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Technical Paper

Method for Determining Thermal Resistances in Coupled Simulator: For Electric Valve Timing Control System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1301
We developed a thermal calculation 1D simulator for an electric valve timing control system (VTC). A VTC can optimize the open and close timing of the intake and exhaust valves depending on the driving situation. Since a conventional VTC is driven hydraulically, the challenges are response speed and operation limit at low temperature. Our company has been developing an electric VTC for quick response and expansion of operating conditions. Currently, it is necessary to optimize the motor and reduction gear design to balance quicker response with downsizing. Therefore, a coupled simulator that can calculate electricity, mechanics, control, and thermo characteristics is required. In 1D simulation, a thermal network method is commonly used for thermal calculation. However, an electric VTC is attached to the end of a camshaft; therefore, determining thermal resistances is difficult. We propose a method of determining thermal resistances, using both theoretical and experimental approaches.
Technical Paper

Smooth Gear Shift Control Technology for Clutch-to-Clutch Shifting

1999-03-01
1999-01-1054
An automatic transmission without a one-way clutch for a small sized, light weight automatic transmission is presented. The factor of torque fluctuation occurrence during shifting of the transmission increases so that the shifting is executed by controlling two wet clutches electronically in place of the one-way clutch and the wet clutch. Therefore, it is necessary to develop a new smooth gear shift control technology for clutch-to-clutch shifting on an automatic transmission without a one-way clutch. The control technology has desirable clutch-to-clutch shift control, learning control and robust control which apply to accurate signals obtained by an observation method. Smooth shifts during clutch-to-clutch shifting can be realized by recognizing clutch change-over time using a calculated acceleration and an input/output speed ratio of the transmission.
Technical Paper

A New RISC Microcontroller with On-Chip FPU to Introduce Adaptive Control into Powertrain Management

1999-03-01
1999-01-0865
Gasoline engine control continues to become more sophisticated and so the amount of software has reached 10 to 20 times that of early control systems. By changing the embedded microcomputer from 8bit CISC (Complex Instruction Set Computer) to 32bit RISC (Reduced Instruction Set Computer), processing performance has been improved 100 times. This paper evaluates quantitative performance of the RISC CPU having a FPU (Floating Point Processing Unit) and describes an example application to adaptive control.
Technical Paper

Air/Fuel Ratio Control Using Upstream Models in the Intake System

1999-03-01
1999-01-0857
Generalized models of the air/fuel ratio control using estimated air mass in the cylinder were presented to obtain highly accurate control during transient conditions in high supercharged direct injection systems with a complex air induction system. The air mass change was estimated by using upstream models which estimated the pressure of the intake manifold by introducing the output of the air flow meter and the differential of the output into aerodynamic equations of the intake system. The air mass into the cylinders was estimated at the beginning of the intake stroke under a wide range of driving conditions, without compensating for changes in the downstream parameters of the intake system and engine. Therefore, the upstream models required relatively minor calibration changes for each engine modification to be able to estimate the air mass on a cylinder-by-cylinder basis.
Technical Paper

A Model-Based Technique for Spark Timing Control in an SI Engine Using Polynomial Regression Analysis

2009-04-20
2009-01-0933
Model-based methodologies for the engine calibration process, employing engine cycle simulation and polynomial regression analysis, have been developed and the reliability of the proposed method was confirmed by validating the model predictions with dynamometer test data. From the results, it was clear that the predictions by the engine cycle simulation with a knock model, which considers the two-stage hydrocarbon ignition characteristics of gasoline, were in good agreement with the dynamometer test data if the model tuning parameters were strictly adjusted. Physical model tuning and validation were done, followed by the creation of a dataset for the regression analysis of charging efficiency, EGR mass, and MBT using a 4th order polynomial equation. The stepwise method was demonstrated to yield a logarithm likelihood ratio and its false probability at each term in the polynomial equation.
Technical Paper

An Air-Fuel Ratio and Ignition Timing Retard Control Using a Crank Angle Sensor for Reducing Cold Start HC

2009-04-20
2009-01-0588
Emission regulations continue to be strengthened, and it is important to decrease cold start hydrocarbon concentrations in order to meet them, now and in the future. The HC concentration in engine exhaust gas is reduced by controlling the air-fuel ratio to the low HC range and retarding the ignition timing as much as possible until the engine stability reaches a certain deterioration level. Conventionally however, the target air-fuel ratio has been set at a richer range than the low HC range and the target ignition timing has been more advanced than the engine stability limit, in order to stabilize the engine for various disturbances. As a result, the HC concentration has not been minimized. To solve this problem, a new engine control has been developed. This control uses a crank angle sensor to simultaneously control the air-fuel ratio and the ignition timing so that the HC concentration can be minimized.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Methodology for Air Charge Estimation and Control in Turbocharged Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-1754
The purpose of this study is to develop model-based methodologies which employ thermo-fluid dynamic engine simulation and multiple-objective optimization schemes for engine control and calibration, and to validate the reliability of the method using a dynamometer test. In our technique, creating a total engine system model begins by first entirely capturing the characteristics of the components affecting the engine system's behavior, then using experimental data to strictly adjust the tuning parameters in physical models. Engine outputs over the full range of engine operation conditions as determined by design of experiment (DOE) are simulated, followed by fitting the provided dataset using a nonlinear response surface model (RSM) to express the causal relationship among engine operational parameters, environmental factors and engine output. The RSM is applied to an L-jetronic® air-intake system control logic for a turbocharged engine.
Technical Paper

