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Technical Paper

Improving Time-To-Collision Estimation by IMM Based Kalman Filter

2009-04-20
2009-01-0162
In a CAS system, the distance and relative velocity between front and host vehicles are estimated to calculate time-to-collision (TTC). The distance estimates by different methods will certainly include noise which should be removed to ensure the accuracy of TTC calculations. Kalman filter is a good tool to filter such type of noise. Nevertheless, Kalman filter is a model based filter, which means a correct model is important to get the good filtering results. Usually, a vehicle is either moving with a constant velocity (CV) or constant acceleration (CA) maneuvers. This means the distance data between front and host vehicles can be described by either constant velocity or constant acceleration model. In this paper, first, CV and CA models are used to design two Kalman filters and an interacting multiple model (IMM) is used to dynamically combine the outputs from two filters.
Journal Article

Analysis of E-85 Fuel for Formic, Acetic, Propionic, Butyric, Glycolic and Citric Acids using Reversed Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography

2008-10-06
2008-01-2509
An HPLC (High Performance Liquid Chromatography) method to measure the concentration of six organic acids in E-85 fuel has been developed. A three point calibration curve is established using standard solutions of the following organic acids: formic acid, acetic acid, propionic acid, butyric acid, glycolic acid and citric acid. An internal standard (maleic acid) is used to monitor HPLC system suitability and peak retention time stability. The method utilizes UV detection at 210 nm to detect and quantify the levels of each acid in E-85 fuel. Test results from nine commercially available E-85 fuel samples are reported. Analytical method validation was achieved by performing and confirming system suitability or injection repeatability (percent relative standard deviation ≤ 3%), calibration curve linearity (R2 ≥ 0.999), analysis repeatability (standard deviation < 1 mg/L) and recovery (percent recovery 91 - 102%).
Technical Paper

Fluid Dynamic Study of Hollow Cone Sprays

2008-04-14
2008-01-0131
An analytical study of spray from an outwardly opening pressure swirl injector has been presented in this paper. A number of model injectors with varying design configurations have been used in this study. The outwardly opening injection process has been modeled using a modified spray breakup model presented in an earlier study. It has been observed that simulation results from the study clearly capture the mechanism by which an outwardly opening conical spray interacts with the downstream flow field. Velocity field near the tip of the injector shows that the conical streams emanating from an outwardly opening injector have the tendency to entrap air into the flow stream which is responsible for finer spray. A deviation from the optimum set of physical parameters showed a high propensity to produce large spray droplets. This study also emphasizes the importance of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) as an engineering tool to understand the complex physical processes.
Journal Article

Diagnostics based on the Statistical Correlation of Sensors

2008-04-14
2008-01-0129
The paper describes a new strategy for real-time sensor diagnostics that is based on the statistical correlation of various sensor signal pairs. During normal fault-free operation there is a certain correlation between the sensor signals which is lost in the event of a fault. The proposed algorithm quantifies the correlation between sensor signal pairs using real-time scalar metrics based on the Mahalanobis-distance concept. During normal operation all metrics follow a similar pattern, however in the event of a fault; metrics involving the faulty sensor would increase in proportion to the magnitude of the fault. Thus, by monitoring this pattern and using a suitable fault-signature table it is possible to isolate the faulty sensor in real-time. Preliminary simulation results suggest that the strategy can mitigate the false-alarms experienced by most model-based diagnostic algorithms due to an intrinsic ability to distinguish nonlinear vehicle behavior from actual sensor faults.
Technical Paper

The Effectiveness of Oxygen in Preventing Embrittlement in Air Bag Inflators Containing Gaseous Hydrogen

2006-04-03
2006-01-1188
This study examines the effectiveness of gaseous oxygen at preventing embrittlement in steel associated with exposure to gaseous hydrogen under static loading conditions. Notched C-ring samples machined from 4340 steel and heat treated to HRC 51-53 were used to test the neutrality of an oxygen-hydrogen gas mixture similar to that which may be used as a generant in an air bag inflator. The 29 percent oxygen to hydrogen gas ratio of the gas mixture was found to be sufficient to protect the steel from hydrogen embrittlement under static loading conditions. This would indicate that any steel with a hardness of HRC 51 or lower would be safe to use in gas-based air bag inflators containing a oxygen to hydrogen gas ratio of 29 percent or higher.
Technical Paper

