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Technical Paper

High-Performance Grid Computing for Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation: Architecture and Applications

This paper presents an extension of our earlier work on Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation (VMS) software. Previously, we presented VMS as a Windows based analysis tool to simulate vehicle missions quickly and to gauge, communicate, and improve the value proposition of Cummins engines to customers. We have subsequently extended this VMS architecture to build a grid-computing platform to support high volume of simulation needs. The building block of the grid-computing version of VMS is an executable file that consists of vehicle and engine simulation models compiled using Real Time Workshop. This executable file integrates MATLAB and Simulink with Java, XML, and JDBC technologies and interacts with the MySQL database. Our grid consists of a cluster of twenty Linux servers with quad-core processors. The Sun Grid Engine software suite that administers this cluster can batch-queue and execute 80 simulations concurrently.
Journal Article

Development of a Structurally Optimized Heavy Duty Diesel Cylinder Head Design Capable of 250 Bar Peak Cylinder Pressure Operation

Historically, heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engine designs have evolved along the path of increased power output, improved fuel efficiency and reduced exhaust gas emissions, driven both by regulatory and market requirements. The various technologies employed to achieve this evolution have resulted in ever-increasing engine operating cylinder pressures, higher than for any other class of internal combustion engine. Traditional HDD engine design architecture limits peak cylinder pressure (PCP) to about 200 bar (2900 psi). HDD PCP had steadily increased from the early 1970's until the mid 2000's, at which point the structural limit was reached using traditional methods and materials. Specific power output reversed its historical trend and fell at this time as a result of technologies employed to satisfy new emissions requirements, most notably exhaust gas recirculation (EGR).
Technical Paper

Drive by Noise System and Corresponding Facility Upgrades for Test Efficiency, Data Quality and Customer Satisfaction

An existing pass by noise data acquisition system was upgraded to provide the sophisticated data analysis techniques and test site efficiency required to comply with the current and future drive by noise regulations. Use of six sigma tool such as voice of the customer helped in defining the customer requirements which were then translated into the desired engineering characteristics using QFD. Pugh concept matrix narrowed down the best option suitable for the test site modifications taking into account the critical constraints such as test complexity, system cost & transparency to the existing drive by noise setup. Features of the new system include data telemetry, frequency analysis, portability and efficient data management through the use of advanced data acquisition system. Wireless mode of the data transmission helped significantly avoid most of the test site modifications, which in turn helped to reduce the overall system implementation cost.
Technical Paper

Observations from Cylinder Liner Wear Studies in Heavy Duty Diesel Engines and the Evolution towards Lower Viscosity Heavy Duty Engine Lubricants

Since the invention of the internal combustion engine, the contact between piston ring and cylinder liner has been a major concern for engine builders. The quality and durability of this contact has been linked to the life of the engine, its maintenance, and its exhaust gas and blowby emissions, but also to its factional properties and therefore fuel economy. While the basic design has not changed, many factors that affect the performance of the ring/liner contact have evolved and are still evolving. This paper provides an overview of observations related to the lubrication of the ring/liner contact.
Journal Article

Smart Sensing and Decomposition of NOx and NH3 Components from Production NOx Sensor Signals

Production NO sensors have a strong cross-sensitivity to ammonia which limits their use for closed-loop SCR control and diagnostics since increases in sensor output can be caused by either gas component. Recently, Ammonia/NO Ratio (ANR) perturbation methods have been proposed for determining the dominant component in the post-SCR exhaust as part of the overall SCR control strategy, but these methods or the issue of sensor cross-sensitivity have not been critically evaluated or studied in their own right. In this paper the dynamic sensor direct- and cross-sensitivities are estimated from experimental FTIR data (after compensating for the dynamics of the gas sampling system) and compared to nominal values provided by the manufacturer. The ANR perturbation method and the use of different input excitations are then discussed within an analytical framework, and applied to experimental data from a large diesel engine.
Journal Article

Scuderi Split Cycle Research Engine: Overview, Architecture and Operation

The Scuderi engine is a split cycle design that divides the four strokes of a conventional combustion cycle over two paired cylinders, one intake/compression cylinder and one power/exhaust cylinder, connected by a crossover port. This configuration provides potential benefits to the combustion process, as well as presenting some challenges. It also creates the possibility for pneumatic hybridization of the engine. This paper reviews the first Scuderi split cycle research engine, giving an overview of its architecture and operation. It describes how the splitting of gas compression and combustion into two separate cylinders has been simulated and how the results were used to drive the engine architecture together with the design of the main engine systems for air handling, fuel injection, mixing and ignition. A prototype engine was designed, manufactured, and installed in a test cell. The engine was heavily instrumented and initial performance results are presented.
Technical Paper

