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Technical Paper

Modeling of Strain Rate Effects in Automotive Impact

2003-03-03
2003-01-1383
This paper deals with the effects of various approaches for modeling of strain rate effects for mild and high strength steels (HSS) on impact simulations. The material modeling is discussed in the context of the finite element method (FEM) modeling of progressive crush of energy absorbing automotive components. The characteristics of piecewise linear plasticity strain rate dependent material model are analyzed and various submodels for modeling of impact response of steel structures are investigated. The paper reports on the ranges of strains and strain rates that are calculated in typical FEM models for tube crush and their dependence on the material modeling approaches employed. The models are compared to the experimental results from drop tower tests.
Technical Paper

The Measurement and Control of Cyclic Variations of Flow in a Piston Cylinder Assembly

2003-03-03
2003-01-1357
The existence of the cyclic variation of the flow inside an cylinder affects the performance of the engine. Developing methods to understand and control in-cylinder flow has been a goal of engine designers for nearly 100 years. In this paper, passive control of the intake flow of a 3.5-liter DaimlerChrysler engine was examined using a unique optical diagnostic technique: Molecular Tagging Velocimetry (MTV), which has been developed at Michigan State University. Probability density functions (PDFs) of the normalized circulation are calculated from instantaneous planar velocity measurements to quantify gas motion within a cylinder. Emphasis of this work is examination of methods that quantify the cyclic variability of the flow. In addition, the turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) of the flow on the tumble and swirl plane is calculated and compared to the PDF circulation results.
Technical Paper

Development of a Nonlinear Shock Absorber Model for Low-Frequency NVH Applications

2003-03-03
2003-01-0860
This paper dis cusses the development of a nonlinear shock absorber model for low-frequency CAE-NVH applications of body-on-frame vehicles. In CAE simulations, the shock absorber is represented by a linear damper model and is found to be inadequate in capturing the dynamics of shock absorbers. In particular, this model neither captures nonlinear behavior of shock absorbers nor distinguishes between compression and rebound motions of the suspension. Such an inadequacy limits the utility of CAE simulations in understanding the influence of shock absorbers on shake performance of body-on-frame vehicles in the low frequency range where shock absorbers play a significant role. Given this background, it becomes imperative to develop a shock absorber model that is not only sophisticated to describe shock absorber dynamics adequately but also simple enough to implement in full-vehicle simulations. This investigation addresses just that.
Technical Paper

Springback Study on a Stamped Fender Outer

2003-03-03
2003-01-0685
Springback study on a Dodge Ram fender outer panel is detailed in this paper. A simple measurement fixture is designed for the panel, wherein non-contact laser scan technology is applied The measurement data are compared with the original CAD design surface and deviation contour maps are obtained. Consistency of measurement is studied at different sections among three samples. Details of FEA simulations are outlined. The comparison between measurement and simulation prediction is summarized. A method to describe the consistency of measurement and the accuracy of simulation prediction is proposed. The targets for measurement consistency and simulation accuracy are verified. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to investigate various simulation input parameters.
Technical Paper

Modeling of an Automotive Air Conditioning System and Validation with Experimental Data

2003-03-03
2003-01-0735
A 1-Dimensional model was developed to simulate the performance of an automotive Air Conditioning (AC) system. Its architecture and validation with vehicle test data (over a wide range of environmental and engine load conditions) are presented in this paper. This study demonstrates the ability of a simplified AC model to capture real system phenomena. Its sensitivity and limitations are evaluated, along with its potential as a system design tool.
Technical Paper

Stamping Simulation in Pentium PC and Linux Environment

2003-03-03
2003-01-0691
This paper describes the performance improvement and cost savings achieved by the Stamping Technology Department at DaimlerChrysler Corporation (Chrysler group), in migrating from Unix workstations with RISC technology to Linux PCs with Intel Pentium technology. Performance comparisons of various engineering applications running on these two system configurations are analyzed. The major aspects such as hardware configuration, operating system, software availability, compatibility, reliability, accuracy and consistency of simulation results are discussed. The improvement in computing speed and deviations in simulation results between MPP LS-Dyna and SMP LS-Dyna are presented.
Technical Paper

Computer-Aided Vehicle Design and Packaging Using Standard Naming Design Methodology

2003-03-03
2003-01-1302
Vehicle design and packaging is a repetitive and tedious process that involves frequent engineering and design changes. To improve design efficiency, a standard naming vehicle design methodology is proposed in this paper. For the geometric or the functional object used in the vehicle context, a standard name is assigned and also used as a unique object feature through its life cycle. With the proposed standard naming design methodology, the engineering knowledge can be efficiently embedded into the CAD design, and hence, vehicle design can be executed in a more automated fashion. Work case of the standard naming design methodology is illustrated by a vehicle design and packaging application using CATIA V5.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulation of the Flows Within Disengaged Wet Clutches of an Automatic Transmission