A Systematic Experimental Investigation of Pd-Based Light-Off Catalysts

2005-10-24
2005-01-3848
Close-coupled or manifold catalysts have been extensively employed to reduce emissions during cold start by achieving quick catalyst light-off. These catalysts must have good thermal durability, high intrinsic light-off activity and high HC/CO/NOx conversions at high temperature and flow conditions. A number of studies have been dedicated to engine control, manifold design and converter optimization to reduce cold start emissions. The current paper focuses on the effect of catalyst design parameters and their performance response to different engine operating conditions. Key design parameters such as catalyst formulation (CeO2 vs. non CeO2), precious metal loading and composition (Pd vs. Pd/Rh), washcoat loading, catalyst thermal mass, substrate properties and key application (in use) parameters such as catalyst aging, exhaust A/F ratio, A/F ratio modulation, exhaust temperature, temperature rise rate and exhaust flow rate were studied on engine dynamometers in a systematic manner.
Technical Paper

Spray Pattern Recognition for Multi-Hole Gasoline Direct Injectors Using CFD Modeling

2009-04-20
2009-01-1488
This paper describes a correlation study on fuel spray pattern recognition of multi-hole injectors for gasoline direct injection (GDi) engines. Spray pattern is characterized by patternation length, which represents the distance of maximum droplet concentration from the axis of the injector. Five fuel injectors with different numbers and sizes of nozzle holes were considered in this study. Experimental data and CFD modeling results were used separately to develop regression models for spray patternation. These regressions predicted the influence of a number of injector operating and design parameters, including injection system operating pressure, valve lift, injector hole length-to-diameter ratio (L/d) and the orientation of the injector hole. The regression correlations provided a good fit with both experimental and CFD spray simulation results. Thus CFD offers a good complement to experimental validation during development efforts to meet a desired injector spray pattern.
Technical Paper

Analytical Predictions and Correlation With Physical Tests for Potential Buzz, Squeak, and Rattle Regions in a Cockpit Assembly

2004-03-08
2004-01-0393
The perceived interior noise has been one of the major driving factors in the design of automotive interior assemblies. Buzz, Squeak and Rattle (BSR) issues are one of the major contributors toward the perceived quality in a vehicle. Traditionally BSR issues have been identified and rectified through extensive hardware testing. In order to reduce the product development cycle and minimize the number of costly hardware builds, however, one must rely on engineering analysis and simulation upfront in the design cycle. In this paper, an analytical and experimental study to identify potential BSR locations in a cockpit assembly is presented. The analytical investigation utilizes a novel and practical methodology, implemented in the software tool Nhance.BSR, for identification and ranking of potential BSR issues. The emphasis here is to evaluate the software for the BSR predictions and the identification of modeling issues, rather than to evaluate the cockpit design itself for BSR issues.
Technical Paper

CAE-Based Side Curtain Airbag Design

2004-03-08
2004-01-0841
Since its invention in early 1990s, the side curtain airbag has become an important part of the occupant restraint system for side impact and rollover protection. Computer Aided Engineering (CAE) is often used to help side curtain airbag design. Because of the unique characteristics of side curtain airbag systems, the simulation of side curtain airbag systems faces different challenges in comparison to the simulation of driver and passenger airbag systems. The typical side curtain airbag CAE analysis includes, but is not limited to, cushion volume evaluation, cushion coverage review, cushion shrinkage and tension force review, deployment timing review and seam shape and location review. The commonly used uniform pressure airbag models serve the purpose in most cases.
Technical Paper

