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Technical Paper

ATD Neck Tension Comparisons for Various Sled Pulses

2002-12-02
2002-01-3324
The structure of the racecar has been the subject of much discussion with regard to crash safety. The stiffness of the structure, the amount of crush and the resulting deceleration were being judged, in some instances, as too stiff or not stiff enough for the driver. Much of this discussion centered on crash incidents for which no deceleration data were available from crash recorders (black boxes). In this paper, crash test dummy (Anthropomorphic Test Device ATD) results are compared for various idealized deceleration-time histories (deceleration pulses) that represent various structural crush characteristics. A crash velocity of 64.4 KPH (40 MPH) against a wall was used to represent a life threatening energy level.
Technical Paper

Multi-Sensor Modules with Data Bus Communication Capability

1999-03-01
1999-01-1277
Automotive multi-sensor modules, capable of vehicle-wide communications via a data bus will be discussed. Proper sensor grouping, packaging and device placement are key issues in the implementation of smart sensor modules. Sensors that are candidates for clustering include temperature, acceleration, angular rate, barometric pressure, chemical, and light sensors. The capability to accommodate a variety of data bus communication protocols is required to satisfy the majority of automotive systems. System integration must be considered when employing a smart sensor network through-out an automobile in a cost effective manner. This paper will cover the module issues associated with sensing, packaging, electronics, communication and system integration.
Journal Article

HCCI Load Expansion Opportunities Using a Fully Variable HVA Research Engine to Guide Development of a Production Intent Cam-Based VVA Engine: The Low Load Limit

2012-04-16
2012-01-1134
While the potential emissions and efficiency benefits of HCCI combustion are well known, realizing the potentials on a production intent engine presents numerous challenges. In this study we focus on identifying challenges and opportunities associated with a production intent cam-based variable valve actuation (VVA) system on a multi-cylinder engine in comparison to a fully flexible, naturally aspirated, hydraulic valve actuation (HVA) system on a single-cylinder engine, with both platforms sharing the same GDI fueling system and engine geometry. The multi-cylinder production intent VVA system uses a 2-step cam technology with wide authority cam phasing, allowing adjustments to be made to the negative valve overlap (NVO) duration but not the valve opening durations. On the single-cylinder HVA engine, the valve opening duration and lift are variable in addition to the NVO duration. The content of this paper is limited to the low-medium operating load region at 2000 rpm.
Journal Article

Energy Efficient HVAC System with Spot Cooling in an Automobile - Design and CFD Analysis

2012-04-16
2012-01-0641
Spot, or distributed, cooling and heating is an energy efficient way of delivering comfort to an occupant in the car. This paper describes an approach to distributed cooling in the vehicle. A two passenger CFD model of an SUV cabin was developed to obtain the solar and convective thermal loads on the vehicle, characterize the interior thermal environment and accurately evaluate the fluid-thermal environment around the occupants. The present paper focuses on the design and CFD analysis of the energy efficient HVAC system with spot cooling. The CFD model was validated with wind tunnel data for its overall accuracy. A baseline system with conventional HVAC air was first analyzed at mid and high ambient conditions. The airflow and cooling delivered to the driver and the passenger was calculated. Subsequently, spot cooling was analyzed in conjunction with a much lower conventional HVAC airflow.
Journal Article

Real-time Sensing of Particulate Matter in a Vehicle Exhaust System

2017-03-28
2017-01-1639
Onboard diagnostic regulations require performance monitoring of diesel particulate filters used in vehicle aftertreatment systems. Delphi has developed a particulate matter (PM) sensor to perform this function. The objective of this sensor is to monitor the soot (PM) concentration in the exhaust downstream of the diesel particulate filter which provides a means to calculate filter efficiency. The particulate matter sensor monitors the deposition of soot on its internal sensing element by measuring the resistance of the deposit. Correlations are established between the soot resistance and soot mass deposited on the sensing element. Currently, the sensor provides the time interval between sensor regeneration cycles, which, with the knowledge of the exhaust gas flow parameters, is correlated to the average soot concentration.
Technical Paper

