transportation’s National Highway Traffic Safety Administration.
Technical Paper

Cycle-to-Cycle Variations in Multi-Cycle Engine RANS Simulations

Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) modeling is expected to deliver an ensemble-averaged result for the majority of turbulent flows. This could lead to the conclusion that multi-cycle internal combustion engine (ICE) simulations performed using RANS must exhibit a converging numerical solution after a certain number of consecutive cycles. However, for some engine configurations unsteady RANS simulations are not guaranteed to deliver an ensemble-averaged result. In this paper it is shown that, when using RANS modeling to simulate multiple engine cycles, the cycle-to-cycle variations (CCV) generated from different initial conditions at each cycle are not damped out even after a large number of cycles. A single-cylinder GDI research engine is simulated using RANS modeling and the numerical results for 20 consecutive engine cycles are evaluated for two specific operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Cylinder Pressure Analysis of a Diesel Engine Using Oxygen-Enriched Air and Emulsified Fuels

Analytical studies of oxygen-enriched diesel engine combustion have indicated the various benefits as well as the need for using cheaper fuels with water addition. To verify analytical results, a series of single-cylinder diesel engine tests were conducted to investigate the concepts of oxygen enriched air (OEA) for combustion with water emulsified fuels. Cylinder pressure traces were obtained for inlet oxygen levels of 21% to 35% and fuel emulsions with water contents of 0% to 20%. Data for emulsified fuels included no. 2 and no. 4 diesel fuels. The excess oxygen for the tests was supplied from compressed bottled oxygen connected to the intake manifold. The cylinder pressure data was collected with an AVL pressure transducer and a personal computer-based data logging system. The crank angle was measured with an optical encoder. In each data run, 30 consecutive cycles were recorded and later averaged for analysis.
Journal Article

Cylinder-to-Cylinder Variations in Power Production in a Dual Fuel Internal Combustion Engine Leveraging Late Intake Valve Closings

Advanced internal combustion engines, although generally more efficient than conventional combustion engines, often encounter limitations in multi-cylinder applications due to variations in the combustion process. This study leverages experimental data from an inline 6-cylinder heavy-duty dual fuel engine equipped with a fully-flexible variable intake valve actuation system to study cylinder-to-cylinder variations in power production. The engine is operated with late intake valve closure timings in a dual-fuel combustion mode featuring a port-injection and a direct-injection fueling system in order to improve fuel efficiency and engine performance. Experimental results show increased cylinder-to-cylinder variation in IMEP as IVC timing moves from 570°ATDC to 610°ATDC, indicating an increasingly uneven fuel distribution between cylinders.
Technical Paper

Detailed Characterization of Morphology and Dimensions of Diesel Particulates via Thermophoretic Sampling

A thermophoretic particulate sampling device was used to investigate the detailed morphology and microstructure of diesel particulates at various engine-operating conditions. A 75 HP Caterpillar single-cylinder direct-injection diesel engine was operated to sample particulate matter from the high-temperature exhaust stream. The morphology and microstructure of the collected diesel particulates were analyzed using a high-resolution transmission electron microscope and subsequent image processing/data acquisition system. The analysis revealed that spherical primary particles were agglomerated together to form large aggregate clusters for most of engine speed and load conditions. Measured primary particle sizes ranged from 34.4 to 28.5 nm at various engine-operating conditions. The smaller primary particles observed at high engine-operating conditions were believed to be caused by particle oxidation at the high combustion temperature.
Technical Paper

Detailed Morphological Properties of Nanoparticles from Gasoline Direct Injection Engine Combustion of Ethanol Blends

Detailed properties of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine were analyzed in terms of size, morphology, and nanostructures, as gasoline and its ethanol blend E20 were used as a fuel. PM emissions were sampled from a 0.55L single-cylinder GDI engine by means of a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) for size measurements and a self-designed thermophoretic sampling device for the subsequent analyses of size, morphology and nanostructures using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). The particle sizes were evaluated with variations of air-fuel equivalence ratio and fuel injection timing. The most important result from the SMPS measurements was that the number of nucleation-mode nanoparticles (particularly those smaller than 10 - 15 nm) increased significantly as the fuel injection timing was advanced to the end-of-injection angle of 310° bTDC.
Technical Paper

