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Technical Paper

Investigation of Fluid Flow Through a Vane Pump Flow Control Valve

1995-04-01
951113
The recent development of a new vane-type pump for power steering applications involved paying special attention to the fluid flow dynamics within the pump casing, especially in the flow control or supercharge region, where excess pump fluid flow is diverted to the intake region. Durability testing of initial designs revealed the presence of cavitation damage to the pump casing in the supercharging region. Subsequent Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analyses as well as experimental Flow Visualization studies aided in resolving the cavitation-damage problem. The purpose of this paper is to describe the processes used in the CFD analyses and flow visualization studies. A two-dimensional (2D) convergence study was conducted to determine the CFD meshing requirements across the small orifice at the intersection of the flow-control valve and the supercharge port. An iterative procedure was employed to determine the operating position of the flow-control valve.
Technical Paper

A Sampling System for the Measurement of PreCatalyst Emissions from Vehicles Operating Under Transient Conditions

1993-03-01
930141
A proportional sampler for vehicle feedgas and tailpipe emissions has been developed that extracts a small, constant fraction of the total exhaust flow during rapid transient changes in engine speed. Heated sampling lines are used to extract samples either before or after the catalytic converter. Instantaneous exhaust mass flow is measured by subtracting the CVS dilution air volume from the total CVS volume. This parameter is used to maintain a constant dilution ratio and proportional sample. The exhaust sample is diluted with high-purity air or nitrogen and is delivered into Tedlar sample bags. These transient test cycle weighted feedgas samples can be collected for subsequent analysis of hydrocarbons and oxygenated hydrocarbon species. This “mini-diluter” offers significant advantages over the conventional CVS system. The concentration of the samples are higher than those collected from the current CVS system because the dilution ratio can be optimized depending on the fuel.
Technical Paper

Improved Emissions Speciation Methodology for Phase II of the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program - Hydrocarbons and Oxygenates

1993-03-01
930142
Analytical procedures for the speciation of hydrocarbons and oxygenates (ethers, aldehydes, ketones and alcohols) in vehicle evaporative and tailpipe exhaust emissions have been improved for Phase II studies of the Auto/Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP). One gas chromatograph (GC) was used for measurement of C1-C4 species and a second GC for C4-C12 species. Detection limits for this technique are 0.005 ppm C or 0.1 mg/mile exhaust emission level at a chromatographic signal-to-noise ratio of 3/1, a ten-fold improvement over the Phase I technique. The Phase I library was modified to include additional species for a total of 154 species. A 23-component gas standard was used to establish a calibration scale for automated computer identification of species. This method identifies 95±3% of the total hydrocarbon mass measured by GC for a typical exhaust sample. Solid adsorbent cartridges or impingers were used to collect aldehydes and ketones.
Technical Paper

Development of a PEM Fuel Cell System for Vehicular Application

1992-08-01
921541
Allison Gas Turbine Division of General Motors is performing the first phase of a multiphase development project aimed at demonstrating an electric vehicle based on a proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell. This work is sponsored by the Office of Transportation Technologies of the U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) through the DoE's Chicago Field Office (Contract No. DE-AC02-90CH10435). This work complements major efforts under way to produce electric vehicles for reducing pollution in key urban areas. Battery powered vehicles will initially satisfy niche markets where limited range vehicles can meet commuter needs. The PEM fuel cell/battery hybrid using methanol as fuel potentially offers an extremely attractive option to increasing the range, payload, and/or performance of battery powered vehicles.
Technical Paper

General Motors High Performance 4.3L V6 Engine

1992-02-01
920676
FIGURE 1 The 200 HP high performance 4.3L Vortec V6 engine has been developed to satisfy the need for a fuel efficient performance powerplant in the General Motors small truck platforms. Marketing requirements included strong low and mid range torque, relatively high specific power, smoothness and noise comparable to the best competitive six cylinder engines, excellent driveability, and a new technology image. Maintaining the 4.3L engine record of high reliability and customer satisfaction was an absolute requirement. Fuel economy and exhaust emission performance had to meet expected customer and legislated requirements in the mid 1990's.
Technical Paper

Central Port Fuel Injection

1992-02-01
920295
The primary objective of Central Port Fuel Injection is to be a low cost multi-point fuel injection system with the additional attributes of compactness, packaging flexibility, and reliability. Performance of this fuel system closely resembles that of a simultaneous multi-point fuel injection system in flow control, dynamic range, cylinder-to-cylinder distribution, idle quality, transient response, and emissions. The system provides significantly improved performance in the areas of hot fuel handling, cold startability, vacuum and voltage sensitivity and system noise. This performance comes at a significant cost savings and greater packaging and targeting flexibility over a conventional multi-point fuel injection system.
Technical Paper