2003-03-03
2003-01-0320
The flow within the disengaged wet clutch packs of an automatic transmission has been simulated as a three-dimensional, steady-state, two-phase flow using the commercial computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT. The flow within a clutch with ungrooved friction plates was first solved for validating the CFD model, followed by a simulation of the flow within a clutch with grooved friction plates. A group of dimensionless variables have been established for mathematically modeling the drag torque and power loss in clutch packs. The effects of rotating speed of friction plate, pack clearance, and flow rate on drag torque and power loss have been studied.
Technical Paper

The DaimlerChrysler Full-Scale Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel

2003-03-03
2003-01-0426
This paper provides an overview of the design and commissioning results for the DaimlerChrysler full-scale vehicle Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel (AAWT) brought online in 2002. This wind tunnel represents the culmination of the plan for aeroacoustic facilities at the DaimlerChrysler Corporation Technical Center (DCTC) in Auburn Hills, Michigan. The competing requirements of excellent flow quality, low background noise, and constructed cost within budget were optimized using Computational Fluid Dynamics, extensive acoustic modeling, and a variety of scale-model experimental results, including dedicated experiments carried out in the 3/8-scale pilot wind tunnel located at DCTC. The paper describes the project history, user requirements, and design philosophy employed in realizing the facility. The AAWT meets all of DaimlerChrylser's performance targets, and was delivered on schedule. The commissioning results presented in this paper show its performance to be among the best in the world.
Technical Paper

Step-Stress Accelerated Test Method – A Validation Study

2003-03-03
2003-01-0470
Most products are designed to operate for a long period of time, and in such case, life testing is a relatively lengthy procedure. Lengthy tests tend to be expensive and the results become available too late to be of much use. To reduce the experimental cost significantly and provide an efficient tool to assess the life distribution for highly reliable product, a step-stress accelerated test (SSAT) was developed. An example of a rear suspension aft lateral link is used to validate the SSAT method.
Technical Paper

Experimental & Computational Simulations Utilized During the Aerodynamic Development of the Dodge Intrepid R/T Race Car

2002-12-02
2002-01-3334
Experimental and computational simulation techniques were concurrently employed throughout the aerodynamic development of the NASCAR Dodge Intrepid R/T in order to achieve a greater understanding of the complex flow fields involved. With less than 500 days to design, understand, and build a competitive vehicle, the development team utilized a closed loop approach to testing. Scale wind tunnel models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) were used to identify program direction and to speed the development cycle versus the traditional process of full scale testing. This paper will detail the process and application of both the experimental and computational techniques used in the aerodynamic development of the Intrepid R/T race vehicle, primarily focusing on the earlier stages that led to its competition introduction at the start of the 2001 season.
Technical Paper

The New DaimlerChrysler Corporation 5.7L HEMI® V8 Engine

2002-10-21
2002-01-2815
For the 2003 model year DaimlerChrysler Corporation (DCC) will introduce an all-new 5.7L V8 truck engine manufactured at the new Saltillo II Engine Plant (SEPII) in Saltillo, Mexico. The product will debut in the new RAM series of pick-up trucks and marks the return of the hemispherical combustion chamber architecture. This paper covers the engine design features, simulation methods, development, and manufacturing processes. Also reviewed are the project objectives and the organizational processes used to manage and deliver the program.
Technical Paper

Automotive Seat Suspension Model for Ride Quality Studies

2002-03-04
2002-01-0778
A high fidelity seat suspension model, which can be used for ride quality predictions, is developed in this work. The coil-spring seat suspension model includes unique nonlinear forms for the stiffness and damping characteristics. This is the first paper to consider the nonlinear geometric effects of the suspension, derive the coil-spring suspension model from physical principles, and compare theoretical and experimental results. A simplified nonlinear form is achieved via an admissible function describing the vertical suspension deflection as a function of the lateral position. This simplified nonlinear form is compared to experimental data and demonstrated to have exceptional fidelity.
Technical Paper

Techniques to Improve Springback Prediction Accuracy Using Dynamic Explicit FEA Codes

2002-03-04
2002-01-0159
Finite Element Analysis (FEA) has been successfully used in the simulation of sheet metal forming process. The accurate prediction of the springback is still a major challenge due to its sensitivity to the geometric modeling of the tools, strain hardening model, yield criterion, contact algorithm, loading pattern, element formulation, mesh size and number of through-thickness integration points, etc. The objective of this paper is to discuss the effect of numerical parameters on springback prediction using dynamic explicit FEA codes. The example used in the study is from the Auto/Steel Partnership High Strength Steel Rail Springback Project. The modeling techniques are discussed and the guidelines are provided for choosing numerical parameters, which influence the accuracy of the springback prediction and the computation cost.
Technical Paper

