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Technical Paper

Application of a Structural Reinforcing Material to Improve Vehicle NVH Characteristics

1999-09-28
1999-01-3223
Cavity reinforcement materials are used in the automotive industry to stiffen hollow cavities in vehicle body constructions. Typical areas of use include the engine rails, rocker panels, roof support or any other cavity in need of structural reinforcement. Use of these materials can allow for significant reductions in vehicle weight and increase structural stiffness with minimal impact to production tooling. Additional benefits can be gained by using the material as a physical barrier to the propagation of noise, water and dust. The objective of this paper is to describe a case study which implemented a new type of cavity reinforcing material to improve low frequency vehicle noise and vibration characteristics.
Technical Paper

Application of the Modal Compliance Technique to a Vehicle Body in White

2007-05-15
2007-01-2355
This paper describes the application of the modal compliance method to a complex structure such as a vehicle body in white, and the extension of the method from normal modes to the complex modes of a complete vehicle. In addition to the usual bending and torsion calculations, the paper also describes the application of the method to less usual tests such as second torsion, match-boxing and breathing. We also show how the method can be used to investigate the distribution of compliance throughout the structure.
Technical Paper

Attempts for Reduction of Rear Window Buffeting Using CFD

2005-04-11
2005-01-0603
This paper summarizes the major activities of CFD study on rear window buffeting of production vehicles during the past two years at DaimlerChrysler. The focus of the paper is the attempt to find suitable solutions for buffeting suppression using a developed procedure of CFD simulation with commercial software plus FFT acoustic post-processing. The analysis procedure has been validated using three representative production vehicles and good correlation with wind tunnel tests has been attained which has gained the confidence in solving the buffeting problem. Several attempts have been proposed and tried to find solution for buffeting reduction. Some of them are promising, but feasibility and manufacturability still need discussion. In order to find suitable solution for buffeting reduction, more basic research is necessary, more ideas should be collected, and more joint efforts of CFD and testing are imperative.
Technical Paper

Automotive Gateway Design Using Evolutionary Algorithms

2005-04-11
2005-01-1696
Because of the rapidly increasing amount of electronic components and busses in a vehicle, the use of gateways in Electronic Control Units (ECUs) becomes more important. The upcoming question is how to design an optimal gateway. This paper describes a method for designing an optimal automotive gateway in an FPGA by using Evolutionary Algorithms (EAs). The complete gateway functionality is diagrammed in a specification graph which consists of a function graph and an architecture graph. The function graph describes the complete functionality of the gateway. The architecture graph shows the variety of the different implementation options of the mapped function graph. Each gateway task in the function graph can be realized either in a parallel way (different kinds of hardware implementations) or in a sequential way (software on a microprocessor core).
Technical Paper

Automotive Seat Suspension Model for Ride Quality Studies

2002-03-04
2002-01-0778
A high fidelity seat suspension model, which can be used for ride quality predictions, is developed in this work. The coil-spring seat suspension model includes unique nonlinear forms for the stiffness and damping characteristics. This is the first paper to consider the nonlinear geometric effects of the suspension, derive the coil-spring suspension model from physical principles, and compare theoretical and experimental results. A simplified nonlinear form is achieved via an admissible function describing the vertical suspension deflection as a function of the lateral position. This simplified nonlinear form is compared to experimental data and demonstrated to have exceptional fidelity.
Technical Paper

Axle Imbalance Measurement and Balancing Strategies

2007-05-15
2007-01-2238
This paper summarizes a study on axle balance measurement and balancing strategies. Seven types of axles were investigated. Test samples were randomly selected from products. Two significant development questions were set out to be answered: 1) What is the minimum rotational speed possible in order to yield measured imbalance readings which correlated to in-vehicle imbalance-related vibration. What is the relationship between the measured imbalance and rotational speed. To this end, the imbalance level of each axle was measured using a test rig with different speeds from 800 to 4000 rpm with 200 rpm increments. 2) Is it feasible to balance axle sub-assemblies only and still result in a full-assembly that satisfies the assembled axle specification? To this end, the sub-assemblies were balanced on a balance machine to a specified level. Then with these balanced sub-assemblies, the full assemblies were completed and audited on the same balance test rig in the same way.
Technical Paper

Balance between Reliability and Robustness in Engine Cooling System Optimal Design

2007-04-16
2007-01-0594
This paper explores the trade-off between reliability-based design and robustness for an automotive under-hood thermal system using the iSIGHT-FD environment. The interaction between the engine cooling system and the heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) system is described. The engine cooling system performance is modeled using Flowmaster and a metamodel is developed in iSIGHT. The actual HVAC system performance is characterized using test bench data. A design of experiment procedure determines the dominant factors and the statistics of the HVAC performance is obtained using Monte Carlo simulation (MCS). The MCS results are used to build an overall system response metamodel in order to reduce the computational effort. A multi-objective optimization in iSIGHT maximizes the system mean performance and simultaneously minimizes its standard deviation subject to probabilistic constraints.
Technical Paper

