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Technical Paper

Multiple-hole Nozzle Atomization for SI Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0564
Fuel atomization is known as an effective means of reducing exhaust emissions from internal combustion engines. In this study, we present a cost-effective atomization method for multiple-hole nozzle gasoline injection systems that requires no auxiliary device or external energy source to carry out atomization. While many studies have been conducted before on the atomization mechanism, most assume that the key to atomization lies in the nozzle configuration or the interaction between the fuel spray and ambient air. We, on the other hand, paid particular attention to the fuel nozzle upstream flow and found how it plays a crucial role in fuel atomization. In case of using multiple-hole nozzle in particular, atomization is greatly influenced by impingement of upstream flow of the fuel nozzle, which leads to rapid directional change in the fuel flow.
Technical Paper

Advanced Electronics for a Clean Diesel Engine Management System

2006-10-16
2006-21-0059
With the economic development of countries around the world led by BRICs(Brazil, Russia, India, China), the total number of automobiles in the world continues to rise. From the standpoint of preserving limited petroleum resources and reducing CO2 emissions, improved fuel consumption is necessary if we are to continue enjoying the use of automobiles. In Europe, significant development of diesel engine technology as a power source for automobiles has taken place to reduce fuel consumption and to enhance the “Fun to Drive” experience, and market share of diesel engines has increased in this area. However, with increasing environmental awareness worldwide, all areas of the globe are seeing tightened regulations for not only fuel consumption, but also exhaust emissions, including those for PM(Particulate Matter) and NOx. Of these regulations, the requirement for vehicles to satisfy the US Tier 2 Bin 5 rating, regardless of whether they are gasoline or dieselpowered, is the most stringent.
Technical Paper

Technologies of DENSO Common Rail for Diesel Engine and Consumer Values

2004-10-18
2004-21-0075
Electronics has greatly contributed to the operation of internal combustion engines. This is especially evident in the benefits that it has brought to drivers, such as enhancing the “Fun to Drive” experience and in reducing the cost of fuel. Moreover, this progress has resulted in minimizing environmental degradation, and yet continuing to support improvements in performance. In the diesel engine, which has superb fuel economy, the innovative progress has been achieved by the common rail technology. The common rail system has the features of high injection pressure control in all engine speed range, highly precise injection control and multiple injections per combustion cycle. The latest 2nd generation of the DENSO common rail system features 1800 bar injection pressure, and five times multiple injection with fully electronic control to ensure precise small injection quantities. This technology has been commercialized into passenger car products in the European market.
Technical Paper

Development of Diesel Engine using New Fuel Injection System - Direct Monitoring of Fuel Injection Pressure using Injector with Built-in Sensor, and its Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-1739
Recently, diesel engine manufacturers have been improving the tolerance of fuel injection quantity and timing in response to the strengthening of emissions regulations and the introduction of various kinds of diesel fuels. This paper describes the Intelligent Accuracy Refinement Technology (i-ART) system, which has been developed as a way of achieving substantially improved tolerances. The i-ART system consists of a fuel pressure sensor installed in the injectors. It calculates the injection quantity and timing at high speed using a dedicated microcomputer designed for pressure waveform analysis. As the injector can directly measure the fuel injection pressure waveform for each injection, it can compensate the injection quantity and timing tolerance at any time. Toyota Motor Corporation has introduced this system in Brazilian market vehicles. In Brazil, the PROCONVE L6 emissions regulations will be introduced in 2012, and the market also uses various kinds of diesel fuels.
Technical Paper

Glow Plug with Combustion Pressure Sensor

2003-03-03
2003-01-0707
Combustion-pressure-data-based feedback control of fuel injection and EGR is the most promising diesel system, since it can reduce fuel consumption and emissions, as well as noise and vibration, and improve the evaluation efficiency for adapting engine performance to. We developed a combustion pressure sensor installed inside the glow plug. This is superior in maintainability and ease of installation, and can detect the combustion pressure in each cylinder at high accuracy and low cost, with no need for engine modification.
Technical Paper