Navigation Control in an Urban Autonomous Ground Vehicle

Southwest Research Institute developed an Autonomous Ground Vehicle (AGV) capable of navigating in urban environments. The paper first gives an overview of hardware and software onboard the vehicle. The systems onboard are classified into perception, intelligence, and command and control modules to mimic a human driver. Perception deals with sensing from the world and translating it into situation awareness. This awareness is then fed into intelligence modules. Intelligence modules take inputs from the user to understand the need to navigate from its current location to another destination and, then, generate a path between them on urban, drivable surfaces using its internal urban database. Situational awareness helps intelligence to update the path in real time by avoiding any static/moving obstacles while following traffic rules.
Technical Paper

Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation Tool: Software Architecture and Applications

This paper presents the business purpose, software architecture, technology integration, and applications of the Cummins Vehicle Mission Simulation (VMS) software. VMS is the value-based analysis tool used by the marketing, sales, and product engineering functions to simulate vehicle missions quickly and to gauge, communicate, and improve the value proposition of Cummins engines to customers. VMS leverages the best of software architecture practices and proven technologies available today. It consists of a close integration of MATLAB and Simulink with Java, XML, and JDBC technologies. This Windows compatible application software uses stand-alone mathematical models compiled using Real Time Workshop. A built-in MySQL database contains product data for engines, driveline components, vehicles, and topographic routes. This paper outlines the database governance model that facilitates effective management, control, and distribution of engine and vehicle data across the enterprise.
Technical Paper

Verification of a Gaseous Portable Emissions Measurement System with a Laboratory System Using the Code of Federal Regulations Part 1065

This paper summarizes the validation testing of the Horiba Instruments OBS-2200 gaseous portable emissions measurement system (PEMS) for in-use compliance testing per Title 40 of the Code of Federal Regulations (CFR) Part 1065.920 (Section 1065.920). The qualification process included analyzer verifications as well as engine testing on a model-year 2007 heavy-duty diesel engine produced by Volvo Powertrain. The measurements of brake-specific emissions with the OBS-2200 were compared to those of a CFR Part 1065-compliant CVS test cell over a series of not-to-exceed (NTE) events. The OBS-2200 passed all linearity verifications and analyzer checks required of PEMS. Engine test validation was achieved for all three regulated gaseous emissions (CO, NMHC, and NOX) per 40 CFR Part 1065.920(b)(5)(i), which requires a minimum of 91 percent of the measurement allowance adjusted deltas to be less than or equal to zero.
Journal Article

Multi-Vehicle Evaluation of Gasoline Additive Packages: A Fourth Generation Protocol for the Assessment of Intake System Deposit Removal

Building on two decades of expertise, a fourth generation fleet test protocol is presented for assessing the response of engine performance to gasoline additive treatment. In this case, the ability of additives to remove pre-existing deposit from the intake systems of port fuel injected vehicles has been examined. The protocol is capable of identifying real benefits under realistic market conditions, isolating fuel performance from other effects thereby allowing a direct comparison between different fuels. It is cost efficient and robust to unplanned incidents. The new protocol has been applied to the development of a candidate fuel additive package for the North American market. A vehicle fleet of 5 quadruplets (5 sets of 4 matched vehicles, each set of a different model) was tested twice, assessing the intake valve clean-up performance of 3 test fuels relative to a control fuel.
Technical Paper

Design and Control Considerations for a Series Heavy Duty Hybrid Hydraulic Vehicle

Hybrid hydraulic power trains are a natural fit for heavy duty vehicle applications due to their high power density. This paper describes the analytical formulae available for sizing a series hybrid hydraulic vehicle without changing the engine size. Sizing of pump, accumulator and motor are addressed specifically. A control strategy is also suggested for operating the engine and powertrain pressure close to the best efficiency zones. An example is then given using an FMTV (Family of Medium Tactical Vehicles) platform with a CAT C7 engine. Simulation results are generated using VPSET (Vehicle Propulsion Systems Evaluation Tool), an SwRI-developed vehicle modeling and simulation tool. The hydraulic components are sized according to the recommendations in this paper. The suggested control strategy is implemented in VPSET and performance of the series hydraulic hybrid configuration is compared with that of a conventional powertrain.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Spatially Resolved Performance of NOx Adsorber Catalysts

A novel laboratory methodology has been developed and applied to evaluate performance of NOx Adsorber catalysts, based on the detailed analysis of micro-core samples obtained from various locations in a full-size catalyst. The technique includes a protocol for evaluating various aspects of NOx performance, as well as direct measurements of the amount of sulfur on the catalyst. This method was used to determine the NOx performance and distribution of sulfur loading on several engine aged catalysts. It showed the ability to differentiate poor NOx performance due to insufficient desulfation from that due to thermal degradation. This method further quantifies different forms of sulfur that are present on the catalyst. These forms of sulfur are distinguished by the temperature at which they are removed. In addition, the aspects of sulfur behavior that are important to this technique are discussed.
Technical Paper

Mild Regenerative Braking to Enhance Fuel Economy via Lowered Engine Load Due to Alternator

