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Technical Paper

Analysis on the Influence of Key Parameters of Control Valve on the Performance Characteristics of Electromagnetic Injector

2017-10-08
2017-01-2310
The control valve is the most important implementation part of a high pressure common rail system, and its flow characteristics have a great influence on the performance of an injector. In this paper, based on the structure and the working principle of an electromagnetic injector in a high pressure common rail system, a simulation model of the injector is established by AMESim software. Some key parameters of the control valve, including the volume of the control chamber, the diameter of the orifice Z (feeding orifice), the diameter of the orifice A (discharge orifice) and the hole diameter of the fuel diffusion hole are studied by using this model. The results show that these key structural parameters of the control valve have a great influence on the establishment of the control chamber pressure and the action of the needle valve.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Fraction on Laminar Flame Characteristics of Methanol-Hydrogen-Air Mixture at Atmospheric Pressure

2017-10-08
2017-01-2277
Methanol has been regarded as a potential transportation fuel due to its advanced combustion characteristics and flexible source. However, it is suffering from misfire and high HC emissions problems under cold start and low load conditions either on methanol SI engine or on methanol/diesel dual fuel engine. Hydrogen is a potential addition that can enhance the combustion of methanol due to its high flammability and combustion stability. In the current work, the effect of hydrogen fraction on the laminar flame characteristics of methanol- hydrogen-air mixture under varied equivalence ratio was investigated on a constant volume combustion chamber system coupled with a schlieren setup. Experiments were performed over a wide range of equivalence ratio of the premixed charge, varied from 0.8 to 1.4, as well as different hydrogen fraction, 0%, 5%, 10%, 15% and 20% (n/n). All tests were carried out at fixed temperature and pressure of 400K and 0.1MPa.
Technical Paper

Effect of Hydrogen Volume Ratio on the Combustion Characteristics of CNG-Diesel Dual-Fuel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2270
CNG-diesel dual fuel combustion mode has been regarded as a practical operation strategy because it not only can remain high thermal efficiency but also make full use of an alternative fuel, natural gas. However, it is suffering from misfire and high HC emissions under cold start and low load conditions. As known, hydrogen has high flammability. Thus, a certain proportion of hydrogen can be added in the natural gas (named HCNG) to improve combustion performance. In this work, the effect of hydrogen volume ratio on combustion characteristics was investigated on an optically accessible single-cylinder CNG-diesel engine using a Phantom v7.3 color camera. HCNG was compressed into the tank under different hydrogen volume ratios varied from 0% to 30%, while the energy substitution rate of` HCNG remained at 70%.
Technical Paper

Research on Temperature Stability of an Independent Energy Supply Device with Organic Rankine Cycles Based on Hydraulic Retarder

2017-09-22
2017-01-7003
Hydraulic retarder, as an auxiliary braking device, is widely used in commercial vehicles. Nowadays, the hydraulic retarder’s internal oil is mainly cooled by the coolant circuit directly. It not only aggravates the load of engine cooling system, but also makes the abundant heat energy not be recycled properly. In this study, an independent energy supply device with organic Rankine cycles is applied to solve the problems above. In the structure of this energy supply device, the evaporator’s inlet and outlet is connected in parallel with the oil outlet and inlet of the retarder respectively. A part of oil enters the evaporator to transfer heat with the organic fluid, and the rest of oil enters the oil-water heat exchanger to be cooled by the coolant circuit. According to the different braking conditions of the retarder, the oil temperature in the inlet of the hydraulic retarder can be kept within the proper range through adjusting the oil flow rate into the evaporator properly.
Technical Paper

Calculations and Test Measurements of In-Cylinder Combustion Velocity of Hydrogen - Air Mixtures Considering the Effect of Flame Instability

2017-03-28
2017-01-0780
The combustion characteristics of hydrogen-air mixtures have significance significant impact on the performance and control of hydrogen-fueled internal combustion engines and the combustion velocity is an important parameter in characterizing the combustion characteristics of the mixture. A four-cylinder hydrogen internal combustion engine was used to study hydrogen combustion; the combustion characteristics of a hydrogen mixture were experimentally studied in a constant-volume incendiary bomb, and the turbulent premixed combustion characteristics of hydrogen were calculated and analyzed. Turbulent hydrogen combustion comes under the folded laminar flame model. The turbulent combustion velocity in lean hydrogen combustion is related not only to the turbulent velocity and the laminar burning velocity, but also to the additional turbulence term caused by the instability of the flame.
Journal Article

