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Technical Paper

Sources of Hydrocarbon Emissions from a Direct Injection Stratified Charge Spark Ignition Engine

The purpose of this paper is to assess the influence of fuel properties on cycle-resolved exhaust hydrocarbons and investigate the sources of hydrocarbon (HC) emissions in a direct injection stratified charge (DISC) SI engine. The tested engine is a single cylinder version of a commercial DISC engine that uses a wall guided combustion system. The HC emissions were analyzed using both a fast flame ionization detector (Fast FID) and conventional emission measurement equipment. Three fuels were compared in the study: iso-Pentane, iso-Octane and a gasoline of Japanese specification. The measurements were conducted at part-load, where the combustion is in stratified mode. The start of injection (SOI) was altered in relation to the series calibration to vary the mixture preparation time, the time from SOI to ignition. The ignition timing was set at maximum brake torque (MBT) for each test.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Brake Judder by use of Amplitude Functions

Brake judder is a forced vibration occurring in different types of vehicles. The frequency of the vibration can be as high as 500 Hz, but usually remains below 100 Hz and often as low as 10-20 Hz. The driver experiences judder as vibrations in the steering wheel, brake pedal and floor. For high frequency brake judder, the structural vibrations are accompanied by a sound. In the present paper the vibration amplitude (in terms of angular deflection, velocity or acceleration) of the caliper has been used as a quantitative measure of the vibration level. Brake Torque Variation (BTV) is the primary excitation for the vibrations. The mechanical effects generating BTV are linked not only to manufacturing tolerances but also to tribological issues. Uneven disc wear as well as Thermo-Elastic Instabilities (TEI) can lead to judder. Especially the effect of the wheel suspension on the transfer of the vibrations to the driver has to be considered.
Technical Paper

Oxidation of Hydrocarbons Released from Piston Crevices of S.I. Engines

This work presents a numerical method for predictions of HC oxidation in the cold turbulent wall jet emerging from the piston top land crevice in an S.I. engine, using a complex chemical reaction model. The method has been applied to an engine model geometry with the aim to predict the HC oxidation rate under engine - relevant conditions. According to the simulation a large amount of HC survives oxidation due to the long ignition delay of the wall jet emitted from the crevice. This ignition delay, in turn depends mainly on chemical composition and temperature of the gas mixture in the crevice and also on the temperature distribution in the cylinder boundary layer.