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Journal Article

Catalytic Formulation for NO2 Suppression and Control

To counter the adverse impact on the formation of harmful unregulated emissions such as nitro-polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH), catalyst companies and researchers have been developing catalytic coatings that have the capability of suppressing the formation of NO2. NO2 is formed at low exhaust temperatures with potentially greater concentrations at part load engine operation. Haldor Topsoe, a catalyst company from Denmark, developed such a catalytic coating for DPFs. A sample was provided to Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) to conduct this research with a view of potentially improving NO2-suppressing formulations in the future. The Haldor Topsoe diesel particulate filter (DPF) with its novel coating was tested together with three other DPFs and the results confirmed the capability of this DPF to suppress the formation of NO2. This characteristic was apparent in all five engine test modes selected to cover the full engine operating range.
Technical Paper

Diesel Exhaust Particulate Sampler for On-board PM Measurement

Horiba on-board diesel exhaust particulate sampler (OBS-PM) is a filter based partial flow particulate sampling system used for On-board diesel particulate matter (PM) measurement. It takes sample from either raw or diluted exhaust. It can run at constant dilution ratios or at variable dilution ratios with proportional control on the sample flow. The diluted exhaust moves through a pre-weighed 47 mm particulate filter and PM is collected on the filter. By weighing the loaded sample filter, PM emission from the engine or the vehicle can be determined. The performance of the OBS-PM meets most of requirements for a real-time partial flow sample system (PFSS) recommended by ISO 16183 [2]. The physical size and the power consumption of the instrument are minimized. It is powered with four 12 volts batteries, and can be installed on a vehicle for real-world PM emission evaluation.
Journal Article

Diesel Particulate Filter System - Effect of Critical Variables on the Regeneration Strategy Development and Optimization

Regeneration of diesel particulate filters poses major challenges in developing the particulate matter emission control technology to meet EPA 2007/2010 emissions regulations. The problem areas are multifold due to the complexity involved in designing the filter system, developing regeneration strategies and controlling the regeneration process. This paper discusses the need for active regeneration systems. It also addresses several key limitations and trade-offs between the regeneration strategy, chemical kinetics, exhaust gas temperature and the regeneration efficiency. Passive regeneration of diesel particulate filter systems is known to be highly dependent on the engine-out [NOx/PM] ratio as well as exhaust temperature over the duty cycle. Using catalytic oxidation of auxiliary fuel injected into the system, the exhaust gas temperature can be successfully enhanced for filter regeneration.
Technical Paper

Validation Method for Diesel Particulate Filter Durability

The diesel particulate filter (DPF) is a critical aftertreatment device for control of particulate matter (PM) emissions from a diesel engine. DPF survivability is challenged by several key factors such as: excessive thermal stress due to DPF runaway regenerations (or uncontrolled regeneration) may cause DPF substrate and washcoat failure. Catalyst poisoning elements from the diesel fuel and engine oil may cause performance degradation of the catalyzed DPF. Harsh vibration from the powertrain, as well as from the road surface, may lead to mechanical failure of the substrate and/or the matting material. Evaluations of these important validation parameters were performed.
Technical Paper

The Use of Radioactive Tracer Technology to Measure Real-Time Wear in Engines and Other Mechanical Systems

Radioactive tracer technology (RATT™) is an important tool for measuring real-time wear in operating engines and other mechanical systems. The use of this technology provides important wear information that is not available by other, more conventional wear measurement methods. The technology has advanced to the point where several components can be interrogated simultaneously, and new methods have extended the method to materials that are normally not amenable to radioactive tracer evaluation. In addition, sensitivity has increased so that the onset of wear can be detected long before practical with non-tracer methods. This improves the ability to measure and determine cause and effect relationships, thus providing a better understanding of wear responses to specific operating conditions and to changes in operating conditions. This paper reviews the radioactive tracer process and recent improvements that have extended its reach in both automotive and non-automotive applications.

Diesel Emissions and Their Control

This book will assist readers in meeting today's tough challenges of improving diesel engine emissions, diesel efficiency, and public perception of the diesel engine. It can be used as an introductory text, while at the same time providing practical information that will be useful for experienced readers. This comprehensive book is well illustrated with more than 560 figures and 80 tables. Each main section is broken down into chapters that offer more specific and extensive information on current issues, as well as answers to technical questions.
Technical Paper

Real World Study of Diesel Particulate Filter Ash Accumulation in Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

In April 2003, a small field study was initiated to evaluate the effect of lube oil formulations on ash accumulation in heavy-duty diesel DPFs. Nine (9) Fuel Delivery Trucks were retrofitted with passive diesel particulate filters and fueled with ultra low sulfur diesel which contains less than 15 ppm sulfur. Each vehicle operated in the field for 18 months or approximately 160,000 miles (241,401 km) using one of three lube oil formulations. Ash accumulation was determined for each vehicle and compared between the three differing lube oil formulations. Ash analyses, used lube oil analysis and filter substrate evaluations were performed to provide a complete picture of DPF operations. The evaluation also examined some of the key parameters that allows for the successful implementation of the passive DPF in this heavy-duty application.
Technical Paper

