Refine Your Search

Topic

Author

Search Results

Technical Paper

e-Thermal: Automobile Air-Conditioning Module

2004-03-08
2004-01-1509
e-Thermal is a vehicle level thermal analysis tool developed by General Motors to simulate the transient performance of the entire vehicle HVAC and Powertrain cooling system. It is currently in widespread (global) use across GM. This paper discusses the details of the air-conditioning module of e-Thermal. Most of the literature available on transient modeling of the air conditioning systems is based on finite difference approach that require large simulation times. This has been overcome by appropriately modeling the components using Sinda/Fluint. The basic components of automotive air conditioning system, evaporator, condenser, compressor and expansion valve, are parametrically modeled in Sinda/Fluint. For each component, physical characteristics and performance data is collected in form of component data standards. This performance data is used to curve fit parameters that then reproduce the component performance.
Technical Paper

Robust Design of Glass Run-Channel Seal

2004-03-08
2004-01-1687
Glass run-channel seals are located between DIW (Door in White) and window glass. They are designed to allow window glass to move smoothly while other two major requirements are met; (1) Provide insulation to water leakage and noise, and (2) Stabilize the window glass during glass movement, door slamming and vehicle operation. For a robust glass guidance system, it is critical to minimize the variation of seal compression force. In addition, it is desired to maintain a low seal compression force, which meets the minimum requirement for insulating water leakage/noise and stabilizing the window glass, for enhancing the durability of glass guidance system. In this paper, a robust synthesis and design concepts on the glass run-channel seal is presented. The developed concept is demonstrated with test data.
Technical Paper

Computing Transfer Functions from Mass Loaded Response of Structures

2004-03-08
2004-01-0780
This paper outlines a method for computing the transfer functions of structures using their mass loaded responses. According to the method, scaled transfer functions are computed from the response of a structure and without any knowledge of the input forces. The paper outlines the analytical approach, develops the necessary equations for the computation of transfer functions between a mass loading point and other points on a linear dynamic system. A numerical example to show the validity, advantages and limitations of the method is also provided. Currently, the method can be applied to the responses obtained from analytical simulations where it may be necessary to compute coupled response of a simulated dynamic system with other dynamic systems that are not (or cannot be) included in a simulation. It is not uncommon that many dynamic simulations exclude certain coupling effects between the main and the auxiliary systems.
Technical Paper

Free Expansion Bulge Testing of Tubes For Automotive Hydroform Applications

2004-03-08
2004-01-0832
Free expansion of straight tubes is the simplest test to evaluate tube properties for hydroforming applications and to provide basic understanding of the mechanics of tube hydroforming. A circular cylindrical tube is sealed at both ends and fluid, usually water, is pumped into the tube to increase its internal pressure to bulge and burst the tube. Previous numerical simulations of the free expansion tube test were limited to modeling the midsection of the tube under various assumptions of deformation path. The simulation results obtained deviated from the experimental results under all simulation conditions considered. A new model is developed in this paper in which the whole tube is simulated instead of considering only its mid-section. Judged by the pressure-expansion relations, the model accurately predicted free expansion hydroforming tests results.
Technical Paper

Mount Rate Robust Optimization for Idle Shake Performance

2004-03-08
2004-01-1536
Analytical study of vehicle idle shake performance is standard NVH work within the vehicle development process. Robust design for idle shake performance takes variations into account besides nominal design based performance evaluation. In other words, in addition to the nominal design, Robust Design includes additional evaluations that may incorporate variation due to manufacturing, usage or the environment. This paper presents an example of how to obtain a robust design through performing Robust Optimization on idle shake performance with respect to powertrain mount rates and their tolerance variation. The paper describes a two-phase process that has been systematically implemented to analytically obtain a robust design. In the first phase, performance variation assessment is conducted. Then a Robust Optimization is performed to obtain a robust design.
Technical Paper

Brake Squeal Noise Testing and Analysis Correlation

2003-05-05
2003-01-1616
Brake squeal has been a persistent quality issue for automobile OEMs and brake system suppliers. The ability to model and measure brake squeal dynamics is of utmost importance in brake squeal reduction efforts. However, due to the complex nature of brake squeal and the wide frequency range in which it occurs, it is difficult to accurately correlate and update analytical models to experimental results. This paper introduces a systematic and rigorous correlation and updating process that yields FE models, which can accurately reproduce high-frequency brake squeal dynamics.
Technical Paper

Vibration Modeling and Correlation of Driveline Boom for TFWD/AWD Crossover Vehicles

