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Technical Paper

Fatigue Analysis for Axle Differential Cases

2006-04-03
2006-01-0779
The recent trends of increasing driveline torque and use of traction control devices call for increasingly higher durability capacity from driveline components. Bench and vehicle durability tests are often used to validate designs, but they are not cost-effective and take months to complete. Traditional finite element analysis (FEA) procedures have been used effectively in the re-design of driveline components to reduce stress, and occasionally, to predict fatigue life. But in the case of certain rotating components, such as the Axle Differential Case, where the component sees large stress/strain fluctuations within the course of one complete rotation, even under constant input torque, historical fatigue analysis (when conducted) yields very conservative results. The axle differential case tends to be one of the weakest links in the rear axle assembly. Therefore, there is a crucial need for analytical methods to more accurately predict fatigue life to reduce testing time and cost.
Technical Paper

A Front Rail Design for Efficient Crush Energy Absorption

1995-10-31
1995-20-0016
Although there was a safety awareness from the earliest days of the automobile, systematic approaches to designing for safety became more widespread after 1950 when large numbers of vehicles came into use in both the United States and Europe, and governments in both continents undertook a widespread highway development. Industry response to safety objectives and also to government regulation has produced a large number of safety enhancing engineering developments, including radial tires, disc brakes, anti-lock brakes, improved vehicle lighting systems, better highway sign support poles, padded instrument panels, better windshield retention systems, collapsible hood structures, accident sensitive fuel pump shut-off valves, and other items. A significant development was the design of the energy absorbing front structures.
Technical Paper

Effect of Polyurethane Foam on the Energy Management of Structural Components

2000-03-06
2000-01-0052
The effect of polyurethane structural foam on strength, stiffness, and energy absorption of foam filled structural components is investigated to formulate design directions that may be used in weight reduction and engineering functions of vehicle systems. An experimental/testing approach is first utilized using Taguchi’s DOE to identify design variables [foam density, gage, and material type], that are needed to determine the weight/performance ratio of structural hat-section components. An analytical CAE approach is then used to analyze the hat-section components using non-linear, large deformation finite element analysis. An accepted level of confidence in the CAE analytical tools is then established based on comparison of results between the two approaches.
Technical Paper

System Simulation and Analysis of EPA 5-Cycle Fuel Economy for Powersplit Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-1456
To better reflect real world driving conditions, the EPA 5-Cycle Fuel Economy method encompasses high vehicle speeds, aggressive vehicle accelerations, climate control system use and cold temperature conditions in addition to the previously used standard City and Highway drive cycles in the estimation of vehicle fuel economy. A standard Powersplit Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) system simulation environment has long been established and widely used within Ford to project fuel economy for the standard EPA City and Highway cycles. Direct modeling and simulation of the complete 5-Cycle fuel economy test set for HEV's presents significant new challenges especially with respect to modeling vehicle thermal management system and interactions with HEV features and system controls. It also requires a structured, systematic approach to validate the key elements of the system models and complete vehicle system simulations.
Technical Paper

Engine Control Unit Modeling with Engine Feature C Code for HEV Applications

2013-04-08
2013-01-1451
Engine control unit (ECU) modeling using engine feature C code is an increasingly important part of new vehicle analysis and development tools. The application areas of feature based ECU models are numerous: a) cold vehicle fuel economy (FE) prediction required for recently introduced 5-cycle certification; b) vehicle thermal modeling; c) evaporative (purge) systems design; d) model-in-the-loop/software-in-the-loop (MIL/SIL) vehicle control development and calibration. The modeling method presented in the paper embeds production C-code directly into Simulink at a feature level using an S-Function wrapper. A collection of features critical to accurate engine behavior prediction are compiled individually and integrated according to the newly developed Engine Control Model Architecture (ECMA). Custom MATLAB script based tools enable efficient model construction.
Technical Paper

Implementation of ABS System on an Existing Heavy Trucks Line-up in Accordance to Brazilian Resolution No. 312/09 (CONTRAN)

