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Technical Paper

Advancements in RRIM Fascia Application Provide Cost Competitiveness While Meeting Performance Requirements

1997-02-24
970482
The commercial validation of a optimized RRIM polyurethane substrate with a novel barrier coat for fascia applications is reviewed which creates cost competitiveness to thermoplastic olefins (TPO), without sacrificing performance. Meeting fascia performance requirements with thinner and lighter RRIM materials containing recyclate and the subsequent application of a barrier coat eliminating the traditional primecoat cycle was investigated.
Technical Paper

Adhesive Bonding Performance of GA Coated 590 MPa Tensile Strength Steels

2011-04-12
2011-01-1052
Advanced high strength steels (AHSS) are becoming major enablers for vehicle light weighting in the automotive industry. Crash resistant and fracture-toughened structural adhesives have shown potential to improve vehicle stiffness, noise, vibration, and harshness (NVH), and crashworthiness. They provide weight reduction opportunity while maintaining crash performance or weight increase avoidance while meeting the increasing crash requirement. Unfortunately, the adhesive bonding of galvanneal (GA)-coated steels has generally yielded adhesive failures with the GA coating peeling from the steel substrate resulting in poor bond strength. A limited study conducted by ArcelorMittal and Dow Automotive in 2008 showed that GA-coated AHSS exhibited cohesive failure, and good bond strength and crash performance. In order to confirm the reliable performance, a project focusing on the consistency of the adhesive bond performance of GA-coated steels of 590 MPa strength level was initiated.
Technical Paper

Adaptive Hydraulic Braking Traction Control for the 2003 Chevrolet Kodiak and GMC TopKick

2002-11-18
2002-01-3116
The development and application of a traction control Kodiak and GMC TopKick are explained. Most traction systems use engine management to enable traction control, while the adaptive braking system can provide traction assist for either gas or Diesel powered vehicles from 14,000 lbs. to 33,000 lbs. GVW. The performance driven criteria that established the design requirements and the development of a new product to meet these objectives are discussed. Both the vehicle manufacturer and the traction controller supplier provided these criteria. The basic ABS and traction control hydraulic schematics will be described as they apply to the vehicles. The results of the development program will be compared to the criteria used to establish the goals, and the benefits of the traction control system will be discussed.
Technical Paper

Adaptation of a Variable Displacement Vane Pump to Engine Lube Oil Applications

2007-04-16
2007-01-1567
Variable valve actuation has become a very popular feature in today's engines. With many of these systems being hydraulically actuated, the engine lubrication system requires enhancement to support their function. To expand the system's operational range with respect to speed and temperature, a traditional solution has been to increase oil pressure by increasing pump displacement. To better optimize the system, a variable displacement vane pump has been adapted to the engine lube oil system. Based on existing transmission pump technology, a pivoting cam ring design is employed that is able to vary the pump's displacement as a function of pump regulating oil pressure which in-turn provides a net reduction in its drive torque. While others have addressed this issue using complex and expensive pressure regulating systems, this passive solution requires no valves or additional hardware.
Technical Paper

Acoustic and Structural Treatment of Body-in-White

2000-12-01
2000-01-3167
Automotive body structures are developed to meet vehicle performance requirements primarily based on ride and handling, crashworthiness, and noise level targets. The body is made of a multitude of sheet metal stampings welded together. Other closures such as fenders, hood, doors and trunk lid are developed to match body interfaces, to contribute and participate in the overall vehicle response, and to meet the sub-system and system structural requirements. In order to improve performance and achieve weight reduction of the overall vehicle steel structure, new polymeric materials and treatment strategies are available to body structural engineers to optimize the response of the vehicle and to tune vehicle performance to meet specified functional requirements. If early integrated to the design cycle, these materials help not only improve the structural body response, but also decrease the weight of the integrated body structure.
Technical Paper

Accelerated Testing of Various Types of Vacuum Fluorescent Displays

1989-02-01
890810
The VFD tests in this report differ from previous tests in that the anode and grid supply voltages, in addition to the filament supply voltage, were simultaneously increased from nominal values. Accelerated tests were conducted at 110%, 125%, and 150% of nominal voltage on VFD's having static and duplex drive with AC-driven filament and static drive with DC-driven Filament. Two methods are used to estimate the time at which 50% degradation occurs in luminance at nominal (100%) voltage. These methods were the inverse power law and regression analysis.
Technical Paper