Spray Atomization Study on Multi-Hole Nozzle for Direct Injection Gasoline Engines

2013-04-08
2013-01-1596
We investigated the size of fuel spray droplets from nozzles for direct injection gasoline (DIG) engines. Our findings showed that the droplet size can be predicted by referencing the geometry of the nozzle. In a DIG engine, which is used as part of a system to reduce fuel consumption, the injector nozzle causes the fuel to spray directly into the combustion chamber. It is important that this fuel spray avoid adhesion to the chamber wall, so multi-hole injection nozzles are used to obtain spray shape adaptability. It is also important that spray droplets be finely atomized to achieve fast vaporization. We have developed a method to predict the atomization level of nozzles for fine atomization nozzle design. The multi-hole nozzle used in a typical DIG injector has a thin fuel passage upstream of the orifice hole. This thin passage affects the droplet size, and predicting the droplet size is quite difficult if using only the orifice diameter.
Technical Paper

Computer-Aided Calibration Methodology for Spark Advance Control Using Engine Cycle Simulation and Polynomial Regression Analysis

2007-10-29
2007-01-4023
The increasing number of controllable parameters in modern engine systems has led to increasingly complicated and enlarged engine control software. This in turn has created dramatic increases in software development time and cost. Model-based control design seems to be an effective way to reduce development time and costs and also to enable engineers to understand the complex relationship between the many controllable parameters and engine performance. In the present study, we have developed model-based methodologies for the engine calibration process, employing engine cycle simulation and regression analysis. The reliability of the proposed method was investigated by validating the regression model predictions with measured data.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Calibration Process for Producing Optimal Spark Advance in a Gasoline Engine Equipped with a Variable Valve Train

2006-10-16
2006-01-3235
The increasing number of controllable parameters in modern engine systems leads to complicated and enlarged engine control software. This in turn has led to dramatic increases in software development time and costs in recent years. Model-based control design seems to be an effective way to reduce development time and costs. In the present study, we have developed model-based methodologies for the engine calibration process using an engine cycle simulation technique combined with a regression analysis of engine responses. From the results it was clear that the engine cycle simulation technique was useful in the engine calibration process, if the empirical parameters included in physical models were adjusted at typical sampling-points in several engine speeds and loads. The cycle simulation produced a multi-dimensional MBT map, and a response surface method was employed in the modeling of the engine map dataset using a polynomial equation.
Journal Article

Development of a New Metal Substrate for Lean NOx Trap

2008-04-14
2008-01-0806
This paper presents a new substrate for Lean NOx Traps (LNT) which enables high NOx conversion efficiency, even after long-term aging, when using alkali metals as the NOx adsorber. When a conventional metal honeycomb is used as the LNT substrate, the chromium in the metal substrate migrates into the washcoat and reacts with the alkali metals after thermal aging. In order to help prevent this migration, we have developed a new substrate where a fine -alumina barrier is precipitated to the surface of the metal substrate. The new substrate is highly capable of preventing migration of chromium into the washcoat and greatly enhances the NOx conversion. The durability of the new substrate and emission test using a test vehicle are also examined.
Technical Paper

Study on Mixture Formation and Ignition Process in Spark Ignition Engine Using Optical Combustion Sensor

1990-09-01
901712
Mixture formation and the ignition process in 4 cycle 4 cylinder spark ignition engines were investigated, using an optical combustion sensor that combines fiber optics with a conventional spark plug. The sensor consists of a 1-mm diameter quartz glass optical fiber cable inserted through the center of a spark plug. The tip of the fiber is machined into a convex shape to provide a 120-degree view of the combustion chamber interior. Light emitted by the spark discharge between spark electrodes and the combustion flames in the cylinder is transmitted by the optical cable to an opto-electric transducer. As a result, the ignition and combustion process which depends on the mixture formation can be easily monitored without installing transparent pistons and cylinders. This sensor can give more accurate information on mixture formation in the cylinders.
Technical Paper

A Study of a New Aftertreatment System (2): Control of Urea Solution Spray for Urea-SCR

2006-04-03
2006-01-0644
The urea-SCR system is one of the most promising aftertreatment systems for future automotive diesel engines. We developed a urea dosing device with twin urea injectors for onboard applications, to enhance the NOx reduction performance at low exhaust temperatures and to lower the electric power consumption of the SCR system. The injectors operate with a single-phase urea solution, without air assist. Of the injectors, one is used to supply urea to a bypass passage routing the exhaust, during low exhaust temperatures. The other injector is located on the wall of the main exhaust duct, directly supplying urea to the exhaust. This direct injection method has a uniform spray distribution problem. A set of impact plates were used to distribute the spray. Impact plates have a high potential for deposition, but use of film boiling was considered. A thermal analysis was conducted and as a result, deposit conditions were theoretically derived. This was confirmed through experiments.
Technical Paper