Methodologies to Control DPF Uncontrolled Regenerations

Diesel particulate filters (DPF) have been shown to effectively reduce particulate emissions from diesel engines. However, uncontrolled DPF regeneration can easily damage the DPF. In this paper, three different types of uncontrolled DPF regeneration are defined. They are: Type A: Uncontrolled high initial exotherm at the start of DPF regeneration, Type B: “Runaway” or uncontrolled regeneration, which takes place when the engine goes to idle during normal DPF regeneration, and Type C: Uneven soot distribution causing excess thermal stress during normal DPF regeneration. In this paper, different control strategies are developed for each of the three types of uncontrolled DPF regenerations. These control strategies include SOF control, exhaust flow pattern improvement, as well as EGR control through intake throttling and A/F ratio control.
Technical Paper

Achieving Tier 2 Bin 5 Emission Levels with a Medium Duty Diesel Pick-Up and a NOX Adsorber, Diesel Particulate Filter Emissions System-Exhaust Gas Temperature Management

Increasing fuel costs and the desire for reduced dependence on foreign oil has brought the diesel engine to the forefront of future medium-duty vehicle applications in the United States due to its higher thermal efficiency and superior durability. The main obstacle to the increased use of diesel engines in this platform is the upcoming extremely stringent, Tier 2 emission standard. In order to succeed, diesel vehicles must comply with emissions standards while maintaining their excellent fuel economy. The availability of technologies such as common rail fuel injection systems, low sulfur diesel fuel, NOX adsorber catalysts (NAC), and diesel particle filters (DPFs) allow the development of powertrain systems that have the potential to comply with these future requirements. In meeting the Tier 2 emissions standards, the heavy light-duty trucks (HLDTs) and medium-duty passenger vehicles (MDPVs) will face the greatest technological challenges. In support of this, the U.S.
Technical Paper

A Review of Diesel Particulate Filter Technologies

Diesel particulate filters (DPF), known as traps in the mid-to late 1970s, were being developed for on-highway diesel applications. However, advanced engine design and in-cylinder engineering enabled diesel engines and vehicles to meet extremely low emission limits, including those of particulate matter (PM) without the need for DPF's or other auxiliary emission control devices. Late in 2000, the US EPA finalized its on-highway heavy-duty diesel emission standards, thus ending speculations regarding its stringency and establishing the lowest limits ever. The new nitric oxides (NOX) and PM limits are seen as technology-forcing. For NOX emissions, the debate rages on among the technical community about the merits of NOX adsorbers and urea selective catalytic reduction. On the other hand, there seems to be little doubt about DPF's as the technical solution for PM.
Technical Paper

Particle Size Distribution and Mass Emissions from a Mining Diesel Engine Equipped with a Dry System Technologies Emission Control System

Particle size distribution, number, and mass emissions from the exhaust of a 92 kW 1999 Isuzu 6BG1 nonroad naturally aspirated diesel engine were measured. The engine exhaust was equipped with a Dry System Technologies® (DST) auxiliary emission control device that included an oxidation catalyst, a heat exchanger, and a disposable paper particulate filter. Particle measurement was taken during the ISO 8178 8-mode test for engine out and engine with the DST using a scanning mobility particle sizer (SMPS) in parallel to the standard filter method (SFM), specified in 40 CFR, Part 89. The DST efficiency of removing particles was about 99.9 percent based on particle number, 99.99 percent based on particle mass derived from number and size. However, the efficiency based on mass derived from the SFM was much lower on the order of 90 to 93 percent.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Exhaust Emissions, Including Toxic Air Contaminants, from School Buses in Compressed Natural Gas, Low Emitting Diesel, and Conventional Diesel Engine Configurations

In the United States, most school buses are powered by diesel engines. Some have advocated replacing diesel school buses with natural gas school buses, but little research has been conducted to understand the emissions from school bus engines. This work provides a detailed characterization of exhaust emissions from school buses using a diesel engine meeting 1998 emission standards, a low emitting diesel engine with an advanced engine calibration and a catalyzed particulate filter, and a natural gas engine without catalyst. All three bus configurations were tested over the same cycle, test weight, and road load settings. Twenty-one of the 41 “toxic air contaminants” (TACs) listed by the California Air Resources Board (CARB) as being present in diesel exhaust were not found in the exhaust of any of the three bus configurations, even though special sampling provisions were utilized to detect low levels of TACs.
Technical Paper

Experimental Determination of the Kinetics of Diesel Soot Oxidation by O2 - Modeling Consequences

Several complementary experimental techniques were applied to investigate kinetics of diesel soot oxidation by O2 in an attempt to provide accurate data for modeling of the Diesel Particulate Filters regeneration process. For two diesel soot samples with measurably different properties, it was shown that the complexity of their overall kinetic behavior was due to an initial period of rapidly changing reactivity. This initial high reactivity was understood not to be related to the SOF, and was quantitatively correlated to the extent of soot pre-oxidation. This initial reactivity can affect the averaged apparent kinetic parameters, for example resulting in the lower apparent activation energy values. After the initial soot pre-oxidation, which consumed ∼10-25% of carbon, the remaining soot was behaving very uniformly, producing linear Arrhenius plots in a remarkably broad range of temperatures (330-610°C) and integral conversions (up to 90%).
Technical Paper