Development of PZEV Exhaust Emission Control System

2003-03-03
2003-01-0817
A new exhaust emission control system has been developed which complies with the world's most severe emission standard: CARB PZEV. Leaner combustion in cold condition was enabled and rapid warm-up of a close-coupled catalyst was realized by utilizing a newly developed Intake Air Control Valve (IACV) system and hyper-atomization fuel injector. In addition, the newly developed HC adsorbing type 3-way catalyst realized cold HC reduction at lower cost. For further reduction of the exhaust emission, the Variable Valve Timing-Intelligent (VVT-i) system was positively operated immediately after the cold start. By the suitable operation of Variable Valve Timing (VVT), the blow-back from the cylinder enhanced the fuel atomization and re-burning of remaining unburned hydrocarbons (HCs), and increased in-cylinder residual gas reduces NOx.
Technical Paper

Evaporative Leak Check System by Depressurization Method

2004-03-08
2004-01-0143
Changes to OBDII regulations in North America are requiring more frequent leak checks to the evaporative emissions system. Conventional methods are unable to comply with the required 0.26 performance ratio due to various factors such as unstable tank pressure and fuel evaporation. These strict regulations require an innovative detection device. Utilizing a vacuum pump, a leak check module with high detection frequency, leak diagnostic accuracy, and reliability has been developed. In the present paper, the details of ELCM based on the depressurization method are reported together with the results of study on the pressurization method.
Technical Paper

Hexagonal Cell Ceramic Substrates for Lower Emission and Backpressure

2008-04-14
2008-01-0805
Stringent emission regulations call for advanced catalyst substrates with thinner walls and higher cell density. However, substrates with higher cell density increase backpressure, thinner cell wall substrates have lower mechanical characteristics. Therefore we will focus on cell configurations that will show a positive effect on backpressure and emission performance. We found that hexagonal cells have a greater effect on emission and backpressure performance versus square or round cell configurations. This paper will describe in detail the advantage of hexagonal cell configuration versus round or square configurations with respect to the following features: 1 High Oxygen Storage Capacity (OSC) performance due to uniformity of the catalyst coating layer 2 Low backpressure due to the large hydraulic diameter of the catalyst cell 3 Quick light off characteristics due to efficient heat transfer and low thermal mass
Journal Article

Ventilation Characteristics of Modeled Compact Car Part 2 Estimation of Local Ventilation Efficiency and Inhaled Air Quality

2008-04-14
2008-01-0731
In order to evaluate the ventilation characteristics of car interior, a model experiment was performed. Part 1 deals with the air flow properties in a half-scale car model. In this paper, a trace gas experimental method equipped with Flame Ionization Detector (FID) systems is introduced to examine the local ventilation efficiency and inhaled air quality in the car, which was ventilated at a flow rate of 100 m3/h and kept in an isothermal environment of 28°C in the experiment. Here, ventilation efficiency was evaluated by means of the Scales for Ventilation Efficiencies (SVEs), and inhaled air quality in terms of the influences of passive smoke and foot odor was evaluated by means of the Contribution Ratio of Pollution source 1 (CRP1). Therefore, calculation methods using trace gas concentration values were suggested for these indices, which were proposed based on the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) technique.
Technical Paper

Virtual Development for In-Vehicle Network Topology – A Case Study of CAN FD Physical Layer

2017-03-28
2017-01-0023
In-vehicle network communication is evolving faster speeds and higher performance capabilities, connecting the information possessed by ECU and sensors with the in-vehicle electronic systems which are continuing to develop. With the evolution of the complicated networks, it is becoming difficult to develop them without many verification of actual machine. On the other hand, as for the verification means required at the logic level or physical level for a network verification through ECU design, virtual verification in the whole vehicle is difficult due to speed increases and the sheer size of the system. Therefore, it is only applicable for systems which are limited to a domain or an area, and flexible and timely utilization would be difficult due to the changes in specifications.
Technical Paper

Criteria-Driven Approach in Automotive Software Development – Integrating Concepts of Formal Methods with Testing

