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Technical Paper

A New Calibration System for the Daimler Chrysler Medium and Heavy Duty Diesel Engines - An Exercise in Methods & Tools

2001-03-05
2001-01-1222
High demands in fuel consumption, efficiency, and low emissions lead to complex control functions for current and future diesel engine management systems. Great effort is necessary for their optimal calibration. At the same time, and particularly for cost reasons, many variants exist on one individual type of diesel engine management system. Not only is it used for several base engines, but these engines are also used in different environments and for different tasks. For optimal deployment, their calibration status must also be optimized individually. Furthermore, the demand for shorter development cycles and enhanced quality lead to a catalogue of new requirements for the calibration process and the affiliated tool. A new calibration system was developed, which optimally reflects the new demands.
Technical Paper

A New Method for Obtaining FRF of a Structure in Area Where Impact Hammer Cannot Reach

2007-05-15
2007-01-2385
The Frequency Response Function (FRF) is a fundamental component to identifying the dynamic characteristics of a system. FRF's have a significant impact on modal analysis and root cause analysis of NVH issues. In most cases the FRF can be easily measured, but there are instances when the measurement is unobtainable due to spatial constraints. This paper outlines a simple experimental method for obtaining a high quality input-output FRF of a structure in areas where an impact hammer can not reach during impact testing. Traditionally, the FRF in such an area is obtained by using a load cell extender with a hammer impact excitation. A common problem with this device is a double hit, that yields unacceptable results.
Technical Paper

A New Way of Electrical/Electronic Systems Endurance Testing of Vehicles in a Real World Environment Prior to Production Launch

2001-03-05
2001-01-1101
With the increasing emphasis on Systems Engineering, there is a need to ensure that Electrical/Electronic (E/E) Systems Endurance Testing of vehicles, in a real world environment, prior to Production Launch, is performed in a manner and at a technological level that is commensurate with the high level of electronics and computers in contemporary vehicles. Additionally, validating the design and performance of individual standalone electronic systems and modules “on the bench” does not guarantee that all the permutations and combinations of real-world hardware, software, and driving conditions are taken into account. Traditional Proving Ground (PG) vehicle testing focuses mainly on powertrain durability testing, with only a simple checklist being used by the PG drivers as a reminder to cycle some of the electrical components such as the power window switches, turn signals, etc.
Technical Paper

A Nozzle-Integrated Flow Sensor for Common-Rail Injection Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-0614
We are the first to report about a micromachined flow sensor directly integrated in the Common Rail injection nozzle body between the double guidance and the tip of the nozzle. The thermal measurement principle is chosen, because it enables a very precise and fast detection of gaseous and liquid mass flows. Additionally, the velocity field in the nozzle is only slightly influenced by the integration of the sensor in the nozzle body due to the negligible height of the sensitive layer. For a hot film anemometer, a high pressure stable ceramic substrate can be used, fabricated in a low cost batch process. The technology, to fabricate the sensor, as well as the first flow measurements, carried out at a high pressure test set up, are presented.
Technical Paper

A Semi-Empirical Model for Fast Residual Gas Fraction Estimation in Gasoline Engines

2006-10-16
2006-01-3236
Accurate accounting for fresh charge (fuel and air) along with trapped RGF is essential for the subsequent thermodynamic analysis of combustion in gasoline engines as well as for on-line and real-time quantification as relevant to engine calibration and control. Cost and complexity of such techniques renders direct measurement of RGF impractical for running engines. In this paper, an empirically-based approach is proposed for on-line RGF, based on an existing semi-empirical model [1]. The model developed expands the range over which the semi-empirical model is valid and further improves its accuracy. The model was rigorously validated against a well correlated GT-POWER model as well as results from 1D gas exchange model [2]. Overall, using this model, RGF estimation error was within ∼1.5% for a wide range of engine operating conditions. The model will be implemented in Dyno development and calibration at Chrysler Group.
Technical Paper

A Simple Approach to Selecting Automotive Body-in-White Primary-Structural Materials

2002-07-09
2002-01-2050
A simple strategy for building lightweight automobile body-in-whites (BIWs) is developed and discussed herein. Because cost is a critical factor, expensive advanced materials, such as carbon fiber composites and magnesium, must only be used where they will be most effective. Constitutive laws for mass savings under various loading conditions indicate that these materials afford greater opportunity for mass saving when used in bending, buckling or torsion than in tensile, shear or compression. Consequently, it is recommended that these advanced materials be used in BIW components subject to bending and torsion such as rails, sills, “A-B-C” pillars, etc. Furthermore, BIW components primarily subject to tension, compression, or shear, such as floor pans, roofs, shock towers, etc., should be made from lower cost steel. Recommendations for future research that are consistent with this strategy are included.
Technical Paper

A Study on Vehicle Elastomer Mount Preloading and Impact Response with Test Validation

