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Technical Paper

A Review of the Effect of Engine Operating Conditions on Borderline Knock

1996-02-01
960497
The effects of engine operating conditions on the octane requirement and the resulting knock-limited output were studied on a single cylinder engine using production cylinder heads. A 4-valve cylinder head with port deactivation was used to study the effect of fuel octane, inlet air temperature, coolant temperature, air/fuel ratio, compression ratio and exhaust back pressure. The effect of the thermal environment was studied in more detail using separate cooling systems for the cylinder head and engine block on a 2-valve cylinder head. The results of this study compared closely with results found in the literature even though the engine and/or operating conditions were quite different in many cases.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fuelling System to Reduce Cold-Start Hydrocarbon Emissions in an SI Engine

1996-05-01
961119
An air-assisted fuel vaporiser (AAFV), designed to replace the conventional fuelling system has been tested on a 3.0-litre development engine under simulated cold-Start conditions. Providing the cold engine with pre-vaporised fuel removed the need for an enriched mixture during start-up. Comparisons between the AAFV and standard fuelling systems were performed. Engine-out hydrocarbon (HC) exhaust emissions were measured during cold-start and the ensuing two minutes. Fuel spray characterisation was also conducted using a steady flow test rig designed to mimic inlet port conditions of air flow and manifold pressure over a wide range of engine operation.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Engine Main Bearing Excitation by Application of Cranktrain Modelling and Optimization Methods

1996-02-01
960985
The study presented in this paper is concerned with the application of a finite element based technique to deal with crankshaft-crankcase interaction. A finite element model of the crankshaft and the crankcase was developed and appropriately reduced. This model was used for a crankshaft optimization, strategy to analyse related effects on the NVH performance with focus on main bearing acceleration. The crankshaft and the cylinder block were modelled using beam and shell elements with structural and dynamic properties correlated up to 1600 Hz. The interaction between crankshaft and the cylinder block was represented by using non-linear properties. Applying this model, the dynamic crankshaft and engine block behaviour and repercussion on NVH performance was analysed by investigating main bearing acceleration.
Technical Paper

Development of the Ford QVM CNG Bi-Fuel 4.9L F-Series Pickup Truck

1996-02-01
960850
A bi-fuel (Compressed Natural Gas [CNG] and gasoline) pickup truck has been developed using the Ford Alternative Fuel Qualified Vehicle Modifier (QVM) process. The base vehicle's 4.9L engine has been specially modified for improved durability on gaseous fuels. The base vehicle's configuration has been designed for conversion to bi-fuel CNG operation. A complete CNG fuel system has been designed and qualified, including fuel tanks, fuel system, and electrical interface. The completed vehicle has been safety and emission certified, demonstrating CARB Low Emission Vehicle (LEV) emissions in MY95. This paper details the design objectives, development process, CNG components, and integration of the two fuel systems.
Technical Paper

An Investigation to Determine the Exhaust Particulate Size Distributions for Diesel, Petrol, and Compressed Natural Gas Fuelled Vehicles

1996-05-01
961085
In this paper, we present the results of a series of experiments to determine the exhaust particulate size distributions from a number of diesel, gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG) fuelled vehicles. The results show that all three types of vehicle produce significant populations of particulates under certain operating conditions. Particulates produced by gasoline and CNG engines tend to be smaller than for diesel engines. At low loads, there is a significant particulate distribution for diesel engines but much lower particulate numbers for both gasoline and CNG vehicles. Under these conditions, the gasoline particulate distribution has little structure but the CNG distribution is clearly bimodal. At higher loads, the number of particulates produced by diesel vehicles increases by an order of magnitude from idle and both the CNG and gasoline distributions are comparable in peak height. The diesel vehicle produces a much larger particulate volume than gasoline or CNG.
Technical Paper

Testing to Ensure the Achievement of Corporate Goals for Customer Satisfaction

1996-05-01
961276
A process for creating a Customer Correlated, Accelerated, Life Test is presented. This process, which results in a model for predicting reliability, has been applied to a cold weather piston scuff problem. In this paper, the authors will discuss development of frequency distributions for customer environmental and operational use, establishment of customer based failure criteria, development of an accelerated test based on degradation, selection of testing strategies, data analyses, and measurement techniques.
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