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Technical Paper

Defining In-Vehicle Location and Functional Attributes of a ‘Button-Style Electronic Automatic Transmission Shifter’ Using DFSS Methodology with Customer Clinic Approach

2017-03-28
2017-01-1131
The implementation of electronic shifters (e-shifter) for automatic transmissions in vehicles has created many new opportunities for the customer facing transmission interface and in-vehicle packaging. E-shifters have become popular in recent years as their smaller physical size leads to packaging advantages, they reduce the mass of the automatic transmission shift system, they are easier to install during vehicle assembly, and act as an enabler for autonomous driving. A button-style e-shifter has the ability to create a unique customer interface to the automatic transmission, as it is very different from the conventional column lever or linear console shifter. In addition to this, a button-style e-shifter can free the center console of valuable package space for other customer-facing functions, such as storage bins and Human-Machine Interface controllers.
Technical Paper

Crash-induced Loads in Liftgate Latching Systems

2018-04-03
2018-01-1333
Automotive liftgate latches have been subject to regulation for minimum strength and inertial resistance requirements since the late 1990’s in the US and globally since the early 2000’s, possibly due to liftgate ejections stemming from the first generation Chrysler minivans which employed latches that were not originally designed with this hazard in mind. Side door latches have been regulated since the 1960’s, and the regulation of liftgate, or back door latches, have been based largely on side door requirements, with the exception of the orthogonal test requirement that is liftgate specific. Based on benchmarking tests of liftgate latches, most global OEM’s design their latches to exceed the minimum regulatory requirements. Presumably, this is based on the need to keep doors closed during crashes and specifically to do so when subjected to industry standard tests.
Technical Paper

Correlation of Chemical Compositions and Fuel Properties with Fuel Octane Rating of Gasoline Containing Ethanol

2011-08-30
2011-01-1986
With increasing use of ethanol in automotive fuel in recent years, which can be made from renewable feedstocks, the chemical composition of gasoline is changed. The compositional change results in many changes in fuel properties. One key property is the octane rating of gasoline. Market data has shown the shifts of octane rating (antiknock index or AKI) upward due to more penetration of E10 gasoline in the US market. However, the increase in research octane is more pronounced as compared to motor octane, therefore the increase in octane sensitivity in gasoline. Refineries have used the change in octane due to ethanol contribution by sending so called sub-grade gasoline to terminals expecting the final blend after mixing with ethanol to meet the market requirement in octane. Thus the octane rating of the final blend will largely depend on the sub-grade gasoline composition and ethanol.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Stochastic Pre-Ignition Behaviors on a Turbocharged Gasoline Engine with Various Fuels and Lubricants

2016-10-17
2016-01-2291
Stochastic pre-ignition (SPI) has been commonly observed in turbocharged spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) engines at low-speed and high-load conditions, which causes extremely high cylinder pressures that can damage an engine immediately or degrade the engine life. The compositions and properties of fuels and lubricants have shown a strong impact on SPI frequency. This study experimentally evaluated SPI behaviors on a 2.0-liter 4-cylinder turbocharged SIDI engine with China V market fuel and China fuel blended to US Tier II fuel specifications. China V market fuel showed significantly higher SPI frequency and severity than China blended US Tier II fuel, which was attributed to its lower volatility between 100 °C to 150 °C (or lower T60 to T90 in the distillation curve). Two different formulations of lubricant oils were also tested and their impact on SPI were compared.
Technical Paper

Combustion-Timing Control of Low-Temperature Gasoline Combustion (LTGC) Engines by Using Double Direct-Injections to Control Kinetic Rates

2019-04-02
2019-01-1156
Low-temperature gasoline combustion (LTGC) engines can provide high efficiencies and extremely low NOx and particulate emissions, but controlling the combustion timing remains a challenge. This paper explores the potential of Partial Fuel Stratification (PFS) to provide fast control of CA50 in an LTGC engine. Two different compression ratios are used (CR=16:1 and 14:1) that provide high efficiencies and are compatible with mixed-mode SI-LTGC engines. The fuel used is a research grade E10 gasoline (RON 92, MON 85) representative of a regular-grade market gasoline found in the United States. The fuel was supplied with a gasoline-type direct injector (GDI) mounted centrally in the cylinder. To create the PFS, the GDI injector was pulsed twice each engine cycle. First, an injection early in the intake stroke delivered the majority of the fuel (70 - 80%), establishing the minimum equivalence ratio in the charge.
Technical Paper