2017-03-28
2017-01-0003
We propose a verification method in the field of automotive control systems integrating the concepts of Formal Methods with testing, aiming at efficient and reliable software development. Although Formal Methods are believed to provide the benefits of their rigorous nature and their inherent capability of automation, only limited cases are known where Formal Methods were applied in system and software development, in practice, due to two major difficulties: appropriate abstraction in modeling and scalability in automated reasoning. Focusing on testing on the other hand, there is the difficulty of selecting reasonable set of tests for given verification objectives. In order to overcome these difficulties, our approach is to present verification criteria for testing to appropriately cover the property with the help of the Formal Method concepts.
Technical Paper

Cam and Crank Rotation Sensor with Reverse Rotation Detection

2006-04-03
2006-01-1460
In order to improve the performance of Engine Management System (EMS), it becomes more important to accurately detect the position of cam and crank with rotation sensors, usually as referred cam and crank sensor. In addition, expectations for the idle stop system to follow the reinforcement of emission regulations require cam and crank sensors to implement the function of reverse rotation detection. This paper discusses our development of a new generation rotation sensor (MR3) that uses AMR (Anisotropic Magneto Resistance) for accurate rotation detection to meet all system and market demands with minimum number of components to achieve high quality but less expensive price.
Journal Article

Prediction Method for Automobile EMI Test Result in AM Frequency Band

2017-03-28
2017-01-0014
The EMI, electromagnetic interference, is tested for automobiles and components by the method defined in the international standard, CISPR 25. Regarding the automobile test, the EMI from the component installed in the automobile is measured by the antenna of an automobile. On the other hand on the component test, the EMI from the component is measured by a mono-pole antenna set forward of the component. However, components sometimes fail the automobile test even if its passed the component test due to the difference of the method. In this case, the component has to be designed again to pass the automobile test. Therefore, the prediction method of the automobile test result is required. In this paper, we tried to modify the standard component test configuration to predict the automobile test result for a fuel pump system in AM frequency band.
Journal Article

Development of Ignition Technology for Dilute Combustion Engines

2017-03-28
2017-01-0676
In recent years, from a viewpoint of global warming and energy issues, the need to improve vehicle fuel economy to reduce CO2 emission has become apparent. One of the ways to improve this is to enhance engine thermal efficiency, and for that, automakers have been developing the technologies of high compression ratio and dilute combustion such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and lean combustion. Since excessive dilute combustion causes the failure of flame propagation, combustion promotion by intensifying in-cylinder turbulence has been indispensable. However, instability of flame kernel formation by gas flow fluctuation between combustion cycles is becoming an issue. Therefore, achieving stable flame kernel formation and propagation under a high dilute condition is important technology.
Journal Article

Ejector Energy-Saving Technology for Mobile Air Conditioning Systems

2017-03-28
2017-01-0120
This study reports on a new generation ECS (Ejector Cycle System) which includes a highly efficient ejector and a novel system configuration. The ejector is working as a fluid jet pump that recovers expansion energy which is wasted in the conventional refrigeration cycle decompression process, and converts the recovered expansion energy into pressure energy and raises the compressor suction pressure. Consequently, the ejector system can reduce power consumption of the compressor by using the above mentioned pressure-rising effect and improve energy efficiency of the refrigeration cycle. The ejector consists of a nozzle, a suction section, a mixing section and a diffuser. The objective of this study is to improve actual fuel economy of all vehicles by ejector technology. The previous generation ECS was reported in 2012 SAE World Congress1. Now, a new generation ECS has been successfully developed and released in the market for Mobile Air Conditioning systems as of 2013.
Technical Paper