Survey of Front Passenger Posture Usage in Passenger Vehicles

2004-03-08
2004-01-0845
In 2002, NHTSA statistics indicate air bag deployments saved an estimated 1,500 lives; however, reports of occupants having serious or fatal injuries during air bag deployment appear low relative to the number of accidents with air bag deployments. To avoid air bag induced injuries, a variety of occupant sensing technologies are being developed. One of the critical logic deployment challenges faced by these technologies is whether the system can accurately determine if the occupant is in a posture or a position such that air bag deployment may result in an injury. To improve accuracy, it is necessary to understand what postures the occupants are likely to assume during a ride and how often. For this purpose, Delphi Corporation has conducted a survey to solicit opinions on the posture usage rate. With 560 responses, the frequencies for 29 sitting postures for adult passengers and 13 child postures or positions were estimated.
Technical Paper

Evaluation and Comparison of CFD Integrated Airbag Models in LS-DYNA, MADYMO and PAM-CRASH

2004-03-08
2004-01-1627
The interaction between the deploying airbag and the Out-Of-Position (OOP) occupants remains a challenge in occupant protection system simulations. The integration of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis into Finite Element (FE) airbag model is a helpful and important tool to address this challenge. Three major commercial crash simulation software packages widely used in the automotive safety industry, LS-DYNA, MADYMO and PAM-CRASH are in the process of implementing different approaches for airbag CFD simulation. In this study, an attempt was made to evaluate and compare the CFD integrated airbag models in these software packages. Specially designed tests were conducted to study and capture the pressure distribution inside a flat airbag and the test results were used for the evaluation. Strengths and limitations of each software package are discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Physical and Virtual Prototyping of Magnesium Instrument Panel Structures

2005-04-11
2005-01-0726
This paper reviews the current strategies for physical prototyping of Magnesium instrument panel (I/P) structures. Bottlenecks in the traditional physical prototype based product development process are discussed. As demand for fast-to-market and cost-reduction mounts, virtual prototyping becomes increasingly important in meeting the timing and performance goals. A virtual prototyping methodology is presented in this paper to enable high performance Magnesium I/P structures in Safety, NVH, and initial part quality aspects. Examples of Finite Element Analysis (FEA) results and correlations are included.
Technical Paper

Dual Depth Passenger Air Bag

2005-04-11
2005-01-1226
A dual depth passenger air bag technology has been developed which provides two different deployed cushion shapes coupled with two inflation levels, but only uses two initiators, one for a single level inflator and one for a dual depth mechanism. The developed dual depth air bag module design utilizes a seat position switch to help determine deployed output. The module deploys a shallow cushion depth for occupants in the forward portion of seat track travel and a deep cushion depth for occupants in the rearward portion of seat track travel. The mechanism controls the release of an air bag cushion tether and also enables the inflator to vent a portion of gas through the module housing. This paper summarizes the development effort including initial sled and out-of-position testing. The final design was found to be a useful tool when balancing in-position restraint performance between otherwise competing in-position test conditions.
Technical Paper

CFRM Concept at Vehicle Idle Conditions

2003-03-03
2003-01-0613
The concept of condenser, fan, and radiator power train cooling module (CFRM) was further evaluated via three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies in the present paper for vehicle at idle conditions. The analysis shows that the CFRM configuration was more prone to the problem of front-end air re-circulation as compared with the conventional condenser, radiator, and fan power train cooling module (CRFM). The enhanced front-end air re-circulation leads to a higher air temperature passing through the condenser. The higher air temperature, left unimproved, could render the vehicle air conditioning (AC) unit ineffective. The analysis also shows that the front-end air re-circulation can be reduced with an added sealing between the CFRM package and the front of the vehicle, making the CFRM package acceptable at the vehicle idle conditions.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Design Considerations for EHB Systems

2003-03-03
2003-01-0324
Brake performance can be divided into two distinct classes: base brake performance and controlled brake performance. A base brake event can be described as a normal or typical stop in which the driver maintains the vehicle in its intended direction at a controlled deceleration level that does not closely approach wheel lock. All other braking events where additional intervention may be necessary, such as wheel brake pressure control to prevent lock-up, application of a wheel brake to transfer torque across an open differential, or application of an induced torque to one or two selected wheels to correct an under- or oversteering condition, may be classified as controlled brake performance. Statistics from the field indicate the majority of braking events stem from base brake applications and as such can be classified as the single most important function.
Technical Paper