Combined Drag and Cooling Optimization of a Car Vehicle with an Adjoint-Based Approach

2018-04-03
2018-01-0721
The main objective of this work is to present an adjoint-based methodology to address combined optimization of drag force and cooling flow rate of an industrial vehicle. In order to cope with cooling effect, the volumetric flow rate is treated through a newly introduced cost function and the corresponding adjoint source term is derived. Also an alternative strategy is presented to tackle aerodynamic vehicle design improvement that relies on a so-called indirect force computation. The overall optimization is treated as a Multi-Objective problem and an original approach, called Optimize Both Favor One (OBFO), is introduced that allows selective emphasis on one or another objective without resorting to artificial cost function balancing. Finally, comparative results are presented to demonstrate the merit of the proposed methodology.
Technical Paper

China Market Gasoline Review Using Fuel Particulate Emission Correlation Indices

2017-10-08
2017-01-2401
The impact of gasoline composition on vehicle particulate emissions response has been widely investigated and documented. Correlation equations between fuel composition and particulate emissions have also been documented, e.g. Particulate Matter Index (PMI) and Particulate Evaluation Index (PEI). Vehicle PM/PN emissions correlate very well with these indices. In a previous paper, global assessment with PEI on fuel sooting tendency was presented [1]. This paper will continue the previous theme by the authors, and cover China gasoline in more detail. With air pollution an increasing concern, along with more stringent emission requirements in China, both OEMs and oil industries are facing new challenges. Emissions controls require a systematic approach on both fuels and vehicles. Chinese production vehicle particulate emissions for a range of PEI fuels are also presented.
Journal Article

Characterization of Caliper Piston Material Stiffness and Damping

2013-09-30
2013-01-2050
The brake caliper piston plays a key role in caliper function, taking significant responsibility for qualities such as fluid consumption, insulation of the brake fluid from heat, seal rollback function, and brake torque variation sensitivity to disc thickness variation. It operates in a strenuous environment, being routinely subjected to high stresses and elevated temperatures. Given all of the demands on this safety-critical component (strength, stiffness, wear resistance, stable friction against rubber, thermal stability, machinability, manageable thermal conductivity, and more), there are actually relatively few engineering materials suitable for use as a caliper piston, and designs tend to be limited to steel, aluminum, and engineered plastics (phenolic composites). The lattermost - phenolic composites - has been of especial interest recently due to mass savings and possible reduction in brake corner judder sensitivity to disc thickness variation.
Journal Article

Brake System Performance at Higher Mileage

2017-09-17
2017-01-2502
The purchase of a new automobile is unquestionably a significant investment for most customers, and with this recognition, comes a correspondingly significant expectation for quality and reliability. Amongst automotive systems -when it comes to considerations of reliability - the brakes (perhaps along with the tires) occupy a rarified position of being located in a harsh environment, subjected to continuous wear throughout their use, and are critical to the safe performance of the vehicle. Maintenance of the brake system is therefore a fact of life for most drivers - something that almost everyone must do, yet given the potentially considerable expense, it is something that of great benefit to minimize.
Technical Paper

Analytical Evaluation of Engine and Vehicle Hardware Effects on Vehicle Response

2019-04-02
2019-01-1283
As the proliferation of downsized boosted engines continues, it becomes increasingly important to understand how engine and vehicle hardware impact vehicle transient response. Several different methodologies can be used to understand hardware impacts, such as vehicle testing, 0-D vehicle models, and constant engine speed load steps. The next evolution of predicting vehicle transient response is to transition to a system level vehicle analysis by coupling a detailed engine model, utilizing crank angle resolved calculations, with a simple vehicle model. This allows for the evaluation of engine and vehicle hardware effects on vehicle acceleration and the rate of change of vehicle acceleration, or jerk, and the tradeoffs that can be made between the hardware in early program development. By comparing this system level vehicle model to the different methodologies, it can be shown that a system level vehicle analysis allows for higher fidelity evaluations of vehicle transient response.
Journal Article

Analysis of Particle Mass and Size Emissions from a Catalyzed Diesel Particulate Filter during Regeneration by Means of Actual Injection Strategies in Light Duty Engines