2003-05-05
2003-01-1495
Reducing the high cost of hardware testing with analytical methods has been highly accelerated in the automotive industry. This paper discusses an analytical model to simulate the driveline boom test for the transverse engine with all wheel drive configuration on a front-wheel drive base (TFWD/AWD). Driveline boom caused by engine firing frequency that excites the bending mode of the propeller shaft becomes a noise and vibration issue for the design of TFWD/AWD driveline. The major source of vibrations and noise under the investigation in this paper is the dominant 3rd order engine torque pulse disturbance that excites the bending of the propeller shaft, the bending of the powertrain and possible the bending of the rear halfshaft. All other excitation sources in this powertrain for a 60° V6 engine with a pushrod type valvetrain are assessed and NVH issues are also considered in this transient dynamic model.
Technical Paper

Vibration Characteristics of Cardboard Inserts in Shells

2003-05-05
2003-01-1489
A study has been conducted to determine the noise and vibration effect of inserting a cardboard liner into a thin, circular cross-sectioned, cylindrical shell. The relevance of such a study is to improve the understanding of the effects when a cardboard liner is used in a propeller shaft for noise and vibration control purposes. It is found from the study that the liner adds significant modal stiffness, while an increase in modal mass is also observed for a particular shell type of mode. Further, the study has shown that the additional modal damping provided by the liner is not appropriately modeled by Coulomb friction damping, a damping model often intuitively associated with cardboard materials. Rather, the damping is best modeled as proportional viscous damping.
Technical Paper

SEA in Vehicle Development Part II: Consistent SEA Modeling for Vehicle Noise Analysis

2003-05-05
2003-01-1547
In this paper, a model condensation technique is developed to ensure consistent modeling of STL (Sound Transmission Loss) between coarse and detailed SEA model. In the Performance-Based coarse SEA Model, the component level performance (STL and absorption) is assigned to each path, which comes from various ways including detailed analytical SEA model. From the detailed SEA model for the component or even the whole vehicle, the equivalent performance data needs to be condensed and extracted for the coarse model. The condensation theory for equivalent STL is presented in this paper. The extra work needed to apply this technique to detailed SEA model is negligible by using AutoSEA script. An example for condensation of a detailed component model is given at the end. Comparison between the detailed analytical SEA model and the coarse SEA Model is consistent.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Panel Vibro-Acoustic Behavior and Damping

2003-05-05
2003-01-1406
Damping treatments are widely used in passenger vehicles, but the knowledge of damping treatments is often fragmentary in the industry. In this study, vibro-acoustics behavior of a set of vehicle floor and dash panels with various types of damping treatments was investigated. Sound transmission loss, sound radiation efficiency as well as damping loss factor were measured. The damping treatments ranged from laminated steel construction (thin viscoelastic layer) and doubler plate construction (thick viscoelastic layer) to less structural “bake-on” damping and self-adhesive aluminum foil-backed damping treatments. In addition, the bare vehicle panels were tested as a baseline and the fully carpeted floor panel was tested as a reference. The test data were then examined together with analytical modeling of some of the test configurations. As expected, the study found that damping treatments add more than damping. They also add mass and change body panel stiffness.
Technical Paper

A Case Study on Airborne Road Noise Reduction of a Passenger Vehicle

2003-05-05
2003-01-1407
This paper presents a case study on reducing road noise of a passenger vehicle. SEA, insertion loss and sound intensity measurements were the tools used in the study. A SEA model was constructed to predict the primary paths (panels or area) contributing to the overall interior sound field. Insertion loss measurements were used to verify the primary contributing paths identified using SEA. To provide further details of the primary paths, intensity maps of identified panels were measured allowing detailed reconstruction of the contributory panels. The SEA model, insertion loss, and intensity maps aided in providing possible design fixes that will effectively reduce road noise. Finally, comparisons of predicted results versus actual results at both a subsystem and a full vehicle level are included in this paper.
Technical Paper

Disc Brake Squeal: Diagnosis and Prevention

2003-05-05
2003-01-1618
In the last thirty years the automotive industry has seen the transition from drum brakes to disc brakes. This transition was made with the intent of improving performance and reducing mass. Concurrent with this transition has been an all out effort to improve both quality and perceived quality of automobiles. A key component of quality/perceived quality of disc brake systems is disc brake squeal. In the past five years a tremendous amount has been learned about disc brake squeal, through analytical techniques, dynamometer testing, and on vehicle testing. This work has culminated in the identification of at least three families of brake squeal, each having its own set of countermeasures. This paper attempts to capture most of the recent findings, including the identification of the three families of disc brake squeal, a system to diagnose them, and a discussion of the appropriate countermeasures. A discussion on how to go about designing a ‘squeal free’ system is also included.
Technical Paper

Accuracy of Total Hydrocarbon Analyzer Measurements Measurements in the SULEV Region