Determining Off-cycle Fuel Economy Benefits of 2-Layer HVAC Technology

This work presents a methodology to determine the off-cycle fuel economy benefit of a 2-Layer HVAC system which reduces ventilation and heat rejection losses of the heater core versus a vehicle using a standard system. Experimental dynamometer tests using EPA drive cycles over a broad range of ambient temperatures were conducted on a highly instrumented 2016 Lexus RX350 (3.5L, 8 speed automatic). These tests were conducted to measure differences in engine efficiency caused by changes in engine warmup due to the 2-Layer HVAC technology in use versus the technology being disabled (disabled equals fresh air-considered as the standard technology baseline). These experimental datasets were used to develop simplified response surface and lumped capacitance vehicle thermal models predictive of vehicle efficiency as a function of thermal state.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Primary Breakup Model for Diesel Engine Applications

Fuel injection characteristics, in particular the atomization and penetration of the fuel droplets in the region close to the nozzle orifice, are known to affect emission and particulate formation in Diesel engines. It is also well established that the primary fuel atomization process is induced by aerodynamics in the near nozzle region as well as cavitation and turbulence from the injector nozzle. Typical breakup models in the literature however, do not consider the effects of cavitation and turbulence from nozzle injector. In this paper, a comprehensive primary breakup model incorporating the inner nozzle flow effects such as cavitation and turbulence along with aerodynamically induced breakup is developed and incorporated in the CONVERGE CFD code. This new primary breakup model is tested in a constant volume spray chamber against various spray data available in the literature.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Three Pressure Analysis (TPA) GT-Power Model of the CFR F1/F2 Engine for Estimating Cylinder Conditions

The CFR engine is the widely accepted platform to test standard Research Octane Number (RON) and Motored Octane Number (MON) for determining anti-knock characteristics of motor fuels. With increasing interest in engine downsizing, up-torquing, and alternative fuels for modern spark ignition (SI) engines, there is a need to better understand the conditions that fuels are subjected to in the CFR engine during octane rating. To take into account fuel properties, such as fuel heat of vaporization, laminar flame speed and auto-ignition chemistry; and understand their impacts on combustion knock, it is essential to estimate accurate cylinder conditions. In this study, the CFR F1/F2 engine was modeled using GT-Power with the Three Pressure Analysis (TPA) and the model was validated for different fuels and engine conditions.
Journal Article

Development of Dual-Fuel Low Temperature Combustion Strategy in a Multi-Cylinder Heavy-Duty Compression Ignition Engine Using Conventional and Alternative Fuels

Low temperature combustion through in-cylinder blending of fuels with different reactivity offers the potential to improve engine efficiency while yielding low engine-out NOx and soot emissions. A Navistar MaxxForce 13 heavy-duty compression ignition engine was modified to run with two separate fuel systems, aiming to utilize fuel reactivity to demonstrate a technical path towards high engine efficiency. The dual-fuel engine has a geometric compression ratio of 14 and uses sequential, multi-port-injection of a low reactivity fuel in combination with in-cylinder direct injection of diesel. Through control of in-cylinder charge reactivity and reactivity stratification, the engine combustion process can be tailored towards high efficiency and low engine-out emissions. Engine testing was conducted at 1200 rpm over a load sweep.
Technical Paper

Development of Variable Temperature Brake Specific Fuel Consumption Engine Maps

Response Surface Methodology (RSM) techniques are applied to develop brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC) maps of a test vehicle over standard drive cycles under various ambient conditions. This technique allows for modeling and predicting fuel consumption of an engine as a function of engine operating conditions. Results will be shown from Federal Test Procedure engine starts of 20°C, and colder conditions of -7°C. Fueling rates under a broad range of engine temperatures are presented. Analysis comparing oil and engine coolant as an input factor of the model is conducted. Analysis comparing the model to experimental datasets, as well as some details into the modeling development, will be presented. Although the methodology was applied to data collected from a vehicle, the same technique could be applied to engines run on dynamometers.