2005-04-11
2005-01-1415
A variety of elastomer mounts are being used for vehicles as isolators/dampers between body and frame, on the engine cradle, etc. These vehicle flexible mounts, made of mainly rubber materials and housed in a metallic tube, are indispensable components affecting the quality of the vehicle ride, noise and vibration. In the auto industry, the usual practice when designing vehicle flexible mounts is to minimally reflect impact considerations in the mount design features. However, in most high-speed vehicle crash events where the mounts fail, the crash responses, including occupant injury severity, are known to be very different from the responses of non-failure cases. Even in low-speed vehicle impact cases, excessive deformation of the flexible mounts could cause significant variance in the compliance of the vehicle acceleration level to the air-bag firing and timing threshold requirements.
Technical Paper

AWD Driveline Isolation In SUV Vehicle

2005-05-16
2005-01-2287
The popularity of AWD passenger vehicles presents a challenge to provide car-like drive-train NVH within a relatively small package space. This paper describes a drive-train NVH case study in which analysis and test were used, in conjunction, to solve an NVH problem. Also, it details a systematic process of using the analytical model to identify and resolve similar problems. The particular problem for this case study is a noise and vibration issue occurring at 75 MPH primarily in the middle seat of an all-wheel drive vehicle. Tests indicated that it may be due to propeller shaft imbalance. Analysis results showed good correlation with the tests for that loading condition. Several solutions were identified, which were confirmed by both test and analysis. The most cost-effective of these solutions was implemented.
Technical Paper

Active Body Control (ABC) The DaimlerChrysler Active Suspension and Damping System

2002-10-21
2002-21-0054
Suspension systems have a major effect on the handling characteristics of a vehicle, particularly ride comfort and handling safety, and thus substantially determine its character. Their increasing significance is reflected by the greater value that ever more demanding customers attribute to the properties ride comfort and handling safety. Now that the potential of conventional, passive systems is largely exhausted, adaptive and active systems open up new possibilities, e.g.: the suppression of rolling and pitching movements, handling and ride height independent of load, handling characteristics and ride height adaptable to situation and customer requirement. The DaimlerChrysler active suspension and damping system (Active Body Control – ABC) manages to resolve the conflict of aims between handling safety and ride comfort which afflicts conventional fixed suspension systems, and as a result offers greater freedom of layout whilst enabling optimization of both target criteria.
Technical Paper

Active Safety of Commercial Vehicles - The European Status

2000-12-01
2000-01-3154
The increase of active safety will demand more and more electronic intelligence, if a drastic optimization of conventional systems is not possible any more. Starting from today's mechatronic systems, the trend leads via tomorrow's smart electronic systems to the future electronic networking of all intelligent vehicle systems. The paper describes the present status of these systems in Europe and the possibilities of increasing the active safety by using electronic intelligence.
Technical Paper

Advancing the State of Strong Hybrid Technology

2006-10-16
2006-21-0058
As the hybrid automotive market becomes quickly saturated with highly competitive products and vehicles, auto manufacturers struggle with business models and the combination of current manufacturing with next generation development. The hybrid development cooperation amongst General Motors, DaimlerChrysler, and BMW offers a new business model that promotes the advancement of the state of strong hybrid technology while maintaining the strong global leadership and competition.
Technical Paper

Aftertreatment Catalyst Design for the New DaimlerChrysler Supercharged 4-Cylinder Engine with Direct Gasoline Injection

2003-03-03
2003-01-1161
The launching of direct injection gasoline engines is currently one of the major challenges for the automotive industry in the European Union. Besides its potential for a notable reduction of fuel consumption, the engine with direct gasoline injection also offers increased power during stoichiometric and stratified operation. These advantages will most probably lead to a significant market potential of the direct injection concept in the near future. In order to meet the increasingly more stringent European emission levels (EURO IV), new strategies for the exhaust gas aftertreatment are required. The most promising technique developed in recent years, especially for NOx conversion in lean exhaust gases, is the so-called NOx storage catalyst.
Technical Paper

Air Bag Loading on In-Position Hybrid III Dummy Neck

2001-03-05
2001-01-0179
The Hybrid III family of dummies is used to estimate the response of an occupant during a crash. One recent area of interest is the response of the neck during air bag loading. The biomechanical response of the Hybrid III dummy's neck was based on inertial loading during crash events, when the dummy is restrained by a seat belt and/or seat back. Contact loading resulting from an air bag was not considered when the Hybrid III dummy was designed. This paper considers the effect of air bag loading on the 5th percentile female Hybrid III dummies. The response of the neck is presented in comparison to currently accepted biomechanical corridors. The Hybrid III dummy neck was designed with primary emphasis on appropriate flexion and extension responses using the corridors proposed by Mertz and Patrick. They formulated the mechanical performance requirements of the neck as the relationship between the moment at the occipital condyles and the rotation of the head relative to the torso.
Technical Paper

An Advanced Diesel Fuels Test Program

2001-03-05
2001-01-0150
This paper reports on DaimlerChrysler's participation in the Ad Hoc Diesel Fuels Test Program. This program was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy and included major U.S. auto makers, major U.S. oil companies, and the Department of Energy. The purpose of this program was to identify diesel fuels and fuel properties that could facilitate the successful use of compression ignition engines in passenger cars and light-duty trucks in the United States at Tier 2 and LEV II tailpipe emissions standards. This portion of the program focused on minimizing engine-out particulates and NOx by using selected fuels, (not a matrix of fuel properties,) in steady state dynamometer tests on a modern, direct injection, common rail diesel engine.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Procedure for Vehicle Thermal Protection Development