Surface Fatigue Cracking Behavior of a CrN-Coated Tool Steel Influenced by Sliding Cycles and Sliding Energy Density

2017-03-28
2017-01-0303
Light-weighting of vehicles is one of the challenges for transportation industry due to the increasing pressure of demands in better fuel economy and environment protection. Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are considered as prominent material of choice to realize lightweight auto body and structures at least in near term. Stamping of AHSS with conventional die materials and surface coatings, however, results in frequent die failures and undesired panel surface finish. A chromium nitride (CrN) coating with plasma nitriding case hardened layer on a die material (duplex treatment) is found to offer good wear and galling resistances. The coating failure initiates from fatigue cracking on the coating surface due to cyclic sliding frictions. In this work, cyclic inclined sliding wear test was used to imitate a stamping process for study on development of coating fatigue cracking, including crack length and spacing vs. sliding-cycles and sliding energy densities.
Technical Paper

Study on the Interaction of Clearance Flow and Shock Wave in a Turbine Nozzle

2017-03-28
2017-01-1039
Radial flow Variable Nozzle Turbine (VNT) enables better matching between the turbocharger and engine. At partial loading or low-end engine operating points, the nozzle vane opening of the VNT is decreased to achieve higher turbine efficiency and transient response, which is a benefit for engine fuel consumption and emission. However, under certain small nozzle opening conditions (such as nozzle brake and low-end operating points), strong shock waves and strong nozzle clearance flow are generated. Consequently, strong rotor-stator interaction between turbine nozzle and impeller is the key factor of the impeller high cycle fatigue and failure. In present paper, flow visualization experiment is carried out on a linear turbine nozzle. The turbine nozzle is designed to have single-sided clearance, and the Schlieren visualization method is used to describe the formation and development process of clearance flow and shock wave under different clearance and expansion ratio configurations.
Technical Paper

State Estimation Based on Interacting Multiple Mode Kalman Filter for Vehicle Suspension System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1480
The study of controllable suspension properties special in the characteristics of improving ride comfort and road handling is a challenging task for vehicle industry. Currently, since most suspension control requires the observation of unmeasurable state, how to accurately acquire the state of a suspension system attracts more attention. To solve this problem, a novel approach interacting multiple mode Kalman Filter (IMMKF) is proposed in this paper. Suspension system parameters are crucial for the performance of state observers. Uncertain suspension system parameters in various conditions, e.g. due to additional load, have significant effect on state estimation. Simultaneously, state transition among different models may be happened on the condition of varying system parameters.
Technical Paper

A General Selection Method for the Compressor of the Hydrogen Internal Combustion Engine with Turbocharger

2017-03-28
2017-01-1025
Hydrogen is a promising energy carrier because it is characterized by a fast combustion velocity, a wide range of sources, and clean combustion products. A hydrogen internal combustion engine (H2ICE) with a turbocharger has been used to solve the contradiction of power density and control NOx. However, the selection of a H2ICE compressor with a turbocharger is very different from traditional engines because of gas fuel. Hydrogen as a gas fuel has the same volume as its cylinder and thus increases pressure and reduces the mass flow rate of air in cylinder for a port fuel injection-H2ICE (PFI-H2ICE). In this study, a general method involving a H2ICE with a turbocharger is proposed by considering the effect of hydrogen on cylinders. Using this method, we can calculate the turbocharged pressure ratio and mass flow rate of air based on the target power and general parameters. This method also provides a series of intake temperatures of air before calculation to improve accuracy.
Technical Paper

An Optical Investigation of Multiple Diesel Injections in CNG/Diesel Dual-Fuel Combustion in a Light Duty Optical Diesel Engine