2012-10-02
2012-36-0466
The automotive industry has been increasingly researching and working on improving vehicle and passenger safety over the years. Following countries such as the United States and European Union, the Brazilian government has been publishing many resolutions with the objective of improving the safety of their fleet. With the publication of resolution 312 from CONTRAN (National Traffic Counsel), on April 3rd, 2009, the installation of ABS (Anti-lock Brake System) feature has become mandatory for all car and truck models to be sold in Brazil, following a staggered implementation starting on January 1st, 2010. The ABS system adds to the vehicle's current brake system, not allowing the wheels to lock during braking, which helps preserve the vehicle's stability and improve its safety, thus avoiding accidents. The technology, which is already available in a few car models, is not yet developed for the heavy trucks applications in this market.
Technical Paper

Methodology for Developing and Validating Air Brake Tubes for Commercial Vehicles

2012-10-02
2012-36-0272
The pneumatic air brake system for heavy commercial trucks is composed by a large number of components, aiming its proper work and compliance with rigorous criteria of vehicular safety. One of those components, present along the whole vehicle, is the air brake tube, ducts which feed valves and reservoirs with compressed air, carrying signals for acting or releasing the brake system. In 2011, due to a lack of butadiene in a global scale, the manufacturing of these tubes was compromised; as this is an important raw material present on the polymer used so far, PA12. This article introduces the methodology of selecting, developing and validating in vehicle an alternative polymer for this application. For this purpose, acceptance criteria have been established through global material specifications, as well as bench tests and vehicular validation requirements.
Technical Paper

Limitations of Sector Mesh Geometry and Initial Conditions to Model Flow and Mixture Formation in Direct-Injection Diesel Engines

2019-04-02
2019-01-0204
Sector mesh modeling is the dominant computational approach for combustion system design optimization. The aim of this work is to quantify the errors descending from the sector mesh approach through three geometric modeling approaches to an optical diesel engine. A full engine geometry mesh is created, including valves and intake and exhaust ports and runners, and a full-cycle flow simulation is performed until fired TDC. Next, an axisymmetric sector cylinder mesh is initialized with homogeneous bulk in-cylinder initial conditions initialized from the full-cycle simulation. Finally, a 360-degree azimuthal mesh of the cylinder is initialized with flow and thermodynamics fields at IVC mapped from the full engine geometry using a conservative interpolation approach. A study of the in-cylinder flow features until TDC showed that the geometric features on the cylinder head (valve tilt and protrusion into the combustion chamber, valve recesses) have a large impact on flow complexity.
Technical Paper

Pneumatic and Sonic Measurement of Combustion-Chamber Volume

1956-01-01
560008
AMONG the difficulties usually associated with measurement of combustion-chamber volume by liquid methods are amount of time required, contamination of combustion-chamber deposits, and inaccuracies arising from entrapped air. Use of a gaseous fluid such as air as the measuring medium eliminates most of the objectionable features of volume measurement with liquids. Techniques utilizing air for volume measurement fall into two basic classifications: dynamic or sonic methods, and static or pneumatic systems. Cylinder leakage and acoustic damping by engine deposits affect the accuracy of volume measurements based on dynamic properties of combustion-chamber volume, hence small volumes occupied by combustion-chamber carbon deposits must be measured separately by static or pneumatic means.
Technical Paper

3-D Numerical Study of Fluid Flow and Pressure Loss Characteristics through a DPF with Asymmetrical Channel size

2011-04-12
2011-01-0818
The main objective of the current paper was to investigate the fluid flow and pressure loss characteristics of DPF substrates with asymmetric channels utilizing 3-D Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) methods. The ratio of inlet to outlet channel width is 1.2. First, CFD results of velocity and static pressure distributions inside the inlet and outlet channels are discussed for the baseline case with both forward and reversed exhaust flow. Results were also compared with the regular DPF of same cell structure and wall material properties. It was found that asymmetrical channel design has higher pressure loss. The lowest pressure loss was found for the asymmetrical channel design with smaller inlet channels. Then, the effects of DPF length and filter wall permeability on pressure loss, flow and pressure distributions were investigated.
Technical Paper

