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Technical Paper

Material NVH Convergence Technology for a Plastic Intercooler Pipe

2014-04-01
2014-01-1040
The main contribution of this paper is to employ a sound and vibration theory in order to develop a light and cost effective plastic intercooler pipe. The intercooler pipe was composed of two rubber hoses and one aluminum pipe mounted between an ACV (Air Control Valve) and an intercooler outlet. The engineering design concept is to incorporate low-vibration type bellows and an impedance-mismatched center pipe, which replaces the rubber hoses and aluminum pipe respectively. The bellows were designed to adapt powertrain movement for high vibration transmission loss to the intercooler outlet. Also, the impedance-mismatched center pipe was implemented to increase reflected wave by using relatively higher modulus than bellows part and applying a SeCo (Sequential Coextrusion) processing method.
Technical Paper

Design for NVH Performance and Weight Reduction in Plastic Timing Chain Cover Application

2014-04-01
2014-01-1043
Light weighting is a critical objective in the automotive industry to improve fuel efficiency. But when redesigning parts for light weight, by changing from metal to plastic, the resulting design gives NVH issues due to differences in part mass and material stiffness. Many parts were not converted from metal to plastic because of NVH issues that could not be solved. Many engine parts such as cylinder head cover, air intake manifold, oil pan and etc. previously made of metal have since long been replaced with plastic. But timing chain cover has not been replaced because of the aforementioned issue. Sealing performance due to the dynamic characteristics of the application is another challenging factor. In this paper, the key aspects of the plastic timing chain cover as well as its advantage are presented.
Technical Paper

A Study of Combustion Control Parameter Optimization in a Diesel Engine Using Cylinder Pressure

2014-04-01
2014-01-1352
In diesel engine development, fuel consumption, emissions and combustion noise have been main development objectives for fuel economy, low emissions and NVH. These main objectives can be achieved with advanced engine technologies. As electronic actuating systems are widely applied on diesel engines, elaborate control is required. This is because the main development targets are greatly affected by engine control parameters but frequently have a trade-off relationship. Therefore, the optimization of combustion control parameters is one of the most challenging tasks for improvement. As an efficient method, the DOE methodology has been used in engine calibration. In order to develop a mathematical model, the input and output values must be measured. Unlike other variables, combustion noise has been continually reported to have better indication method in simplified way. In this paper, advanced noise index from cylinder pressure signal is applied on engine test.
Technical Paper

Development of Effective Bicycle Model for Wide Ranges of Vehicle Operations

2014-04-01
2014-01-0841
This paper proposes an effective nonlinear bicycle model including longitudinal, lateral, and yaw motions of a vehicle. This bicycle model uses a simplified piece-wise linear tire model and tire force tuning algorithm to produce closely matching vehicle trajectory compared to real vehicle for wide vehicle operation ranges. A simplified piece-wise tire model that well represents nonlinear tire forces was developed. The key parameters of this model can be chosen from measured tire forces. For the effects of dynamic load transfer due to sharp vehicle maneuvers, a tire force tuning algorithm that dynamically adjusts tire forces of the bicycle model based on measured vehicle lateral acceleration is proposed. Responses of the proposed bicycle model have been compared with commercial vehicle dynamics model (CarSim) through simulation in various vehicle maneuvers (ramp steer, sine-with-dwell).
Technical Paper

Development of Vibration Suppression Control Strategy for Motor System of Eco-Friendly Vehicles

2014-04-01
2014-01-1874
Development of eco-friendly vehicles have risen in importance due to fossil fuel depletion and the strengthened globalized emission control regulatory requirements. A lot of automotive companies have already developed and launched various types of eco-friendly vehicles which include hybrid vehicles (HEVs) or electric vehicles (EVs) to reduce fuel consumption. To maximize fuel economy Hyundai-Kia Motor Company has introduced eco-friendly vehicles which have downsized or eliminated vibration damping components such as a torque converter. Comparing with Internal Combustion Engine(ICE) powered vehicles, one issue of the electric motor propulsion system with minimized vibration damping components is NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness). The NVH problem is caused by output torque fluctuation of the motor system, resulting in the degradation of ride comfort and drivability.
Journal Article

A Study on North American Customer Preference to Interior Noise using Sound Balance Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0023
A new approach to achieve better customer perception of overall vehicle quietness is the sound balance improvement of vehicle interior sound during driving. Interior sound is classified into 3 primary sound source shares such as engine sound relative to revolution speed, tire road noise and wind noise relative to vehicle speed. Each interior sound shares are classified using the synchronous time-domain averaging method. The sound related to revolution order of engine and auxiliaries is considered as engine sound share, tire road noise and wind noise shares are extracted by multiple coherent output power analysis. Sound balance analysis focuses on improving the relative difference in interior sound share level between the 3 primary sound sources. Virtual sound simulator which is able to represent various driving conditions and able to adjust imaginary sound share is built for several vehicles in same compact segment.
Technical Paper