Absolute Stability of Automotive Idle Speed Control Systems

1996-02-01
960620
This paper describes an absolute stability analysis of idle speed control systems. Current idle speed control systems make use of both spark advance and the idle air actuator to control engine speed for improved response relative to variations in the target idle speed due to load disturbances. The control system at idle can be presented by a multiple input multiple output (MIMO) model [1]. Control system design is usually done based on linear or linearized models [2,3,4]. However idle speed control systems are nonlinear because of the saturation of the actuators. This paper describes an application of the absolute stability theory to idle speed control systems with saturation of actuators.
Technical Paper

AUTOMATIC TRANSMISSION CONTROL SYSTEMS

1947-01-01
470242
THIS description of the hydraulic control used with the hydra-matic transmission reveals how the control operates to change ratios under power without direction from the driver. The control's pattern of automatic shifting for ordinary, high-range driving has been selected as the best compromise between top performance and low ratio of engine noise to wind noise. The control's low range shifts gears according to performance dictates alone, furnishing greater power for extreme conditions at low speeds and enabling the driver to use his engine as a brake on steep descents. Heart of the control system is a double hydraulic governor, sensitive both to car speed and throttle opening. THIS paper, as well as the two that follow, one by Messrs. Nutt and Smirl and the other by Mr. Kimberly, make up a symposium on automatic transmission components presented at the 1947 SAE Summer Meeting.
Technical Paper

AUTOIGNITION associated with HOT STARTING

1958-01-01
580020
USING a high-speed motion picture camera, flame photographs were taken of the combustion process associated with the starting of hot gasoline engines. Compression ignition at isolated points followed by normal combustion caused peak cylinder pressures to occur prior to top dead-center under some low-speed engine conditions. In addition, an abnormal combustion phenomenon was observed in the last part of the charge to burn. The reaction rate was appreciably faster than normal for the engine speed and much slower than is usually observed in knocking combustion at normal engine speeds.
Technical Paper

A Sampling System for the Measurement of PreCatalyst Emissions from Vehicles Operating Under Transient Conditions

1993-03-01
930141
A proportional sampler for vehicle feedgas and tailpipe emissions has been developed that extracts a small, constant fraction of the total exhaust flow during rapid transient changes in engine speed. Heated sampling lines are used to extract samples either before or after the catalytic converter. Instantaneous exhaust mass flow is measured by subtracting the CVS dilution air volume from the total CVS volume. This parameter is used to maintain a constant dilution ratio and proportional sample. The exhaust sample is diluted with high-purity air or nitrogen and is delivered into Tedlar sample bags. These transient test cycle weighted feedgas samples can be collected for subsequent analysis of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbon species. This “mini-diluter” offers significant advantages over the conventional CVS system. The concentration of the samples are higher than those collected from the current CVS system because the dilution ratio can be optimized depending on the fuel.
Technical Paper

A Requirements Driven Design Methodology for a Vehicle Brake System

1993-03-01
930800
Defining or sizing the basic components in a vehicle brake system is done to satisfy specific requirements such as vehicle stopping distance, pedal travel and effort; braking efficiency as well as thermal considerations, cost, and packaging. This paper presents a flow-down method for computing brake system design parameters directly from those requirements. Relationships are also developed that enable the designer to understand trade-offs between requirements and system parameters.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Process for Spring Failure Rates in Automotive Parts Applications

1991-02-01
910356
This paper discusses an analytical technique for computing the failure rate of steel springs used in automotive part applications. Preliminary computations may be performed and used to predict spring failure rates quickly at a very early stage of a product development cycle and to establish program reliability impact before commitment. The analytical method is essentially a combination of various existing procedures that are logically sequenced to compute a spring probability of failure under various operational conditions. Fatigue life of a mechanical component can be computed from its S-N curve. For steels, the S-N curve can be approximated by formulae which describe the fatigue life as a function of its endurance limit and its alternating stress. Most springs in service are preloaded and the actual stress fluctuates about a mean level. In order to compute an equivalent alternating stress with zero mean, an analytical method based on the Goodman Diagram is used.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Design Methodology for Active Top Pads During Airbag Deployment

1999-03-01
1999-01-0688
Using a combination of engineering test experience, explicit finite-element analysis, and advanced materials characterization, a predictive engineering method has been developed that can assist in the development of active top pads. An active top pad is the component of the instrument panel that covers the passenger airbag module and articulates during a crash event, allowing the airbag to deploy. This paper highlights the predictive analysis method, analytical results interpretation, and suggestions for future development.
Technical Paper