Mixed-H2/H∞ Suspension Control Synthesis for Ride & Handling Enhancement

2005-05-16
2005-01-2547
Active/semi-active suspension control of a passenger vehicle is a classic problem involving multiple-objectives, all of which cannot be simultaneously achieved without compromises between ride and handling performance. Traditionally, suspension control tuning has been a subjective process that involves tuning of hundreds of parameters. This paper attempts to add some level of objectivity to the tuning philosophy by posing the ride/handling trade-off as a multi-constrained, multi-objective optimization problem and solving it using a mixed-H2/H∞ control synthesis technique to obtain a pareto-optimal solution. The multi-variable constrained optimization problem involves minimization of body control metrics subject to constraints defined by wheel-control metrics (a measure of road-holding capability). Simulation as well as road-test results clearly demonstrate the effectiveness and impact the proposed control strategy has on improving ride and handling performance.
Journal Article

Analysis of Pre-Crash Data Transferred over the Serial Data Bus and Utilized by the SDM-DS Module

2011-04-12
2011-01-0809
The primary function of an airbag control module is to detect crashes, discriminate and predict if a deployment is necessary, then deploy the restraint systems including airbags and where applicable, pretensioners. At General Motors (GM), the internal term for airbag control module is Sensing and Diagnostic Module (SDM). In the 1994 model year, GM introduced its SDM on some of its North American airbag-equipped vehicles. A secondary function of that SDM and all subsequent SDMs is to record crash related data. This data can include data regarding impact severity from internal accelerometers and pre-crash vehicle data from various chassis and powertrain modules. Previous researchers have addressed the accuracy of both the velocity change data, recorded by the SDM, and the pre-crash data, but the assessment of the timing of the pre-crash data has been limited to a single family of modules (Delphi SDM-G).
Technical Paper

The Auto-Generation of Calibration Guides from MATLAB® Simulink®

2019-03-19
2019-01-1332
With the inception of model-based design and automatic code generation, many organizations are developing controls and diagnostics algorithms in model-based development tools to meet customer and regulatory requirements. Advances in model-based design have made it easier to generate C code from models and help software engineers streamline their workflow. Typically, after the software has been developed, the models are handed over to a calibration team responsible for calibrating the features to meet specified customer and regulatory requirements. However, once the models are handed over to the calibration team, the calibration engineers are unaware of how to calibrate the features because documentation is not available. Typically, model documentation trails behind the software process because it is created manually, most of this time is spent on formatting. As a result, lack of model documentation or up-to date documentation causes a lot of pain for OEM’s and Tier 1 suppliers.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Pressure Control System Development for an Automatic Transmission

2009-04-20
2009-01-0951
This paper presents the development of a transmission closed loop pressure control system. The objective of this system is to improve transmission pressure control accuracy by employing closed-loop technology. The control system design includes both feed forward and feedback control. The feed forward control algorithm continuously learns solenoid P-I characteristics. The closed loop feedback control has a conventional PID control with multi-level gain selections for each control channel, as well as different operating points. To further improve the system performance, Robust Optimization is carried out to determine the optimal set of control parameters and controller hardware design factors. The optimized design is verified via an L18 experiment on spin dynamometer. The design is also tested on vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Closed-Loop Drive-train Model for HIL Test Bench

2009-04-20
2009-01-1139
This paper presents a hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) test bench for the validation of production transmission controls software, with a focus on a closed-loop vehicle drive-train model incorporating a detailed automatic transmission plant dynamics model developed for certain applications. Specifically, this paper presents the closed-loop integration of a 6-speed automatic transmission model developed for our HIL transmission controller and algorithm test bench (Opal-RT TestDrive based). The model validation, integration and its application in an HIL test environment are described in details.
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