The Future of the FREE-PISTON ENGINE in Commercial Vehicles

1958-01-01
580032
THIS paper describes the development and utilization of a new Ford free-piston power-plant, the model 519. Mr. Noren traces the development of the engine from the initial idea to the point where commercial utilization could be considered. Mr. Erwin describes one commercial use: in the Typhoon tractor. The ratio of size and weight to horsepower is favorable for farm tractors, being smaller and lighter than equivalent diesel engines. The performance of the tractor has been satisfactory thus far, operating smoothly and being practically vibration-free, with little noise. The advantages of the free-piston gasifier, as reported by the authors, are: flexibility, fuel economy, no need for auxiliary starting engine, economical manufacture of a wide range of engine sizes, adaptability to a wide range of fuels, and good torque characteristics.
Technical Paper

Design and Analysis of Starter-Alternator Installation in a Hybrid-Electric Vehicle

1999-03-01
1999-01-0917
The idea of using a single electrical machine for both starting the engine and generating electrical power is not new. However, the real benefits, that justify the higher cost of a combined starter-alternator, become apparent when it is used as part of a hybrid powerplant. This powerplant allows a substantial improvement in fuel economy by a variety of methods (i.e. the engine shut-down during deceleration and idle, regenerative braking, etc.), as well as enhancements to engine performance, emissions, and vehicle driveability. This paper describes the analysis of the structure supporting the starter-alternator on the end of the engine crankshaft (Figure 1). It deals with the requirement to maintain a small radial gap between the rotor and stator, and it discusses how the rotor affects the loading on the crankshaft. In addition, thermal deformations of the rotor/clutch assembly are analyzed with three light-weight materials.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Exhaust Particle Size Distributions: A Comparison of Tailpipe and Dilution Tunnel Measurements

1999-05-03
1999-01-1461
This paper explores the extent to which standard dilution tunnel measurements of motor vehicle exhaust particulate matter modify particle number and size. Steady state size distributions made directly at the tailpipe, using an ejector pump, are compared to dilution tunnel measurements for three configurations of transfer hose used to transport exhaust from the vehicle tailpipe to the dilution tunnel. For gasoline vehicles run at a steady 50 - 70 mph, ejector pump and dilution tunnel measurements give consistent results of particle size and number when using an uninsulated stainless steel transfer hose. Both methods show particles in the 10 - 100 nm range at tailpipe concentrations of the order of 104 particles/cm3.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study of CD Variation With Aspect Ratio

1999-03-01
1999-01-0649
There is little information in the technical literature about the dependence of drag coefficient, CD, on aspect ratio (height/width) for car and truck aerodynamics. Some of the information suggests that CD should increase with aspect ratio as the flow over the body becomes more two dimensional. Recent tests of candidate shapes for a commercial van with various roof heights suggested the opposite is true; the taller vans had lower drag coefficients. This report discusses the results of several experimental investigations to examine this relationship. Scale model and production drag measurements of commercial vans are presented along with drag measurements of simple shapes. The shapes consisted of eight radiused rectangular boxes of constant length and frontal area, but with different height/width ratios. The effects of underbody roughness and bumper presence were evaluated and are discussed.
Technical Paper

Effects of Diesel Fuel Sulfur Level on Performance of a Continuously Regenerating Diesel Particulate Filter and a Catalyzed Particulate Filter

2000-06-19
2000-01-1876
This paper reports the test results from the DPF (diesel particulate filter) portion of the DECSE (Diesel Emission Control - Sulfur Effects) Phase 1 test program. The DECSE program is a joint government and industry program to study the impact of diesel fuel sulfur level on aftertreatment devices. A systematic investigation was conducted to study the effects of diesel fuel sulfur level on (1) the emissions performance and (2) the regeneration behavior of a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter and a catalyzed diesel particulate filter. The tests were conducted on a Caterpillar 3126 engine with nominal fuel sulfur levels of 3 parts per million (ppm), 30 ppm, 150 ppm and 350 ppm.
Technical Paper