Specifying Steel Properties and Incorporating Forming Effects in Full Vehicle Impact Simulation

2002-03-04
2002-01-0639
Mechanical properties of as-rolled steels used in a vehicle vary with many parameters including gages, steel suppliers and manufacturing processes. The residual forming and strain rate effects of automotive components have been generally neglected in full vehicle crashworthiness analyses. Not having the above information has been considered as one of the reasons for the discrepancy between the results from computer simulation models and actual vehicle tests. The objective of this study is to choose the right material property for as-rolled steels for stamping and crash computer simulation, and investigate the effect of forming and strain rate on the results of full vehicle impact analyses. Major Body-in-White components which were in the crash load paths and whose material property would change in the forming process were selected in this study. The post-formed thickness and yield stress distributions on the components were estimated using One Step forming analyses.
Technical Paper

Chassis Dynamometer Simulation of Tire Impact Response

2001-04-30
2001-01-1481
One of the major NVH concerns for automobile manufacturers is the response of a vehicle to the impact of the tire as it encounters a road discontinuity or bump. This paper describes methods for analyzing the impact response of a vehicle to such events. The test vehicle is driven on a dynamometer, on which a bump simulating cleat is mounted. The time histories of the cleat impact response of the vehicle can be classified as a transient and a repeated signal, which should be processed in a special way. This paper describes the related signal processing issues, which include converting the time data into a continous spectrum, determination of the correct scaling factor for the analyzed spectrum, and smoothing out harmonics and fluctuations in the signal. This procedure yields a smooth frequency spectrum with a correctly scaled amplitude, in which the frequency contents can be easily identified.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Topology and Performance Redesign by Large Admissible Perturbations for Automotive Structural Design

2001-03-05
2001-01-1058
A methodology for topology and performance redesign of complex structures by LargE Admissible Perturbations (LEAP) has been developed since 1983 in the Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering, the University of Michigan. LEAP theory has successfully solved various redesign problems for performance and simultaneous topological and performance changes. The redesign problem is defined as a two-state problem that consists of two structural states, States S1 and S2. State S1 has undesirable characteristics or performance which does not satisfy designer specifications. The unknown State S2 has the desired structural response and/or performance. The relation between State S1 and State S2 is highly nonlinear with respect to its response or topology. So far, LEAP algorithms have solved various redesign problems for large structural changes (on the order of 100%–500%) of State S1 with only one finite element analysis.
Technical Paper

Contact Mechanics Simulation for Hot Spots Investigation

2001-03-05
2001-01-0035
Rapid wear out of a disk brake due to phenomena commonly known as hot spots is one of various problems faced by brake manufacturers. Hot spots are localized high temperature areas generated on the frictional surface of a disk brake during braking. The non-uniform surface expansion caused by hot spots on the disk surface may cause pedal pulsation or known as thermal judder. This effect in the long run will shorten a brake's life. Numerical simulation of a disk brake requires the use of nonlinear contact mechanics approach. The simulation is computationally very expensive and difficult to perform. A computer simulation technique has been developed at the DaimlerChrysler Brake Core Group to investigate the hot spot phenomena since 1997. The technique was implemented on 3-D finite element models to simulate frictional contacts between the disk and its pads. Computer code ABAQUS is used for these analyses and computations are performed in Silicon Graphics, Origin 2000 machines.
Technical Paper

Information Flow Analysis for Air Bag Sensor Development

2000-03-06
2000-01-1388
A statistical theory is used to quantify the amount of information transmitted from a transducer (i.e., accelerometer) to the air bag controller during a vehicle crash. The amount of information relevant to the assessment of the crash severity is evaluated. This quantification procedure helps determine the effectiveness of different testing conditions for the calibration of sensor algorithms. The amount of information in an acceleration signal is interpreted as a measure of the ability to separate signals based on parameters that are used to assess the severity of an impact. Applications to a linear spring-mass model and to actual crash signals from a development vehicle are presented. In particular, the comparison of rigid barrier (RB) and offset deformable barrier (ODB) testing modes is analyzed. Also, the performance of front-mounted and passenger compartment accelerometers are compared.
Technical Paper

Design through Collaboration: A Supplier Partnership Paradigm

2000-03-06
2000-01-1389
New supplier / manufacturer relationship are necessary to produce products quickly, cost-effectively, and with features expected by the customer. However, the need for a new relationship is not universally accepted and endorsed. Resistance can be minimized through supplier self-assessment (such as Ford Motor Company's web-based instruments), management initiatives, and incentives. Trust and sharing are hallmarks. This strategy requires a new workplace paradigm affecting culture and people issues. Teams, extend across companies, share ideas and innovations. Decisions need to be mutually beneficial and the long-term value, for supplier and manufacturer, needs to be considered.
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