A Fundamental Consideration on NOx Adsorber Technology for DI Diesel Application

Diesel engines are far more efficient than gasoline engines of comparable size, and emit less greenhouse gases that have been implicated in global warming. In 2000, the US EPA proposed very stringent emissions standards to be introduced in 2007 along with low sulfur (< 15 ppm) diesel fuel. The California Air Resource Board (CARB) has also established the principle that future diesel fueled vehicles should meet the same low emissions standards as gasoline fueled vehicles and the EPA followed suit with its Tier II emissions regulation. Achieving such low emissions cannot be done through engine development and fuel reformulation alone, and requires application of NOx and particulate matter (PM) aftertreatment control devices. There is a widespread consensus that NOx adsorbers and particulate filter are required in order for diesel engines to meet the 2007 emissions regulations for NOx and PM. In this paper, the key exhaust characteristics from an advanced diesel engine are reviewed.
Technical Paper

Emissions Reduction Performance of a Bimetallic Platinum/Cerium Fuel Borne Catalyst with Several Diesel Particulate Filters on Different Sulfur Fuels

Results of engine bench tests on a 1998 heavy-duty diesel engine have confirmed the emissions reduction performance of a U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) registered platinum/cerium bimetallic fuel borne catalyst (FBC) used with several different catalyzed and uncatalyzed diesel particulate filters (DPF's). Performance was evaluated on both a 450ppm sulfur fuel (No.2 D) and a CARB 50ppm low sulfur diesel (LSD) fuel. Particulate emissions of less than 0.02g/bhp-hr were achieved on several combinations of FBC and uncatalyzed filters on 450ppm sulfur fuel while levels of 0.01g/bhp-hr were achieved for both catalyzed and uncatalyzed filters using the FBC with the low sulfur CARB fuel. Eight-mode steady state testing of one filter and FBC combination with engine timing changes produced a 20% nitrogen oxide (NOx) reduction with particulates (PM) maintained at 0.01g/bhp-hr and no increase in measured fuel consumption.
Technical Paper

Integration of Exhaust Gas Recirculation, Selective Catalytic Reduction, Diesel Particulate Filters, and Fuel-Borne Catalyst for NOx/PM Reduction

Exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) has long been used in gasoline and light-duty diesel engines as a NOx reduction tool. Recently imposed emission regulations led several heavy-duty diesel engine manufacturers to adopt EGR as part of their strategy to reduce NOx. The effectiveness of this technology has been widely documented, with NOx reduction in the range of 40 to 50 percent having been recorded. An inevitable consequence of this strategy is an increase in particulate emission, especially if EGR was used in high engine load modes. Selective catalytic reduction (SCR), a method for NOx reduction, is widely used in stationary applications. There is growing interest and activity to apply it to mobile fleets equipped with heavy-duty diesel engines. Results of this work indicate that SCR has the potential to dramatically reduce NOx in diesel exhaust. Reductions greater than 70 percent were reported by several including the Institute's previous work (SAE Paper No. 1999-01-3564).
Technical Paper

Achieving Heavy-Duty Diesel NOx/PM Levels Below the EPA 2002 Standards--An Integrated Solution

The diesel engine has long been the most energy efficient powerplant for transportation. Moreover, diesels emit extremely low levels of hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide that do not require post-combustion treatment to comply with current and projected standards. It is admittedly, however, difficult for diesel engines to simultaneously meet projected nitrogen oxides and particulate matter standards. Traditionally, measures aimed at reducing one of these two exhaust species have led to increasing the other. This physical characteristic, which is known as NOx/PM tradeoff, remains the subject of an intense research effort. Despite this challenge, there is significant evidence that heavy-duty highway engine manufacturers can achieve substantial emission reductions. Many development programs carried out over the last five years have yielded remarkable results in laboratory demonstrations.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation of Advanced Emission Control Technologies for Diesel Heavy-Duty Engines

To evaluate the performance of a variety of commercially available exhaust emission control technologies, the Manufacturers of Emission Controls Association (MECA) sponsored a test program at Southwest Research Institute (SwRI). The test engine was a current design heavy-duty diesel engine operated on standard No. 2 diesel (368 ppm) and lower sulfur (54 ppm) diesel fuel. Technologies evaluated included: diesel oxidation catalysts (DOCs), diesel particulate filters (DPFs), selective catalytic reduction (SCR), fuel-borne catalysts (FBCs) in combination with filters and oxidation catalysts, and combinations of the above technologies. The program was structured to demonstrate that a variety of exhaust emission control technologies, including exhaust gas recirculation, could be used to substantially reduce emissions from a modern MY 1998 heavy-duty diesel engine.