2017-03-28
2017-01-0755
Dual-fuel combustion combining a premixed charge of compressed natural gas (CNG) and a pilot injection of diesel fuel offer the potential to reduce diesel fuel consumption and drastically reduce soot emissions. In this study, dual-fuel combustion using methane ignited with a pilot injection of No. 2 diesel fuel, was studied in a single cylinder diesel engine with optical access. Experiments were performed at a CNG substitution rate of 70% CNG (based on energy) over a wide range of equivalence ratios of the premixed charge, as well as different diesel injection strategies (single and double injection). A color high-speed camera was used in order to identify and distinguish between lean-premixed methane combustion and diffusion combustion in dual-fuel combustion. The effect of multiple diesel injections is also investigated optically as a means to enhance flame propagation towards the center of the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Study on Pressure Fluctuation of a Constant Pressure Fuel System

2017-03-28
2017-01-0828
The pressure fluctuation characteristics of a constant pressure fuel system has great influence on its fuel injection characteristics. It is, therefore important to understand the impacts of these fluctuations in order to better study and optimize the fuel injection characteristics. In this study, the pressure fluctuation characteristics of the high pressure common rail system have been investigated experimentally. The transient pressure at different positions in the high pressure common rail system have been measured. The phase of pressure fluctuation during the injection process has been analyzed and the corresponding fluctuating characteristic parameters have been characterized for each phase. The changes in pressure wave propagation velocity, fuel injection pressure drop amplitude, wave amplitude, period and decay time are obtained by studying the fluctuation characteristic parameters caused by fuel pressure and temperature change.
Technical Paper

Numerical Modeling of International Variations in Diesel Spray Combustion with Evaporation Surrogate and Virtual Species Conversion

2017-03-28
2017-01-0582
A methodology for simulating effect of international variations in fuel compositions on spray combustion is proposed. The methodology is validated with spray combustion experiments with real fuels from three different countries. The compositions of those fuels were analyzed through GC×GC and H-NMR. It was found that ignition delay times, flame region and flame luminosity were significantly affected by the compositional variations. For the simulation, an evaporation surrogate consisting of twenty two species, covering basic molecular types and a wide range of carbon numbers, is developed. Each species in the evaporation surrogate is then virtually converted to a reaction surrogate consisting of n-hexadecane, methylcyclohexane and 1,2,4-trimethyl benzene so that combustion reactions can be calculated with a published kinetic model. The virtual species conversion (VSC) is made so as to take over combustion-related properties of each species of evaporation surrogates.
Technical Paper

Research on Severity Class Evaluation Based on Various Crash Situations Involved with Motorcycles for ISO 26262

2016-11-08
2016-32-0057
ISO 26262 was established in 2011 as a functional safety standard for road vehicles. This standard provides safety requirements according to ASIL (Automotive Safety Integrity Level) in order to avoid unreasonable residual risk caused by malfunctioning behavior of electrical and/or electronic systems. The ASIL is determined by considering the estimate of three factors including injury severity. While applicable only to passenger cars at present, motorcycles will be included in the scope of application of ISO 26262 in the next revision. Therefore, our previous study focused on severity class evaluation for motorcycles. A method of classifying injury severity according to vehicle speed was developed on the basis of accident data. In addition, a severity table for motorcycles was created using accident data in representative collision configurations involved with motorcycles in Japan.
Journal Article

Examination of Hazard Analysis and Risk Assessment and Exposure Research in the Real Traffic Situation of ISO 26262 for Motorcycles

2016-11-08
2016-32-0058
ISO 26262, an international functional safety standard of electrical and/or electronic systems (E/E systems) for motor vehicles, was published in November 2011 and it is expected that the scope will be extended to motorcycles in a second edition of ISO 26262 going to be published in 2018. In order to apply ISO 26262 to motorcycle, proper estimation of Exposure, Controllability, and Severity are key factors to determine Motorcycle Safety Integrity Level (MSIL). Exposure is a factor to indicate the probability of the state of an operational situation that can be hazardous with the E/E system malfunction. And it is not easy to estimate the motorcycle Exposure due to less availability of back ground data in actual operational situation compared to motor vehicle. Therefore real traffic situation should be investigated in order to provide rationales for MSIL determination.
Journal Article