Running Loss Test Procedure Development

1992-02-01
920322
A running loss test procedure has been developed which integrates a point-source collection method to measure fuel evaporative running loss from vehicles during their operation on the chassis dynamometer. The point-source method is part of a complete running loss test procedure which employs the combination of site-specific collection devices on the vehicle, and a sampling pump with sampling lines. Fugitive fuel vapor is drawn into these collectors which have been matched to characteristics of the vehicle and the test cell. The composite vapor sample is routed to a collection bag through an adaptation of the ordinary constant volume dilution system typically used for vehicle exhaust gas sampling. Analysis of the contents of such bags provides an accurate measure of the mass and species of running loss collected during each of three LA-4* driving cycles. Other running loss sampling methods were considered by the Auto-Oil Air Quality Improvement Research Program (AQIRP or Program).
Technical Paper

Selection and Development of a Particulate Trap System for a Light Duty Diesel Engine

1992-02-01
920142
In order to meet progressively stringent regulations on particulate emission from diesel engines, GM has developed and tested a variety of trap oxidizer systems over the years. A particulate trap system for a light duty diesel engine has been selected and developed based on this experience, with particular emphasis on production feasibility. The system components have been designed and developed in collaboration with potential suppliers, to the extent possible. The technical performance of this system has been demonstrated by successful system durability testing in the test cell and vehicle experience in computer controlled automatic operation mode. Although the system shows promise, its production readiness will require more development and extensive vehicle validation under all operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Correlating Lube Oil Filtration Efficiencies with Engine Wear

1988-10-01
881825
The level of filtration in an engine can have a significant impact on wear rates due to abrasive particles. Tests were conducted to establish a relationship between the level of filtration and abrasive engine wear. Although the tests were run in a laboratory environment, wear was reduced by as much as 70% by going from a 40 micron filter to a 15 micron filter. Testing was performed on a heavy duty diesel engine and later with an automotive gasoline engine. The results from both engines were consistent and showed that the relationship developed can be applied to nearly any internal combustion recipricating engine.
Technical Paper

Viscosity Effects on Engine Wear Under High-Temperature, High-Speed Conditions

1978-02-01
780982
Four multigrade engine oils, containing the same base oil plus SE additive package but VI improvers of differing shear stability, were evaluated in 80 000 km of high-speed, high-temperature vehicle service. Bearing, piston ring and valve guide wear, as well as oil consumption, oil filter plugging and engine cleanliness were all worse for the engines operated on the low-shear stability oils. The wear differences were traced to differences in high-shear-rate viscosity, while the cleanliness, filter plugging and oil consumption differences occurred because of excessive wear or polymer shear degradation. These results suggest that engine oil viscosity should be specified under high-shear-rate conditions.
Technical Paper

Plasma Jet Ignition of Lean Mixtures

1975-02-01
750349
The development of a plasma jet ignition system is described on a 4-cyl, 140 in3 engine. Performance was evaluated on the basis of combustion flame photographs in a single-cylinder engine at 20/1 A/F dynamometer tests on a modified 4-cyl engine, and cold start emissions, fuel economy, and drivability in a vehicle at 19/1 air fuel ratio. In addition to adjustable engine variables such as air-fuel ratio and spark advance, system electrical and mechanical parameters were varied to improve combustion of lean mixtures. As examples, the air-fuel ratio range was 16-22/1, secondary ignition current was varied from 40 to 6000 mA, and plasma jet cavity and electrode geometry were optimized. It is shown that the plasma jet produces on ignition source which penetrates the mixture ahead of the initial flame front and reduces oxides of nitrogen emission, in comparison to a conventional production combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

The Automotive Primary Power Supply System

1974-02-01
741208
This paper describes the major electrical characteristics of the automotive power supply system. It is a compilation of existing data and new information that will be helpful to both the electrical component and electronic assembly designers. Previously available battery/alternator data is organized to be useful to the designer. New dynamic information on battery impedance is displayed along with “cogging” transients, regulation limits and load dump characteristics.
Technical Paper

Fuel Economy Trends and Catalytic Devices

1974-02-01
740594
In 1968, a major oil company cancelled its annual automobile economy run after sponsoring it for 18 consecutive years -presumably due to lack of interest from the public and the press. Almost coincident with that cancellation was the beginning of production automobile exhaust emission control on a national basis and a downward inflection in the historic trend of automobile fuel economy. In contrast, the past year has seen a major revival of interest, by both the public and the press, in fuel economy. In the next few weeks, the nation will be introduced to a new direction in automotive exhaust emission control which will profoundly affect the fuel economy trend. Perhaps equally, or even more important, the next few months are expected to see major national decisions on future automobile emission control which will likely have a significant influence on the direction taken by automobile fuel economy a few years hence.
Technical Paper

