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Technical Paper

Lean-Burn Characteristics of a Gasoline Engine Enriched with Hydrogen Plasmatron Fuel Reformer

When hydrogen is added to a gasoline fueled spark ignition engine the lean limit of the engine can be extended. Lean running engines are inherently more efficient and have the potential for significantly lower NOx emissions. In the engine concept examined here, supplemental hydrogen is generated on-board the vehicle by diverting a fraction of the gasoline to a plasmatron where a partial oxidation reaction is initiated with an electrical discharge, producing a plasmatron gas containing primarily hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen. Two different gas mixtures were used to simulate the plasmatron output. An ideal plasmatron gas (H2, CO, and N2) was used to represent the output of the theoretically best plasmatron. A typical plasmatron gas (H2, CO, N2, and CO2) was used to represent the current output of the plasmatron. A series of hydrogen addition experiments were also performed to quantify the impact of the non-hydrogen components in the plasmatron gas.
Technical Paper

R-152a Refrigeration System for Mobile Air Conditioning

In recent years, climate protection has become as important as ozone layer protection was in the late 1980's and early 1990s. Concerns about global warming and climate change have culminated in the Kyoto Protocol, a treaty requiring its signatories to limit their total emission of greenhouse gases to pre-1990 levels by 2008. The inclusion of hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) as one of the controlled substances in the Kyoto Protocol has increased global scrutiny of the global warming impact of HFC-134a (called R-134a when used as a refrigerant), the current mobile air conditioning refrigerant. Industry's first response was to begin improving current R-134a systems to reduce leakage, reduce charge, and increase system energy efficiency, which in turn reduces tailpipe CO2 emissions. An additional option would be to replace the current R-134a with a refrigerant of lower global warming impact. This paper documents the use of another HFC, R-152a, in a mobile A/C system.
Technical Paper

Development of the Direct Nonmethane Hydrocarbon Measurement Technique for Vehicle Testing

The Automotive Industry/Government Emissions Research CRADA (AIGER) has been working to develop a new methodology for the direct determination of nonmethane hydrocarbons (DNMHC) in vehicle testing. This new measurement technique avoids the need for subtraction of a separately determined methane value from the total hydrocarbon measurement as is presently required by the Code of Federal Regulations. This paper will cover the historical aspects of the development program, which was initiated in 1993 and concluded in 2002. A fast, gas chromatographic (GC) column technology was selected and developed for the measurement of the nonmethane hydrocarbons directly, without any interference or correction being caused by the co-presence of sample methane. This new methodology chromatographically separates the methane from the nonmethane hydrocarbons, and then measures both the methane and the backflushed, total nonmethane hydrocarbons using standard flame ionization detection (FID).
Technical Paper

Accuracy of Total Hydrocarbon Analyzer Measurements Measurements in the SULEV Region

The super-ultra-low-emission-vehicle (SULEV) non-methane organic gas (NMOG) hydrocarbon exhaust standard as legislated by the state of California LEV II regulations is 10 milligrams per mile. This requires that the associative instrumentation must be capable of accurately and precisely determining total hydrocarbons (THC) concentrations on the order of 10 parts per billion-carbon (ppbC) for vehicle tests run under optimum conditions on a bag mini-diluter (BMD) test site. The flame ionization detector (FID) is the standard instrument used in the measurement of THC. Currently, there are many instrument manufacturers that produce these types of analyzers. This paper studies the limit of detection and accuracy capabilities of one of these instruments, the Beckman 400A FID. In addition, the paper shows evidence that supports that this “state of technology” as described by this instrument, is sufficient to meet the demands of the today's most stringent, vehicle emission standards.
Technical Paper

Overslam Travel Reduction Using Robust Design

This paper is mainly focused on development of the methodology to predict the over-slam travel of the decklid using the LS DYNA model and the sensitivity of the parameters that affect the overslam travel such as weatherstrip, overslam bumper CLD and the location. The full factorial experiments approach is used for maximizing the possibility of finding a favorable result.
Technical Paper

The Next Generation Northstar DOHC 4.6L V8 Engine with Four-Cam Continuously Variable Valve Timing for Cadillac

A new generation Northstar DOHC V8 engine has been developed for a new family of rear-wheel-drive (RWD) Cadillac vehicles. The new longitudinal engine architecture includes strategically selected technologies to enable a higher level of performance and refinement. These technologies include four-cam continuously variable valve timing, low restriction intake and exhaust manifolds and cylinder head ports, a steel crankshaft, electronic throttle control, and close-coupled catalysts. Additional design features beyond those required for RWD include optimized block ribbing, improved coolant flow, and a newly developed lubrication and ventilation system for high-speed operation and high lateral acceleration. This new design results in improved performance over the entire operating range, lower emissions, improved fuel economy, improved operating refinement, and reduced noise/vibration/harshness (NVH).
Technical Paper

Dual Catalytic Converters

The stringent 1978 emission standards of 0.41 gm/mi HC, 3.4 gm/mile CO, and 0.4 gm/mi NOx may require the use of a dual catalytic converter system (reducing and oxidizing catalyst). These emission requirements have been achieved at low mileage with such a system, but it is complex and has exhibited poor durability. This system also results in the loss of fuel economy at the 1978 emission levels.
Technical Paper

General Motors Phase II Catalyst System

Three-way catalysts provide a means of catalytically achieving lower NOx emission levels while maintaining good control of HC and CO emissions. However, very accurate control of air-fuel ratio is necessary. The precise air-fuel ratio control required is accomplished by employing a closed loop fuel metering system in conjunction with an exhaust gas sensor and an electronic control unit. To gain production experience with this type of system, General Motors is introducing it on two 1978 engine families sold in California. One is a 2.5 litre L-4 engine and the other is a 3.8 litre V-6 engine. Closed loop controlled carburetors are used on both systems. This paper discusses these 1978 systems. The components used on both systems are described and emission and fuel economy results are reviewed.
Technical Paper

Emission and Fuel Economy Measurement Improvements

A program was initiated to improve the emission and fuel economy measurement accuracy and test cell to test cell correlation. Improvements were made to the Constant Volume Sampling System, electric dynamometer, instrument calibration ranges and system checks were initiated to improve the accuracy of the bag emissions, modal emissions, calculated and measured fuel economy. Unique emission and fuel economy problems associated with gasoline and diesel testing were studied and resolutions effected when possible.
Technical Paper

Accelerated Glass Reveal Molding Test

Over the past 20 years, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) has almost replaced metal in stationary glass reveal moldings with dramatic part cost savings on cars and trucks world-wide. The process of assembly is generally simple and convenient but to replace a reveal molding can be difficult. Many times, in order to replace the molding, it may also be necessary to replace or reseal the glass. In short, PVC reveal moldings, relatively inexpensive parts, are very expensive to service. Outside of general assembly and processing issues, there are 5 variables that may cause a failure in the performance of a stationary glass reveal molding. They are as follows: material degradation, crystallization, plasticizer loss, material properties, and molded-in stress. Because of modern standard PVC formulations and the material requirements of most automotive companies, material degradation, crystallization and plasticizer loss do not commonly cause failure. Material properties and molded-in stress do.