Beam Element Leaf Spring Suspension Model Development and Assessment Using Road Load Data

2006-04-03
2006-01-0994
Knowledge of the loads experienced by a leaf spring suspension is required for the optimal design of the suspension components and frame. The most common method of representing leaf springs is the SAE 3 link model, which does not give good results in the lateral direction. In this paper, a beam element leaf spring model is developed. This model is validated using data obtained from laboratory tests done on leaf spring assemblies. The model is then subjected to actual road load data measured on the Proving Ground. Lastly, results from the beam element model are presented and compared with results obtained from proving ground tests. Overall, the beam element model gives good results in all directions except in situations where it is subjected to high fore/aft acceleration and high reverse braking events.
Technical Paper

Bionic Optimization of Air-Guiding Systems

2004-03-08
2004-01-1377
Topology optimization in structural analysis is known for many years. In the presented procedure, “topology optimization” is used for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) for the first time. It offers the possibility of a very fast optimization process under utilization of the physical information in the flow field instead of using optimization algorithms like for example evolution strategies or gradient based methods. This enables the design engineer to generate in a first layout air guiding systems with low pressure drop in a fast and easy manner, which can than be improved further due to constraints of styling or production requirements. This procedure has been tested with many examples and shows promising results with a reduction in pressure loss up to 60% compared to a duct designed in CAD in the traditional way.
Technical Paper

Body/Chassis Dynamic Response Under Experimental Modal Test

2005-05-16
2005-01-2463
Mode management is an essential part of the design process for NVH performance. System resonances must be sufficiently separated to minimize interaction from source inputs and each other [1]. Such resonances are typically determined through experimental modal testing conducted in a lab environment under controlled and repeatable conditions. Global vehicle and suspension system response demonstrate soft nonlinear behavior, however. Their resonant frequencies may thus decrease under on-road input not reproducible in a lab environment. Subsequently, mode management charts derived from lab testing may not be representative of the vehicle's on-road dynamic response. This paper presents modal model determination methodologies, and examines suspension system and vehicle global dynamic response under lab modal test and operating conditions. Vehicle suspension modes measured under static and dynamic (rolling) conditions will be compared.
Technical Paper

CAE Fatigue Prediction of Fuel Tank Straps using Proving Ground Loads

2005-04-11
2005-01-1405
The durability of fuel tank straps is essential for vehicle safety. Extensive physical tests are conducted to verify designs for durability. Due to the complexity of the loads and the fuel-to-tank interaction, computer-aided-engineering (CAE) simulation has had limited application in this area. This paper presents a CAE method for fuel tank strap durability prediction. It discusses the analytical loads, modeling of fuel-to-tank interaction, dynamic analysis methods, and fatigue analysis methods. Analysis results are compared to physical test results. This method can be used in either a fuel-tank-system model or a full vehicle model. It can give directional design guidance for fuel tank strap durability in the early stages of product development to reduce vehicle development costs.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulation of the Flows Within Disengaged Wet Clutches of an Automatic Transmission

2003-03-03
2003-01-0320
The flow within the disengaged wet clutch packs of an automatic transmission has been simulated as a three-dimensional, steady-state, two-phase flow using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT. The flow within a clutch with ungrooved friction plates was first solved for validating the CFD model, followed by a simulation of the flow within a clutch with grooved friction plates. A group of dimensionless variables have been established for mathematically modeling the drag torque and power loss in clutch packs. The effects of rotating speed of friction plate, pack clearance, and flow rate on drag torque and power loss have been studied.
Technical Paper

Cam-Phasing Optimization Using Artificial Neural Networks as Surrogate Models-Maximizing Torque Output

2005-10-24
2005-01-3757
Variable Valve Actuation (VVA) technology provides high potential in achieving high performance, low fuel consumption and pollutant reduction. However, more degrees of freedom impose a big challenge for engine characterization and calibration. In this study, a simulation based approach and optimization framework is proposed to optimize the setpoints of multiple independent control variables. Since solving an optimization problem typically requires hundreds of function evaluations, a direct use of the high-fidelity simulation tool leads to the unbearably long computational time. Hence, the Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) are trained with high-fidelity simulation results and used as surrogate models, representing engine's response to different control variable combinations with greatly reduced computational time. To demonstrate the proposed methodology, the cam-phasing strategy at Wide Open Throttle (WOT) is optimized for a dual-independent Variable Valve Timing (VVT) engine.
Technical Paper

Cam-phasing Optimization Using Artificial Neural Networks as Surrogate Models-Fuel Consumption and NOx Emissions