Rollover Stability Index Including Effects of Suspension Design

2002-03-04
2002-01-0965
In this paper a simple yet insightful model to predict vehicle propensity to rollover is proposed, which includes the effects of suspension and tire compliance. The model uses only a few parameters, usually known at the design stage. The lateral accelerations at the rollover threshold predicted by the model are compared to the results of simulations, in which vehicles with the same static stability factor, but different suspension characteristics and payloads are subjected to roll-inducing handling maneuvers. The results of simulations correlate well with the predictions based on the proposed model. Design recommendations for passive suspensions, which would increase rollover stability are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Review of Cell Equalization Methods for Lithium Ion and Lithium Polymer Battery Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-0959
Lithium-based battery technology offers performance advantages over traditional battery technologies at the cost of increased monitoring and controls overhead. Multiple-cell Lead-Acid battery packs can be equalized by a controlled overcharge, eliminating the need to periodically adjust individual cells to match the rest of the pack. Lithium-based based batteries cannot be equalized by an overcharge, so alternative methods are required. This paper discusses several cell-balancing methodologies. Active cell balancing methods remove charge from one or more high cells and deliver the charge to one or more low cells. Dissipative techniques find the high cells in the pack, and remove excess energy through a resistive element until their charges match the low cells. This paper presents the theory of charge balancing techniques and the advantages and disadvantages of the presented methods.
Technical Paper

Delphi Electronic Throttle Control Systems for Model Year 2000;Driver Features, System Security, and OEM Benefits. ETC for the Mass Market

2000-03-06
2000-01-0556
Delphi has developed a second-generation Electronic Throttle Control system optimized for high volume applications. The Delphi system integrates several unique driver performance features, extensive security/diagnostics, and provides significant benefits for the vehicle manufacturer. For Model Year 2000, the Delphi ETC system has been successfully implemented on several popular SUVs and passenger cars built and sold around the world. The ETC driver features, security systems, and manufacturer benefits are presented as implemented on these Model Year 2000 applications.
Journal Article

Model-Based Development of AUTOSAR-Compliant Applications: Exterior Lights Module Case Study

2008-04-14
2008-01-0221
The complexity of automotive software and the needs for shorter development time and software portability require the development of new approaches and standards for software architectures. The AUTOSAR project is one of the most comprehensive and promising solutions for defining a methodology supporting a function-driven development process. Furthermore, it manifests itself as a standard for expressing compatible software interfaces at the Application Layer. This paper discusses the implementation of AUTOSAR requirements for the component structure, as well as interfaces to the Application Layer in a model-based development environment. The paper outlines the major AUTOSAR requirements for software components, provides examples of their implementation in a Simulink/Stateflow model, and describes the modelbased implementation of an operating system for running AUTOSAR software executables (“runnables”).
Journal Article

Ignition Systems for Spray-Guided Stratified Combustion

2010-04-12
2010-01-0598
The success of stratified combustion is strongly determined by the injection and ignition system used. A large temporal and spatial variation of the main parameters - mixture composition and charge motion - in the vicinity of the spark location are driving the demands for significantly improved ignition systems. Besides the requirements for conventional homogeneous combustion systems higher ignition energy and breakdown voltage capability is needed. The spark location or spark plug gap itself has to be open and well accessible for the mixture to allow a successful flame kernel formation and growth into the stratified mixture regime, while being insensitive to potential interaction with liquid fuel droplets or even fuel film. For this purpose several different ignition concepts are currently being developed. The present article will give an ignition system overview for stratified combustion within Delphi Powertrain Systems.
Journal Article

Solder Void Modeling and Its Influence on Thermal Characteristics of MOSFETs in Automotive Electronics Module

2017-03-28
2017-01-0011
Current generation automobiles are controlled by electronic modules for performing various functions. These electronic modules have numerous semiconductor devices mounted on printed circuit boards. Solders are generally used as thermal interface material between surface mount devices and printed circuit boards (PCB) for efficient heat transfer. In the manufacturing stage, voids are formed in solders during reflow process due to outgassing phenomenon. The presence of these voids in solder for power packages with exposed pads impedes heat flow and can increase the device temperature. Therefore it is imperative to understand the effect of solder voids on thermal characteristics of semiconductor devices. But the solder void pattern will vary drastically during mass manufacturing. Replicating the exact solder void pattern and doing detail simulation to predict the device temperature for each manufactured module is not practical.
Technical Paper

Development of a Haptic Braking System as an ACC Vehicle FCW Measure

2002-05-07
2002-01-1601
This work examines the development and implementation of a pulsing brake control system as part of a Forward Collision Warning (FCW) System for an Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) prototype vehicle. The brake pulse is a likely candidate to be employed with visual and auditory cues in the event of an imminent collision alert level when the driver is not in ACC mode.
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