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Technical Paper

Computer Simulation of Shearing and Bending Response of the Knee Joint to a Lateral Impact

The shearing and bending injury mechanisms of the knee joint are recognised as two important injury mechanisms associated with car-pedestrian crash accidents. A study on shearing and bending response of the knee joint to a lateral impact loading was conducted with a 3D multibody system model of the lower extremity. The model consists of foot, leg and thigh with concentrated upper body mass. The body elements are connected by joints, including an anatomical knee joint unit that consists of the femur condyles, tibia condyles and tibia1 intercondylar eminence as well as ligaments. The biomechanical properties of the model were derived from literature data. The model was used to simulate two series of previously performed experiments with lower extremity specimens at lateral impact speeds of 15 and 20 km/h.
Technical Paper

Oxidation of Hydrocarbons Released from Piston Crevices of S.I. Engines

This work presents a numerical method for predictions of HC oxidation in the cold turbulent wall jet emerging from the piston top land crevice in an S.I. engine, using a complex chemical reaction model. The method has been applied to an engine model geometry with the aim to predict the HC oxidation rate under engine - relevant conditions. According to the simulation a large amount of HC survives oxidation due to the long ignition delay of the wall jet emitted from the crevice. This ignition delay, in turn depends mainly on chemical composition and temperature of the gas mixture in the crevice and also on the temperature distribution in the cylinder boundary layer.
Technical Paper

A Model of Turbocharged Engines as Dynamic Drivetrain Members

An engine model for use in computer simulation of transient behavior in drivetrain and vehicle systems is presented. Two elements, important for deviation (e.g. turbo-lag) from steady state characteristics, are the inertia of the supercharging unit (turbo shaft) and the fuel injection control system. No extensive combustion calculations are carried out within the model. Instead it uses condensed results from existing combustion models and measurements. The model is semi-empirical. Some of the engine specific properties needed for simulation are (e.g. for a turbocharged diesel): engine data in steady state operation, mappings of compressor and turbine performance, inertia of the engine components condensed to the crankshaft, turbo shaft inertia, displacement, compression ratio and the essentials of the fuel injection control strategy. Input parameters to the computer program based on the model are accelerator pedal position and external torque acting on the flywheel.
Technical Paper

Computer Simulation of Impact Response of the Human Knee Joint in Car-Pedestrian Accidents

A 3D pedestrian knee joint model was developed as a first step in a new description of the whole pedestrian body for computer simulations. The model was made to achieve better correlation with the results from previous tests with biological material. The model of the knee joint includes the articular surfaces, ligaments and capsule represented by the ellipsoid and plane elements as well as the spring-damping elements, respectively. The mechanical properties of the knee joint were based on available biomechanical data. To verify the new developed model with results from tests with biological material previously performed at the Department of Injury Prevention, Chalmers University of Technology, the computer simulations were carried out with the model of the knee joint using the MADYMO 3D program.