Microcomputers in Instrumentation

1974-02-01
741095
Microcomputer technology has added a new dimension to the design of test instrumentation, but the connotations of the name microcomputer have a tendency to build barriers rather than offer solutions to problems. Historically, computers have been treated as systems or identifiable subsystems in instrumentation applications. The implications of complex hardware and mystical programming is often sufficient to direct the user to alternate technologies. In a new light, clear of earlier prejudices, the microcomputer becomes a functional module like other LSI devices. Flexible and economical systems involving logical control, data gathering, and numerical calculations are possible utilizations of these relatively new devices. This paper discusses a facility to assist the designer in development of test instrumentation. Emphasis is placed on use of the microcomputer as an integral part of system design. Test instrument applications are cited.
Technical Paper

Human Volunteer Testing of GM Air Cushions

1972-02-01
720443
From November 1970 through August 1971 an extensive program of static and dynamic air cushion inflation tests utilizing human volunteers was conducted at Holloman Air Force Base, New Mexico, sponsored by the Department of Transportation. Forty-one full cushion deployment static firings were made, with air cushion hardware and seating buck environment designed by General Motors. The static series was followed by 35 dynamic sled firings of human volunteers, beginning at 8.6 g (15.1 mph) and culminating at 21.7 g (31.5 mph). A major objective of both the static and dynamic test series was to identify changes in air-cushion design found necessary to improve its protective capability for human beings. Because of the severity of cushion deployment, one modification was made following the initial static tests: The orifice diameter size of the bag inlet was reduced from 1.0 to 0.6 in to diminish the rapidity of bag inflation. This modification proved effective in the dynamic series.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Exhaust System Geometry on Exhaust Dilution and Odor Intensity

1971-02-01
710219
Diesel exhaust gas dilution and odor intensity were measured in the immediate vicinity of a transit bus equipped with a rear-mounted horizontal exhaust pipe, a rear-mounted vertical exhaust pipe, and a roof-top diffusion system. Exhaust dilution ratios were measured indoors during vehicle idle operation, using propane added to the exhaust gas as a tracer. Exhaust odor intensities were measured also indoors during vehicle idle operation by a human panel, using a threshold odor measurement technique. On the average, the dilution of the exhaust gas around the bus with the vertical exhaust pipe was about eight times greater than it was with the horizontal pipe. Odor intensity, as measured by the threshold response distance, was about 35% less with the vertical pipe than with the horizontal pipe. The roof-top diffuser was not as effective as the vertical exhaust pipe in increasing exhaust gas dilution or in reducing exhaust odor intensity.
Technical Paper

Studying Valve Dynamics with Electronic Computers

1962-01-01
620289
Dynamic conditions of automotive type valve trains have been investigated by means of digital computers. It has been possible to include the effect of such nonlinearities as valve lash, linkage separation, valve seating, and valve spring surge. Comparison with experimental results has shown that computer solutions are realistic. The advantage of being able to simulate and predict performance of any proposed type of valve train is obvious. This paper presents methods of approach for analyzing valve dynamics, correlation of computed results with experimental values, and examples of application of interrelated methods. Included in this paper are: (1) Methods of approach for analyzing valve dynamics, (2) Correlation of computed results with experimental values and, (3) Examples of application of interrelated methods.
Technical Paper

the potential of Unconventional Powerplants for Vehicle Propulsion

1959-01-01
590039
COMPARISON of work capacity per unit mass and volume of different energy carriers shows that liquid hydrocarbons are superior to other energy sources. Solar and nuclear powerplants as well as their use in conjunction with a steam engine are examined in this paper. Suitability of an electric drive is discussed. Using a production 2-stroke diesel engine and its development forecast, a comparison is made of spark ignition, diesel, and gas turbine engines. The status of the free-piston engine turbine combination is reviewed.
Technical Paper

1958 Chevrolet LEVEL AIR SUSPENSION

1958-01-01
580049
CHEVROLET has made its new air-suspension system easily interchangeable in production line assembly with standard full-coil suspension by adopting a 4-link-type rear suspension with short and long arms. A feature of the system is the mounting of the leveling valves within the air-spring assemblies. These valves correct riding height continually at a moderate rate, regardless of whether the springs are leveling or operating in ride motion. The system provides constant frequency ride—ride comfort remains the same whether the car is occupied by the driver alone or is fully loaded.
Technical Paper

CHEVROLET TURBOGLIDE TRANSMISSION

1958-01-01
580019
TURBOGLIDE is the deluxe automatic transmission of the General Motors Chevrolet. One of its most important features is that its performance ratio is available at any throttle position, enabling control of torque ratio and engine output by the throttle pedal. The system includes a five-element torque converter, pump, three turbines, and the dual stator. The entire installed unit weighs 148 lb, a result of the general arrangement and the use of aluminum in the case and bell housing. The authors discuss the basic operating principle of the transmission, the arrangement, performance, torque distribution, control system, and valve body.
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