Construction of an ISO 26262 C Class Evaluation Method for Motorcycles

2016-11-08
2016-32-0059
For applying ISO 26262 to motorcycles, controllability classification (C class evaluation) by expert riders is considered an appropriate technique. Expert riders have evaluated commercial product development for years and can appropriately conduct vehicle tests while observing safety restrictions (such as avoiding the risk of falling). Moreover, expert riders can ride safely and can stably evaluate motorcycle performance even if the test conditions are close to the limits of vehicle performance. This study aims to construct a motorcycle C class evaluation method based on an expert rider’s subjective evaluation. On the premise that expert riders can rate the C class, we improved a test procedure that used a subjective evaluation sheet as the concrete C class evaluation method for an actual hazardous event.
Technical Paper

A Uniform Hardware-in-the-Loop Test Rig for Modular and Integrated Testing of Commercial Vehicle Electronic Braking System

2016-09-27
2016-01-8042
This paper describes a uniform Hardware-In-the-Loop (HiL) test rig for the different types of Electronic Braking System (EBS). It is applied to both modular testing and integrated testing. This test rig includes a vehicle dynamic model, a real-time simulation platform, an actual brake circuit and the EBS system under test. Firstly, the vehicle dynamic model is a highly parameterized commercial vehicle model. So it can simulate different types of commercial vehicle by different parameter configurations. Secondly, multi-types of brake circuit are modeled using brake components simulation library. So, it can test the EBS control unit independently without the influence of any real electro-pneumatic components. And a software EBS controller is also modeled. So it can test the algorithm of EBS offline. Thirdly, all real electro-pneumatic components without real gas inputted are connected to the real-time test platform through independent program-controlled relay-switches.
Technical Paper

Diesel Engine Coordinated Control for AT Upshift Process

2016-09-27
2016-01-8080
The ever-growing number of interacting electronic vehicle control systems requires new control algorithms to manage the increasing system complexity. As a result, torque-based control architecture has been popular for its easy extension as the torque demand variable is the only interface between the engine control algorithms and other vehicle control systems. Under the torque-based control architecture, the engine and AT coordinated control for upshift process is investigated. Based on the dynamics analysis, quantitative relationship between the turbine torque of HTC and output shaft torque of AT has been obtained. Then the coordinated control strategy has been developed to smooth the torque trajectory of AT output shaft. The designed control strategy is tested on a powertrain simulation model in MATLAB/Simulink and a test bench. Through simulation, the shift time range in which the engine coordinated control strategy is effective is acquired.
Technical Paper

Design Approach and Dimensionless Analysis of a Differential Driving Hydraulic Free Piston Engine

2016-09-27
2016-01-8091
A new method for driving the hydraulic free piston engine is proposed. This method achieves the compression stroke automatically rather than special recovery system. Principle of hydraulic differential drive free-piston engine is analyzed and the control strategy of this novel hydraulic driving engine is also introduced. Then energy balance method is used to design the main parameters of the novel engine. High pressure and secondary high pressure of the hydraulic system are constrained by the combustion parameters and therefore parameters are analyzed. In order to verify the effectiveness of energy balance method, the mathematical model is established based on the piston force analysis and engine working principle. The transient results of dynamics are obtained through simulation. In addition, the effectiveness of the simulation is proofed by dimensionless analysis. It indicates that energy balance method realizes the basic performance of hydraulic free piston engine.
Technical Paper

Estimating Ozone Potential of Pipe-out Emissions from Euro-3 to Euro-5 Passenger Cars Fueled with Gasoline, Alcohol-Gasoline, Methanol and Compressed Natural Gas

2016-04-05
2016-01-1009
Along with the booming expansion of private car preservation, many Chinese cities are now struggling with hazy weather and ground-level ozone contamination. Although central government has stepped up efforts to purify skies above China, counter-strategies to curb ground-level ozone is comparatively weak. By using maximum incremental reactivity (MIR) method, this paper estimated the ozone forming potential for twenty-five Euro-3 to Euro-5 passenger cars burning conventional gasoline, methanol-gasoline, ethanol-gasoline, neat methanol and compressed natural gas (CNG). The results showed that, for all the fuel tested, VOC/NOx ratios and SR values decreased with the upgrading of emission standard. Except for Euro-3 M100 and Euro-4 M85, SR values for alternative fuel were to different degrees smaller than those for gasoline. When the emission standard was shifted from Euro-4 to Euro-5, OFP values estimated for gasoline vehicle decreased.
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