An Accurate Torque-based Engine Control by Learning Correlation between Torque and Throttle Position

2008-04-14
2008-01-1015
In recent years, integrated vehicle control systems have been developed to improve fuel economy and safety. As a result, engine control is shifting to torque-based systems for throttle / fuel / ignition control, to realize an engine torque demand from the system. This paper describes torque-based engine control technologies for SI (Spark Ignition) engine to improve torque control accuracy using a feedback control algorithm and an airflow sensor.
Journal Article

A Study of a Multiple-link Continuously Variable Valve Event and Lift (VVEL) System

2008-06-23
2008-01-1719
A new variable valve event and lift (VVEL) system has been developed by applying a multiple-link mechanism. This VVEL system can continuously vary the valve event angle and lift over a wide range from an exceptional small event angle and small lift and to a large event angle and large lift. This capability offers the potential to improve fuel economy, power output, emissions and other parameters of engine performance. The valve lift characteristics obtained with the VVEL system consist of a synthesis of the oscillatory motion characteristics of the multiple-link mechanism and the oscillating cam profile. With the multiple-link mechanism, the angular velocity of the oscillating cams varies during valve lift, but the valve lift characteristics incorporate both gentle ramp sections and sharp lift sections, the same as a conventional engine.
Journal Article

Virtual Engine System Prototyping with High-Resolution FFT for Digital Knock Detection Using CPU Model-Based Hardware/Software Co-simulation

2009-04-20
2009-01-0532
We have developed a full virtual engine system prototyping platform with 4-cylinder engine plant model, SH-2A CPU hardware model, and object code level software including OSEK OS. The virtual engine system prototyping platform can run simulation of an engine control system and digital knock detection system including 64-pt FFT computations that provide required high-resolution DSP capability for detection and control. To help the system design, debugging, and evaluation, the virtual system prototyping consists of behavior analyzer which can provide the visualization of useful CPU internal information for control algorithm tuning, RTOS optimization, and CPU architecture development. Thus the co-simulation enables time and cost saving at validation stage as validation can be performed at the design stage before production of actual components.
Technical Paper

A New Engine Control System Using Direct Fuel Injection and Variable Valve Timing

1995-02-01
950973
A new engine drivetrain control system is described which can provide a higher gear ratio and leaner burning mixture and thus reduce the fuel consumption of spark ignition engines. Simulations were performed to obtain reduced torque fluctuation during changes in the air - fuel ratio and gear ratio, without increasing nitrogen oxide emissions, and with minimum throttle valve control. The results show that the new system does not require the frequent actuation of throttle valves because it uses direct fuel injection, which increases the air - fuel ratio of the lean burning limit. It also achieves a faster response in controlling the air mass in the cylinders. This results in the minimum excursion in the air - fuel ratio which in turn, reduces nitrogen oxide emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of Smooth Shift Control System with Output Torque Estimation

1995-02-01
950900
Most automatic transmissions are controlled in compliance with a predetermined program. Transient control during gear shift is also carried out according to a predetermined process. In this method a lot of labor is required to tune data tables. So we developed a tuning free system by feedback control using torque estimation technology and the experimental result is reported. Torque fluctuation during shift is detected and fed back to compare the torque reference, which is generated from the estimated torque itself. The engine torque is decreased by means of retarding the ignition spark advance, according to the comparison deviation. As a consequence of the feedback, the transient torque control is carried out without any tuning trouble, and better than usual torque fluctuation is obtained.
Technical Paper

Mixture Formation During Cold Starting and Warm-up in Spark Ignition Engines

1996-02-01
960065
A thermodynamic analysis of mixture formation in cylinders that takes into account mixture inhomogeneity and the wall film is presented. Conditions for obtaining low hydrocarbon emission are clarified analytically as a function of the fuel mass of the wall film and inhomogeneity of the mixture. Optimum processes for atomizing and vaporizing fuel are presented to reduce the inhomogeneity and the fuel mass of the film.
Technical Paper

Effect of Spray Characteristics on Combustion in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

1998-02-23
980156
Meeting the future exhaust emission and fuel consumption standards for passenger cars will require refinements in how the combustion process is carried out in spark ignition engines. A direct injection system decrease fuel consumption under road load cruising conditions, and stratified charge of the fuel mixture is particularly effective for ultra lean combustion. On the other hands, there are requirements for higher output power of gasoline engines. A direct injection system for a spark ignition engine is seen as a promising technique to meet these requirements. To get higher output power at wide open throttle conditions, spray characteristics and in-cylinder air flow must be optimized. In this paper, the engine system, which has a side injection type engine and flat piston, was investigated. We tried some injectors, which have different spray characteristics, and examined effects of spray characteristics on combustion of the direct injection gasoline engine.
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