Brake energy recovery is one of the key components in today's hybrid vehicles that allows for increased fuel economy. Typically, major engineering changes are required in the drivetrain to achieve these gains. The objective of this paper is to present a concept of capturing brake energy in a mild hybrid approach without any major modifications to the drivetrain or other vehicular systems. With fuel costs rising, the additional component cost incurred in the presented concept may be recovered quickly. In today's vehicles, alternators supply the electrical power for the engine and vehicle accessories whenever the engine is running. As vehicle electrical demands increase, this load is an ever-increasing part of the engine's output, negatively impacting fuel economy. By using a regenerative device (alternator) on the drive shaft (or any other part of the power train), electrical energy can be captured during braking.
Journal Article

Development of a Synthetic Diesel Exhaust

A two-phase study was performed to establish a standard diesel exhaust composition which could be used in the future development of light-duty diesel exhaust aftertreatment. In the first phase, a literature review created a database of diesel engine-out emissions. The database consisted chiefly of data from heavy-duty diesel engines; therefore, the need for an emission testing program for light- and medium-duty engines was identified. A second phase was conducted to provide additional light-duty vehicle emissions data from current technology vehicles. Engine-out diesel exhaust from four 2004 model light-duty vehicles with a variety of engine displacements was collected and analyzed. Each vehicle was evaluated using five steady-state engine operating conditions and two transient test cycles (the Federal Test Procedure and the US06). Regulated emissions were measured along with speciation of both volatile and semi-volatile components of the hydrocarbons.
Technical Paper

Aging of Zeolite Based Automotive Hydrocarbon Traps

This paper analyzes the aging of zeolite based hydrocarbon traps to guide development of diagnostic algorithms. Previous research has shown the water adsorption ability of zeolite ages along with the hydrocarbon adsorption ability, and this leads to a possible diagnostic algorithm: the water concentration in the exhaust can be measured and related to aging. In the present research, engine experiments demonstrate that temperature measurements are also related to aging. To examine the relationship between temperature-based and moisture-based diagnostic algorithms, a transient, nonlinear heat and mass transfer model of the exhaust during cold-start is developed. Despite some idealizations, the model replicates the qualitative behavior of the exhaust system. A series of parametric studies reveals the sensitivity of the system response to aging and various noise factors.
Technical Paper

An Engine Start/Stop System for Improved Fuel Economy

During city traffic or heavily congested roads, a vehicle can consume a substantial amount of fuel idling when the vehicle is stopped. Due to regulation enforcement, auto manufacturers are developing systems to increase the mileage and reduce emissions. Turning off the engine at traffic lights and regenerative braking systems are simple ways to reduce emissions and fuel consumption. In order to develop strong manufacturer and consumer interest, this type of operation needs to be automated such that the stop/start functionality requires no driver interaction and takes place without the intervention of the vehicle operator. Valeo Electrical Systems has developed such a system that replaces the OEM engine alternator with a starter/alternator driven by a standard multi-ribbed V belt. To avoid a break and dual voltage network, this system is based on a 12V electrical system using an Enhanced Power Supply.
Technical Paper

On-Board Fuel Property Classifier for Fuel Property Adaptive Engine Control System

This paper explores the possibility of on-board fuel classification for fuel property adaptive compression-ignition engine control system. The fuel classifier is designed to on-board classify the fuel that a diesel engine is running, including alternative and renewable fuels such as bio-diesel. Based on this classification, the key fuel properties are provided to the engine control system for optimal control of in-cylinder combustion and exhaust treatment system management with respect to the fuel. The fuel classifier employs engine input-output response characteristics measured from standard engine sensors to classify the fuel. For proof-of-concept purposes, engine input-output responses were measured for three different fuels at three different engine operating conditions. Two neural-network-based fuel classifiers were developed for different classification scenarios. Of the three engine operating conditions tested, two conditions were selected for the fuel classifier to be active.
Technical Paper

A History of Mack Engine Lubricant Tests from 1985-2005: Mack T-7 through Mack T-12

As on-highway, heavy-duty diesel engine designs have evolved to meet tighter emissions specifications and greater customer requirements, the crankcase environment for heavy-duty engine lubricants has changed. Engine lubricant quality is very important to help ensure engine durability, engine performance, and reduce maintenance downtime. Beginning in the late 1980's, a new Mack genuine oil specification and a new American Petroleum Institute (API) heavy-duty engine lubricant category have been introduced with each new U.S. heavy-duty, on-highway emissions specification. This paper documents the history and development of the Mack T-7, T-8, T-8A, T-8E, T-9, T-10, T-11, and T-12 engine lubricant tests.
Technical Paper

Development of the Sequence IIIG Engine Oil Certification Test

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Sequence III Engine Oil Certification Tests have been used for the past forty-five years to evaluate lubricant performance characteristics for valvetrain wear, viscosity increase, and piston deposit formation. Minimum performance standards for passenger car light duty gasoline engine oil categories are set by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) (1) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) (2). This paper describes the development of the new ASTM Sequence IIIG Engine Oil Certification Test for use in evaluating the performance characteristics of engine oils meeting the next generation, low sulfur, low phosphorus, ILSAC GF-4 and API licensing requirements.