An Algorithm to Compensate for Air Charge Prediction Errors

2000-03-06
2000-01-0258
Various methods are available to predict future cylinder air charge for improved air/fuel control. However, there can never be perfect prediction. This paper presents an algorithm to correct for imperfect cylinder charge prediction. This is done by expanding the air/fuel control boundary to include the catalyst, and correcting prediction errors as soon as possible using small corrective changes to later cylinder fuel inputs. The method was experimentally tested and showed improved air/fuel control as indicated by reduced variability of catalyst downstream air/fuel ratio. Additional vehicle testing showed potential to further reduce emissions.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Modeling of Bolt Load Retention of Die-Cast Magnesium

2000-03-06
2000-01-1121
The use of die cast magnesium for automobile transmission cases offers promise for reducing weight and improving fuel economy. However, the inferior creep resistance of magnesium alloys at high temperature is of concern since transmission cases are typically assembled and joined by pre-loaded bolts. The stress relaxation of the material could thus adversely impact the sealing of the joint. One means of assessing the structural integrity of magnesium transmission cases is modeling the bolted joint, the topic of this paper. The commercial finite element code, ABAQUS, was used to simulate a well characterized bolt joint sample. The geometry was simulated with axi-symmetric elements with the exact geometry of a M10 screw. Frictional contact between the male and female parts is modeled by using interface elements. Material creep is described by a time hardening power law whose parameters are fit to experimental creep test data.
Technical Paper

Lean NOx Trap Desulfation Through Rapid Air Fuel Modulation

2000-03-06
2000-01-1200
A novel method of desulfating lean NOx traps has been developed. Rapid, large amplitude modulation of the air to fuel ratio creates an exotherm of approximately 300°C in the LNT. AFR modulation results in oxidant and reductant breakthough in a three-way catalyst mounted upstream of the LNT. During lean modulation, oxygen is stored in the LNT. During rich modulation, the reductant reacts catalytically with the stored oxygen in the LNT, generating a substantial exotherm. Rich and lean AFR events are selected commensurate with the number of cylinders in the engine, resulting in each cylinder having exactly the same AFR history. This permits a deterministic programming of spark advance and precise coordination of spark advance with the transient fueling effect. The spark advance is retarded for the rich events and increases stepwise for groups of lean events. This strategy results in minimal disturbances in the engine imep.
Technical Paper

Customer Fuel Consumption – The Vehicle Data Bus as Real–World Information Source

2000-03-06
2000-01-1337
Road to rig problems exist as long as vehicles are being tested. Many approaches and methods exist to produce test cycles for rigs or test tracks, in order to produce viable results for the generation of statements concerning such crucial aspects as durability and fuel consumption. Modern model strategies again demand shorter–than–ever development periods, whilst meeting better–than–ever the needs and demands of special target groups. Therefore, the testing methods must also be refined, in order to gain a closer correlation to the customer's vehicle deployment. The approach introduced here makes use of real–world customer data for obtaining a closer look at how the vehicle is used by different customer groups, in different countries. The data is collected by small and unobtrusive dataloggers installed in customer vehicles. As these customers are using their own vehicles in everyday life, being unaware of the acquisition process, a database of real customer usage is generated.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Turbocharger Power Assist System Using Optimal Control Techniques

2000-03-06
2000-01-0519
In the paper we employ numerical optimal control techniques to define the best transient operating strategy for a turbocharger power assist system (TPAS). A TPAS is any device capable of bi-directional energy transfer to the turbocharger shaft and energy storage. When applied to turbocharged diesel engines, the TPAS results in significant reduction of the turbo-lag. The optimum transient strategy is capable of improving the vehicle acceleration performance with no deterioration in smoke emissions. These benefits can be attained even if the net energy contribution by the TPAS during the acceleration interval is zero, i.e., all energy is re-generated and returned back to the energy storage by the end of the acceleration interval. At the same time the total fuel consumption during the acceleration interval may be reduced.
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