2006-04-03
2006-01-1512
Cam-phasing is increasingly considered as a feasible Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology for production engines. Additional independent control variables in a dual-independent VVT engine increase the complexity of the system, and achieving its full benefit depends critically on devising an optimum control strategy. A traditional approach relying on hardware experiments to generate set-point maps for all independent control variables leads to an exponential increase in the number of required tests and prohibitive cost. Instead, this work formulates the task of defining actuator set-points as an optimization problem. In our previous study, an optimization framework was developed and demonstrated with the objective of maximizing torque at full load. This study extends the technique and uses the optimization framework to minimize fuel consumption of a VVT engine at part load.
Technical Paper

Catalyst Design for High Performance Engines Capable to Fulfill Future Legislation

2004-03-08
2004-01-1276
To meet future emission levels the industry is trying to reduce tailpipe emissions by both, engine measures and the development of novel aftertreatment concepts. The present study focuses on a joint development of aftertreatment concepts for gasoline engines that are optimized in terms of the exhaust system design, the catalyst technology and the system costs. The best performing system contains a close-coupled catalyst double brick arrangement using a new high thermal stable catalyst technology with low precious metal loading. This system also shows an increased tolerance against catalyst poisoning by engine oil.
Technical Paper

Catalyst Temperature Rise during Deceleration with Fuel Cut

2006-04-03
2006-01-0411
Automotive catalysts close coupled to gasoline engines operated under high load are frequently subjected to bed temperatures well above 950 °C. Upon deceleration engine fuel cut is usually applied for the sake of fuel economy, robustness and driveability. Even though catalyst inlet gas temperatures drop down immediately after fuel cut - catalyst bed temperatures may rise significantly. Sources for catalyst temperature rise upon deceleration with fuel cut are discussed in this contribution.
Technical Paper

Chassis Dynamometer Simulation of Tire Impact Response

2001-04-30
2001-01-1481
One of the major NVH concerns for automobile manufacturers is the response of a vehicle to the impact of the tire as it encounters a road discontinuity or bump. This paper describes methods for analyzing the impact response of a vehicle to such events. The test vehicle is driven on a dynamometer, on which a bump simulating cleat is mounted. The time histories of the cleat impact response of the vehicle can be classified as a transient and a repeated signal, which should be processed in a special way. This paper describes the related signal processing issues, which include converting the time data into a continous spectrum, determination of the correct scaling factor for the analyzed spectrum, and smoothing out harmonics and fluctuations in the signal. This procedure yields a smooth frequency spectrum with a correctly scaled amplitude, in which the frequency contents can be easily identified.
Technical Paper

Chrysler 45RFE a New Generation Light Truck Automatic Transmission

1999-03-01
1999-01-1260
The 45RFE is a new generation electronically controlled rear wheel drive automatic transmission. It employs real-time feedback, closed-loop modulation of shift functions to achieve outstanding shift quality and to meet demanding durability goals. It uses no shift valves; all friction element applications are effected with high-flow electro-hydraulic solenoid valves. A unique gear train arrangement of three planetary carriers allows all sun gears and annulus gears to have the same number of teeth respectively and use a common pinion gear in all carriers, resulting in significant manufacturing simplification. The three-planetary system is designed for four forward ratios of 3.00, 1.67, 1.00 and 0.75 and one reverse gear ratio equal to the low gear ratio. A fifth ratio of 1.50 is used only in certain kick-down shift sequences for highway passing. A sixth forward ratio, an additional overdrive ratio of 0.67, is available in the hardware.
Technical Paper

Chrysler 45RFE: A New Generation Real-Time Electronic Control RWD Automatic Transmission

1999-03-01
1999-01-0755
The 45RFE is a new generation electronically controlled rear wheel drive transmission. It employs real-time feedback, closed-loop modulation of shift functions to achieve excellence in shift quality and to meet severe durability goals. The 45RFE uses no shift valves; all friction element applications are effected with high-flow electro-hydraulic solenoid valves. A unique gear train arrangement of three planetary carriers allows all sun and annulus gears to have identical numbers of teeth and to use common pinion gears in all carriers. This results in substantial manufacturing simplification. The three-planetary system is designed for four forward ratios of 3.00, 1.67, 1.00 and 0.75 and one reverse gear ratio equal to the low gear ratio. A fifth ratio of 1.50 is used mainly in certain kick-down shift sequences for highway passing. A sixth forward ratio, an additional overdrive ratio of 0.67, is available in the hardware.
Technical Paper

Clamp Load Consideration in Fatigue Life Prediction of a Cast Aluminum Wheel Using Finite Element Analysis

2004-03-08
2004-01-1581
Loads generated during assembly may cause significant stress levels in components. Under test conditions, these stresses alter the mean stress which in turn, alters the fatigue life and critical stress area of the components as well. This paper describes the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) procedure to evaluate behavior of a cast aluminum wheel subjected to the rotary fatigue test condition as specified in the SAE test procedure (SAE J328 JUN94). Fatigue life of the wheel is determined using the S-N approach for a constant reversed loading condition. In addition, fatigue life predictions with and without clamp loads are compared. It is concluded that the inclusion of clamp load is necessary for better prediction of the critical stress areas and fatigue life of the wheel.
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