A Plan for Progress: The SAE Strategic Plan and Strategic Planning Process

1990-04-01
900930
While long-range planning is important to any organization, because of the constant turnover of volunteer leaders, a long-range strategic plan is crucial for maintaining continuity in a non-profit organization. SAE's strategic planning process resulted in a plan, evaluated and revised annually, which outlines the purpose, missions, and goals of the Society and describes action plans and steps necessary to achieve those goals. SAE's exceptional growth in all areas during the last ten years-for example, membership has grown from 37,000 in 1980 to 58,000 today-is evidence of the success of the process and the plan.
Technical Paper

A Parametric Approach for Rapid Design and Analysis of Automotive HVAC Defrost Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-0584
The overall vision of this project was to develop a new technology that will be an enabler to reduce design and development time of HVAC systems by an order of magnitude. The objective initially was to develop a parametric model of an automotive HVAC Windshield Defrost Duct coupled to a passenger compartment. It can be used early on in the design cycle for conducting coarse packaging studies by quickly exploring “what-if” design alternatives. In addition to the packaging studies, performance of these design scenarios can be quickly studied by undertaking CFD simulation and analyzing flow distribution and windshield melting patterns. The validated geometry and CFD models can also be used as knowledge building tools to create knowledge data warehouses or repositories for precious lessons learned.
Technical Paper

A New 1:1 Low MDI Acoustical Foam System for Cavity Sealing Applications

2005-05-16
2005-01-2276
The well-known hazards of diphenylmethane diisocyanate (MDI) have resulted in the development of foams with low MDI emissions for use in vehicle body cavities. While low MDI acoustic foams have been successfully launched in the automotive market, non-standard dispense equipment has been required. The latest low MDI acoustic foam development is dispensed via standard meter mix equipment, at the volumetric ratio of 1:1, enabling capital reduction for ventilation and application processing. This paper describes the benefits associated with using a 1:1 low MDI foam system. Industrial hygien testing and qualification of this system as low MDI are reviewed. Acoustical performance testing including insertion loss and sound absorption are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Five-Speed Starting Clutch Automatic Transmission Vehicle

2003-03-03
2003-01-0248
A wet multi-plate clutch, designated as the “starting clutch”, is used to replace the torque converter in the automatic transmission in order to improve vehicle fuel economy. The transmission ratio spread must be increased to compensate for the torque multiplication of the torque converter and avoid penalizing the 0-60 mph acceleration performance. The main challenge of this concept is the control of the starting clutch to ensure acceptable vehicle drivability. This paper describes the system of a five-speed starting clutch automatic transmission vehicle and shows vehicle test results. Vehicle test data show that (i) the fuel economy benefit of the starting clutch is significant, and (ii) a starting clutch transmission can be designed to equal or better the 0-60 mph acceleration performance of a torque converter transmission by proper selection of the gear ratios.
Technical Paper

A Connectorized Passive Optical Star for Automotive Networking Applications

1994-03-01
940798
This paper introduces for the first time a fully connectorized passive optical star for use with plastic optical fiber that addresses all automotive application requirements. A unique mixing element is presented that offers linear expandability, uniformity of insertion loss, and packaging flexibility. The star is constructed of all plastic molded components to make it low cost and produceable in high volume and is single-ended to facilitate vehicle integration. The star is connectorized to facilitate assembly into the vehicle power and signal distribution system.
Technical Paper

A Bursting Failure Criterion for Tube Hydroforming

2002-03-04
2002-01-0794
Fundamental differences exist between sheet metal forming and hydroforming processes. Sheet metal forming is basically a one step metal fabrication process. Almost all plastic deformation of an originally flat blank is introduced when the punch is moved normal to a clamped sheet metal. Hydroforming, however, consists of multiple steps of tube making, pre-bending, crushing, pressurization, etc. Each of the above mentioned steps can introduce permanent plastic deformations. The forming limit diagram obtained for sheet metal forming may or may not be used in hydroforming evaluations. A failure criterion is proposed for predicting bursting failures in tube hydroforming. The tube material's stress-strain curve, obtainable from uniaxial tensile test and subjected to some postulations under large stress/strain states, is used in judging the failure.
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