2011-09-11
2011-24-0210
The diesel particulate filters (DPF) are considered the most robust technologies for particle emission reduction both in terms of mass and number. On the other hand, the increase of the backpressure in the exhaust system due to the accumulation of the particles in the filter walls leads to an increase of the engine fuel consumption and engine power reduction. To limit the filter loading, and the backpressure, a periodical regeneration is needed. Because of the growing interest about particle emission both in terms of mass, number and size, it appears important to monitor the evolution of the particle mass and number concentrations and size distribution during the regeneration of the DPFs. For this matter, in the presented work the regeneration of a catalyzed filter was fully analyzed. Particular attention was dedicated to the dynamic evolution both of the thermodynamic parameters and particle emissions.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Energy-Efficient Management of a Light-Duty Parallel-Hybrid Diesel Powertrain with a Belt Alternator Starter

2011-09-11
2011-24-0080
The paper presents the main results of a study on the simulation of energy efficient management of on-board electric and thermal systems for a medium-size passenger vehicle featuring a parallel-hybrid diesel powertrain with a high-voltage belt alternator starter. A set of advanced technologies has been considered on the basis of very aggressive fuel economy targets: base-engine downsizing and friction reduction, combustion optimization, active thermal management, enhanced aftertreatment and downspeeding. Mild-hybridization has also been added with the goal of supporting the downsized/downspeeded engine performance, performing energy recuperation during coasting phases and enabling smooth stop/start and acceleration. The simulation has implemented a dynamic response to the required velocity and manual gear shift profiles in order to reproduce real-driver behavior and has actuated an automatic power split between the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) and the Electric Machine (EM).
Technical Paper

An Innovative Hybrid Powertrain for Small and Medium Boats

2018-04-03
2018-01-0373
Hybridization is a mainstream technology for automobiles, and its application is rapidly expanding in other fields. Marine propulsion is one such field that could benefit from electrification of the powertrain. In particular, for boats to sail in enclosed waterways, such as harbors, channels, lagoons, a pure electric mode would be highly desirable. The main challenge to accomplish hybridization is the additional weight of the electric components, in particular the batteries. The goal of this project is to replace a conventional 4-stroke turbocharged Diesel engine with a hybrid powertrain, without any penalty in terms of weight, overall dimensions, fuel efficiency, and pollutant emissions. This can be achieved by developing a new generation of 2-Stroke Diesel engines, and coupling them to a state-of-the art electric system. For the thermal units, two alternative designs without active valve train are considered: opposed piston and loop scavenged engines.
Journal Article

A Study of Piston Geometry Effects on Late-Stage Combustion in a Light-Duty Optical Diesel Engine Using Combustion Image Velocimetry

2018-04-03
2018-01-0230
In light-duty direct-injection (DI) diesel engines, combustion chamber geometry influences the complex interactions between swirl and squish flows, spray-wall interactions, as well as late-cycle mixing. Because of these interactions, piston bowl geometry significantly affects fuel efficiency and emissions behavior. However, due to lack of reliable in-cylinder measurements, the mechanisms responsible for piston-induced changes in engine behavior are not well understood. Non-intrusive, in situ optical measurement techniques are necessary to provide a deeper understanding of the piston geometry effect on in-cylinder processes and to assist in the development of predictive engine simulation models. This study compares two substantially different piston bowls with geometries representative of existing technology: a conventional re-entrant bowl and a stepped-lip bowl. Both pistons are tested in a single-cylinder optical diesel engine under identical boundary conditions.
Technical Paper

A Structural Stress Recovery Procedure for Fatigue Life Assessment of Welded Structures

2017-03-28
2017-01-0343
Over the decades, several attempts have been made to develop new fatigue analysis methods for welded joints since most of the incidents in automotive structures are joints related. Therefore, a reliable and effective fatigue damage parameter is needed to properly predict the failure location and fatigue life of these welded structures to reduce the hardware testing, time, and the associated cost. The nodal force-based structural stress approach is becoming widely used in fatigue life assessment of welded structures. In this paper, a new nodal force-based structural stress recovery procedure is proposed that uses the least squares method to linearly smooth the stresses in elements along the weld line. Weight function is introduced to give flexibility in choosing different weighting schemes between elements. Two typical weighting schemes are discussed and compared.
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