Reliability of SiC-MOSFET for Hybrid Vehicle

2012-04-16
2012-01-0337
This paper describes the reliability of silicon carbide (SiC) MOSFET. We clarified the relation between the lifetime of the gate oxide and the crystal defects. We fabricated MOS diodes using thermal oxidation and measured their lifetimes by TDDB (Time Dependent Dielectric Breakdown) measurement. The wear-out lifetime is sufficient for hybrid vehicle but many MOS diodes broke in shorter time. The breakdown points were defined by Photo-emission method. Finally, we classified the defects by TEM (Transmission Electron Microscopy). A TSD (Threading Screw Dislocation) plays the most important role in the lifetime degradation of the gate oxide. The lifetime of the gate oxide area, in which a TSD is included, is shorter by two orders of magnitude than a wear-out breakdown. The mechanism by which threading dislocations degrade the gate oxide lifetime was not discovered. To explain the degradation, we assumed two models, the shape effect and the oxide quality degradation.
Technical Paper

Virtual Development of Engine ECU by Modeling Technology

2012-04-16
2012-01-0007
Along with the evolution of vehicle electronic systems from independent control in each domain system to the integration control of the whole vehicle system, ECU systems have become increasingly complicated and large-scale. This has made it extremely difficult to develop the entire system coherently and efficiently from the functional level down to implementation level. On the other hand, the development methodology focusing on single ECU system used today has been facing an additional challenge because of increasingly strict requirements for safety design based on multi-ECU systems. To address these challenges, we have been working on developing virtual development of Engine ECU by modeling technology. In order to achieve optimum electronic systems, it is necessary to build many real devices and evaluate the performance of systems. However, it is also becoming necessary to build virtual devices because of the increasingly complicated and large-scale systems.
Technical Paper

Virtualization Technology and Using Virtual CPU in the Context of ISO26262: The E-Gas Case Study

2013-04-08
2013-01-0196
A new development environment is required where conflict between control systems is minimized, where processing can be executed while maintaining independence between systems, and where quality can be assured easily. This environment must enable flexibility in software layouts to accommodate software changes during the development process and the parallel development of multiple derivative systems. We have developed virtualization technology (virtual CPU), which allows the execution of system control with a single CPU without conflict between systems. An outstanding virtual CPU architecture that we have developed allows us to execute multiple real-time control tasks with the hardware scheduler, and we have developed hardware that extends the management of address space and interrupt handling, making it possible for a single CPU to be configured as multiple CPUs. Also, we have implemented a bus system that reduces interference between threads.
Technical Paper

Development of a Compact and High-Performance Radiator for Thermal Management of Environmentally-Friendly Cars

2018-04-03
2018-01-0087
To comply with increasing fuel efficiency regulations, a low temperature radiator (LT radiator) is required to cool the charge-air system of a turbocharged engine. These engines are important to use for environmentally-friendly cars. Since heavy-duty and high-performance cars demand high cooling performance, the main radiator alone is typically insufficient in meeting the vehicle’s cooling requirements. An additional radiator installed in the front of the wheel-well is required to meet the extra cooling demand. In order to install this radiator in the front of the wheel-well, guaranteed performance in the limited packaging space and impact resistance of the leading tube edge are required. We developed the Supplementary Inner-Fin Radiator (SIR) which achieves the compact, high-performance, and durability requirements by use of an inner-fin tube (I/F tube). The purpose of this paper is to report our design approach and product specifications of the SIR.
Technical Paper

Maximizing Coasting of 48 V Vehicles with Cold-Storage Evaporator

2018-05-30
2018-37-0023
One of the main features of 48 V vehicles is the ability to coast at high speeds with the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) off. This can be realized due to the high torque and power the 48 V motor-generator provides which allows a quick and smooth re-cranking of the ICE. The coasting feature reduces the fuel consumption depending on frequency and duration of the coasting events. This depends in turn on driving pattern, driving style, State-of-Charge of the 48 V and 12 V batteries and the air-conditioning (A/C) system. In summer, if the A/C runs with a mechanical belt-driven compressor, the cabin inlet air temperature from the evaporator inevitably increases during each coasting event as the ICE turns off and cannot operate the compressor. If the evaporator temperature reaches a certain threshold at which the cabin comfort is noticeably affected, the ICE is re-cranked for resuming air-conditioning.
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