2005-04-11
2005-01-1904
Vehicle thermal protection is an important aspect of the overall vehicle development process. It involves optimizing the exhaust system routing and designing heat shields to protect various components that are in near proximity to the exhaust system. Reduced time to market necessitates an efficient process for thermal protection development. A robust procedure that utilizes state of the art CFD simulation techniques proactively during the design phase is described. Simulation allows for early detection of thermal issues and development of countermeasures several months before prototype vehicles are built. Physical testing is only used to verify the thermal protection package rather than to develop heat shields. The new procedure reduces the number of physical tests and results in a robust, efficient methodology.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Effect of Intake Primary Runner Blockages on Combustion and Emissions in SI Engines under Part-Load Conditions

2004-10-25
2004-01-2973
Charge motion is known to accelerate and stabilize combustion through its influence on turbulence intensity and flame propagation. The present work investigates the effect of charge motion generated by intake runner blockages on combustion characteristics and emissions under part-load conditions in SI engines. Firing experiments have been conducted on a DaimlerChrysler (DC) 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine, with spark range extending around the Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) timing. Three blockages with 20% open area are compared to the fully open baseline case under two operating conditions: 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure (bmep) at 1600 rpm, and 0.78 bar bmep at 1200 rpm. The blocked areas are shaped to create different levels of swirl, tumble, and cross-tumble. Crank-angle resolved pressures have been acquired, including cylinders 1 and 4, intake runners 1 and 4 upstream and downstream of the blockage, and exhaust runners 1 and 4.
Technical Paper

An Exploration of Failure Modes in Rolled, Ductile, Cast-Iron Crankshafts Using a Resonant Bending Testing Rig

2005-04-11
2005-01-1906
This report explores the relationship of different failure criteria - specifically, surface cracks, stiffness changes, and two-piece failures - on rolled, ductile, cast-iron crankshafts. Crankshaft samples were closely monitored throughout resonant bending fatigue testing and were taken to near complete fracture. By monitoring resonance shifts of the samples during testing, stiffness changes and cracks were monitored. These data showed that an accelerating frequency shift was sufficient to indicate imminent two-piece failure and that this condition can be used as a failure criterion. Fatigue studies on two different crankshafts using this failure criterion were compared to those using a surface crack failure criterion. This comparison showed that using the surface crack failure criterion erroneously decreased the apparent fatigue life of the crankshaft significantly.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Flow and Cavitation Phenomena in Diesel Injection Nozzles and Its Effects on Spray and Mixture Formation

2003-03-03
2003-01-1358
In modern DI Diesel engines the raw emissions of NOx and soot are affected, apart from the fuel injection rate, by atomization of the liquid jet and mixing of the fuel with the combustion air. Thereby details of the fuel flow inside the injection nozzle play an essential role. In order to determine the general mechanisms and the effect of individual nozzle configuration parameters on the fuel atomization and the fuel spray propagation, methods for optical diagnostics and CFD have been developed at the DaimlerChrysler Research. These methods are combined with an analysis of the injection system hydraulics and linked to a detailed analysis of mixture formation and combustion inside an optically accessible engine. The first part of the paper methods for the experimental investigation with transparent 1- and 6- hole nozzles in real size geometries under high pressure conditions are described. Special emphasis is put on CFD methods for modeling the cavitating two phase nozzle flow.
Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids - A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

2000-06-19
2000-01-1870
In recent years, the slip lock-up mechanism has been adopted widely, because of its fuel efficiency and its ability to improve NVH. This necessitates that the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used in automatic transmissions with slip lock-up clutches requires anti-shudder performance characteristics. The test methods used to evaluate the anti-shudder performance of an ATF can be classified roughly into two types. One is specified to measure whether a μ-V slope of the ATF is positive or negative, the other is the evaluation of the shudder occurrence in the practical vehicle. The former are μ-V property tests from MERCON® V, ATF+4®, and JASO M349-98, the latter is the vehicle test from DEXRON®-III. Additionally, in the evaluation of the μ-V property, there are two tests using the modified SAE No.2 friction machine and the modified low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA).
Technical Paper

Application of Multi-Parameter and Boundary Mannequin Techniques in Automotive Assembly Process

2003-06-17
2003-01-2198
This paper deals with the multi-parameter and boundary mannequin techniques in creating human models in automotive applications. The concepts and applications of single-parameter, multiple parameter and boundary mannequin method are discussed respectively to clarify certain confusion. Emphasis is put on how to create boundary mannequins for a specific application, which may have been puzzling many engineers in practical applications. The authors would like to share their experience in using the digital human modeling software and make discussions on some common issues. A number of case studies from typical automotive manufacturing assembly operations are also presented to demonstrate the usage of the multi-parameter and boundary mannequin techniques.
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