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Technical Paper

An Overview of Onboard Coolant Filtration for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

2005-05-10
2005-01-2014
Coolant filters have been used for nearly 50 years by heavy duty engine manufacturers but little has been published in the technical literature documenting their performance. In heavy duty cooling systems an extender is periodically added to the system to prevent the coolant from becoming corrosive and replenish additives that stop the build-up of deposits which reduce heat transfer. Not only is the coolant filter the most convenient and reliable method to deliver the extender to the cooling system, it also removes debris from the coolant which can cause deposits and wear, aggravate corrosion, and even plug heat exchangers. Additionally, the used coolant filter serves as a diagnostic trouble shooting tool. This paper concentrates on the value or importance of filtering debris from the coolant of heavy duty diesel engine cooling systems. Published literature is reviewed and recent data from lab testing is reported.
Technical Paper

Development of a Compression Ignition Heavy Duty Pilot-Ignited Natural Gas Fuelled Engine for Low NOx Emissions

2004-10-25
2004-01-2954
A heavy-duty compression ignition engine using EGR and pilot-ignited directly injected natural gas fueling was calibrated for low NOx emissions. A Cummins ISX engine using cooled EGR was fitted with a Westport HPDI™ fuel system and an oxidation catalyst. The base engine hardware was modified to increase EGR rates (up to 40%). The engine, rated at 336 kW (450 hp) and 2236Nm (1650 ft-lbs), was calibrated and tested over steady state and transient test cycles. Steady state testing over the ESC 13-mode test cycle resulted in weighted composite NOx emissions of 0.36 g/bhp-hr and particulate matter emissions of 0.04 g/bhp-hr. Transient testing over the US EPA specified FTP cycle resulted in average NOx emissions of 0.6 g/bhp-hr and PM emissions of 0.03 g/bhp-hr.
Technical Paper

The Prediction of Connecting Rod Fretting and Fretting Initiated Fatigue Fracture

2004-10-25
2004-01-3015
The influence of big-end bore fretting on connecting rod fatigue fracture is investigated. A finite element model, including rod-bearing contact interaction, is developed to simulate a fatigue test rig where the connecting rod is subjected to an alternating uniaxial load. Comparison of the model results with a rod fracture from the fatigue rig shows good correlation between the fracture location and the peak ‘Ruiz’ criterion, rather than the peak tensile stress location, indicating the potential of fretting to initiate a fatigue fracture and the usefulness of the ‘Ruiz’ criterion as a measure of location and severity. The model is extended to simulate a full engine cycle using pressure loads from a bearing EHL analysis. A fretting map and a ‘Ruiz’ criterion map are developed for the full engine cycle, giving an indication of a safe ‘Ruiz’ level from an existing engine which has been in service for more than 5 years.
Technical Paper

E-diesel Effects on Engine Component Temperature and Heat Balance in a Cummins C8.3 Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2847
Heat rejection, liner temperature, exhaust valve seat temperature, and head gasket temperature data were recorded during a full load torque sweep of a compression ignition engine when fueled by No. 2 diesel and an ethanol/diesel fuel blend containing 10% ethanol by volume. Heat balances were calculated for engine operation at various load-speed combinations. The results of this study indicated that a greater than expected volume of E-diesel was required to operate the compression ignition engine at the same torque-speed compared to No. 2 diesel. More E-diesel fuel was required due to lower brake thermal efficiencies for E-diesel. Other than exhaust seat temperatures, there were no appreciable differences in component temperatures measured throughout the engine or the results of the heat balances calculated for the No. 2 diesel and E-diesel fuels.
Technical Paper

An Emission and Performance Comparison of the Natural Gas Cummins Westport Inc. C-Gas Plus Versus Diesel in Heavy-Duty Trucks

2002-10-21
2002-01-2737
Cummins Westport Inc. (CWI) released for production the latest version of its C8.3G natural gas engine, the C Gas Plus, in July 2001. This engine has increased ratings for horsepower and torque, a full-authority engine controller, wide tolerance to natural gas fuel (the minimum methane number is 65), and improved diagnostics capability. The C Gas Plus also meets the California Air Resources Board optional low-NOx (2.0 g/bhp-h) emission standard for automotive and urban buses. Two pre-production C Gas Plus engines were operated in a Viking Freight fleet for 12 months as part of the U.S. Department of Energy's Fuels Utilization Program. In-use exhaust emissions, fuel economy, and fuel cost were collected and compared with similar 1997 Cummins C8.3 diesel tractors. CWI and the West Virginia University developed an ad-hoc test cycle to simulate the Viking Freight fleet duty cycle from in-service data collected with data loggers.
Technical Paper

Sooted Diesel Engine Oil Pumpability Studies as the Basis of a New Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Oil Performance Specification

2002-05-06
2002-01-1671
Changing diesel engine emission requirements for 2002 have led many diesel engine manufacturers to incorporate cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation, EGR, as a means of reducing NOx. This has resulted in higher levels of soot being present in used oils. This paper builds on earlier work with fresh oils and describes a study of the effect of highly sooted oils on the low temperature pumpability in diesel engines. Four experimental diesel engine oils, of varying MRV TP-1 viscosities, were run in a Mack T-8 engine to obtain a soot level ranging between 6.1 and 6.6%. These sooted oils were then run in a Cummins M11 engine installed in a low temperature cell. Times to lubricate critical engine components were measured at temperatures ranging between -10 °C and -25 °C. A clear correlation was established between the MRV TP-1 viscosity of a sooted oil and the time needed to lubricate critical engine components at a given test temperature.
Technical Paper

API CI-4: The First Oil Category for Diesel Engines Using Cooled Exhaust Gas Recirculation

2002-05-06
2002-01-1673
This oil category was driven by two new cooled exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) engine tests operating with 15% EGR, with used oil soot levels at the end of the test ranging from 6 to 9%. These tests are the Mack T-10 and Cummins M11 EGR, which address ring, cylinder liner, bearing, and valve train wear; filter plugging, and sludge. In addition to these two new EGR tests, there is a Caterpillar single-cylinder test without EGR which measures piston deposits and oil consumption control using an articulated piston. This test is called the Caterpillar 1R and is included in the existing Global DHD-1 specification. In total, the API CI-4 category includes eight fired-engine tests and seven bench tests covering all the engine oil parameters. The new bench tests include a seal compatibility test for fresh oils and a low temperature pumpability test for used oils containing 5% soot. This paper provides a review of the all the tests, matrix results, and limits for this new oil category.
Technical Paper

Cummins Light Truck Diesel Engine Progress Report, 2001

2001-05-14
2001-01-2065
Cummins has studied requirements of the Light Truck Automotive market in the United States and believes that the proposed V-family of engines meets those needs. Design and development of the V-family engine system continues and has expanded. The engine system is a difficult one, since the combined requirements of a very fuel-efficient commercial diesel, and the performance and sociability requirements of a gasoline engine are needed. Results of testing show that the engine can meet requirements for fuel economy and emissions in the Tier 2 interim period from 2004 to 2008. Advanced results show that the full Tier 2 results for 2008 and beyond can be achieved on a laboratory basis.
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