2003-03-03
2003-01-0388
The super-ultra-low-emission-vehicle (SULEV) non-methane organic gas (NMOG) hydrocarbon exhaust standard as legislated by the state of California LEV II regulations is 10 milligrams per mile. This requires that the associative instrumentation must be capable of accurately and precisely determining total hydrocarbons (THC) concentrations on the order of 10 parts per billion-carbon (ppbC) for vehicle tests run under optimum conditions on a bag mini-diluter (BMD) test site. The flame ionization detector (FID) is the standard instrument used in the measurement of THC. Currently, there are many instrument manufacturers that produce these types of analyzers. This paper studies the limit of detection and accuracy capabilities of one of these instruments, the Beckman 400A FID. In addition, the paper shows evidence that supports that this “state of technology” as described by this instrument, is sufficient to meet the demands of the today's most stringent, vehicle emission standards.
Technical Paper

Brake Squeal Reduction Using Robust Design

2003-03-03
2003-01-0879
This paper discusses a standard procedure to reduce brake squeal using CAE and robust synthesis & analysis techniques. There are several techniques available to evaluate the stability of a system. Complex eigenvalue analysis is used for predicting and reducing squeal propensity. The complex eigenvalue method was implemented using SOL110 in version 2001 of MSC/NSTRAN for this study. We applied the signal to noise ratio using an orthogonal matrix to evaluate the main parameter effects and minimize the sensitivity.
Technical Paper

Overslam Travel Reduction Using Robust Design

2003-03-03
2003-01-0872
This paper is mainly focused on development of the methodology to predict the over-slam travel of the decklid using the LS DYNA model and the sensitivity of the parameters that affect the overslam travel such as weatherstrip, overslam bumper CLD and the location. The full factorial experiments approach is used for maximizing the possibility of finding a favorable result.
Technical Paper

Minimization of Error for Enforced Motion in FEM

2001-04-30
2001-01-1409
Several methods are currently used to enforce motion in different types of noise and vibration models. Experimentally based FRF models often use a matrix inversion technique to enforce motion. In finite element models, the large mass method is one that is very commonly used. A literature review has shown few guidelines for determining the size of these large masses. In this paper, the relationship between the matrix inversion technique and the large mass method is derived. From this relationship, conditions necessary for these large mass FEM models to converge to the same answers as the matrix inversion technique are derived. These conditions are then used to develop a criterion for determining a smallest possible large mass. Results from a simple model are presented to demonstrate the criterion.
Technical Paper

Application of Elastomeric Components for Noise and Vibration Isolation in the Automotive Industry

2001-04-30
2001-01-1447
Elastomeric isolators are used in a variety of different applications to reduce noise and vibration. To use isolators effectively requires the product design and development engineer to satisfy multiple objectives, which typically include packaging restrictions, environmental criteria, limitations on motion control, load requirements, and minimum fatigue life, in addition to vibration isolation performance. An understanding of elastomeric material properties and the methods used to characterize elastomeric component behavior is necessary to achieve desired performance. Typical design criteria and functional objectives for various isolator applications, including powertrain mounts, suspension control arm bushings, shock absorber bushings, exhaust hangers, flexible couplings, cradle mounts, body mounts and vibration dampers are also discussed.
Technical Paper

The Steering Characterizing Functions (SCFs) and Their Use in Steering System Specification, Simulation, and Synthesis

2001-03-05
2001-01-1353
A set of functions for characterizing the mechanical properties of a steering “short gear” is described. They cover the kinematic, stiffness, assist, and friction performance of a power assisted (or manual) steering gear from the input shaft to the inner ends of the tie rods. Their use in describing the performance of a generalized steering gear is described. They have particular application to describing the steering feel performance of a vehicle. They can be used to specify the steering subsystem performance for desired steering feel for a given vehicle. They can also be used for experimental characterization of steering subsystems, can be used in vehicle dynamics simulations, and can be synthesized from a set of vehicle level performance targets. Along with their description, their use in simulation and methods to synthesize their values are described.
Technical Paper

PEM Fuel Cell System Solutions for Transportation

2000-03-06
2000-01-0373
PEM Fuel Cell technology has been advancing rapidly during the last several years as evidenced by various vehicle demonstrations by the major automotive companies. As the development continues to bring hardware to automotive system level solutions, many engineering challenges arise. This paper will deal with two (2) of these areas from an automotive system level perspective: Thermal Management and the Fuel Cell Stack. Both of these sub-system areas are critical to the success of the technology in meeting the requirements of tomorrow's automotive customer.
Technical Paper

Acoustical Advantages of a New Polypropylene Absorbing Material

1999-05-17
1999-01-1669
Sound absorption is one way to control noise in automotive passenger compartments. Fibrous or porous materials absorb sound in a cavity by dissipating energy associated with a propagating sound wave. The objective of this study was to evaluate the acoustic performance of a cotton fiber absorbing material in comparison to a new polypropylene fibrous material, called ECOSORB ®. The acoustical evaluation was done using measurements of material properties along with sound pressure level from road testing of a fully-assembled vehicle. The new polypropylene fibrous material showed significant advantages over the cotton fiber materials in material properties testing and also in-vehicle measurements. In addition to the performance benefits, the polypropylene absorber provided weight savings over the cotton fiber material.
X