Evaluation System for Simulating and Reducing Interior Noise Caused by Wind

2014-04-01
2014-01-0038
Fluctuation in the sound pressure level of the interior noise of an on-road vehicle is always caused by unpredictable factors such as wind gusts, traffic, roadside obstacles, and changing drive-by-drive conditions, and is hence, not reproducible in nature. Since the human brain is known to be more sensitive to noise that is amplitude-modulated than noise at a steady level [1], it is important to evaluate and improve the NVH performance of a vehicle in terms of the fluctuating interior noise likely to be experienced by drivers or users. To this end, an evaluation system was developed as part of this study, the details of which are presented in this paper. The system is composed of hardware for database storage and replay of sounds, and software for synthesizing the noise signals. For given wind tunnel test results, the evaluation system yields a wind noise model that can synthesize wind noise signals for any wind scenario.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Strategy and Implementing Technology for the Development of Luxurious Driving Sound

2014-04-01
2014-01-0035
This paper describes a systematic approach to the development of a luxurious driving sound. In the first step, the luxurious sound is conceptualized through jury test, factor analysis and regression analysis. From the results, the main factors and the correlation equation for the luxurious sound are extracted. Also, customer's preference for the luxurious sound is investigated from the customer clinic. In the second step, three core axes and the detailed indices for luxurious sound are defined and quantified. These core axes are a dynamic sound character, a sound balance and a sound harmony. These core axes are also composed of detailed indices and quantified by guide lines. In the third step, each contribution of the sub-systems for sound quality is identified and the target values and methods for implementing the luxurious sound are suggested. In this process, noise path analysis and the customer's preference in each region are considered.
Technical Paper

Muffler Sound Development Using Analysis of Acoustic Source of Engine Exhaust System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0026
In order to achieve the proper automobile interior sound, the tailpipe noise of the exhaust system must be considered as a main contributor. This paper describes a study of the achievement of dynamic sound quality through exhaust system design. Firstly, we determined the vehicle's interior sound quality and established a target sound using a subjective assessment of 10 benchmark vehicles. The exhaust noise target is determined by means of transfer path analysis focusing on the noise source and how it's impacted by the muffler design. The exhaust system is commonly modeled as a combination of source strength and impedance. We obtained the source character by the wave decomposition method using two microphones and six loads ultimately leading to an optimized design of the inner muffler structure. Based on this study, we achieved dynamic interior sound and improved exhaust system performance.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Body Structure for Road Noise Performance

2014-04-01
2014-01-0010
It is common knowledge that body structure is an important factor of road noise performance. Thus, a high stiffness of body system is required, and determining their optimized stiffness and structure is necessary. Therefore, a method for improving body stiffness and validating the relationship between stiffness and road noise through CAE and experimental trials was tested. Furthermore, a guideline for optimizing body structure for road noise performance was suggested.
Technical Paper

Automated Optimizing Calibration of Engine Driveability on the Dynamic Powertrain Test Bed

2013-10-14
2013-01-2588
Engine calibration on the powertrain test bed with transient mode is proposed with dynamic powertrain test bed having low inertia dynamometer. Automated ECU (Engine Control Unit) calibration system is completed with the combination of experimental design software, powertrain test bed, evaluation tools and their electrical interfaces. The process is composed up of the system interface definition, test design using DoE skill, test proceedings by step sequence of connecting systems, measured data collecting, mathematical model and optimization result extraction at the end. All the processes are automated by interfaces between the systems. Acceleration surge is minimized by proposed process by optimizing combustion control labels and tip in driveability is maximized by manipulating torque filter labels of EMS (Engine Management System) logic. Their detailed steps from the problem definition to the verification test results of improved design with vehicle test are presented.
Technical Paper

A Study for Improving the Sound Quality of Vehicle Horns through Acoustic Characteristics Analysis and CAE Method Development

2013-04-08
2013-01-0422
It is necessary for vehicle horns not only to satisfy regulations on the sound level but also to fulfill various demands related with sound quality. For example, a disk type horn which is attached on most of small size vehicles has been required to improve its sharp feeling sound. However, the improvement of horn sound has been deterred mainly due to the deficiency of the understanding on how design factors are related with emotional judgments on horn sound. In addition, a proper CAE tool is not available in the process of horn design since it is difficult to describe multi-physical phenomena engaged with horns. The purpose of this study is to improve the sound quality of a disk type horn. In order to achieve this goal, firstly, acoustic characteristics of horns were obtained through a series of experiments. In addition, various sound quality metrics were examined in order to derive design factors affecting sound quality enhancement.
Technical Paper

Idle Sound Quality Development for Diesel V6 Engine

2011-05-17
2011-01-1563
A comprehensive investigation was carried out in order to develop the idle sound quality for diesel V6 engine when the engine development process is applied to power-train system, which included new 8-speed automatic transmission for breaking down the noise contribution between the mechanical excitation and the combustion excitation. First of all, the improvement of dynamic characteristic can be achieved during the early stages of the engine development process using experimental modal analysis (EMA) & the robust design of each engine functional system. In addition, the engine structural attenuation (SA) is enhanced such that the radiated combustion noise of the engine can be maintained at a target level even with an increased combustion excitation. It was found that the engine system has better parts and worse parts in frequency range throughout the SA analysis. It is important that weak points in the system should be optimized.
Journal Article

Recent Advances in the Development of Hyundai · Kia's Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles

2010-04-12
2010-01-1089
Wide attention to fuel cell electric vehicles (FCEVs) comes from two huge issues currently the world is facing with: the concern of the petroleum reserves depletion due to consequent oil dependence and the earth global warming due in some extent to vehicle emissions. In this background, Hyundai, along with its sister company Kia, has been building the FCEVs and operating their test fleet with several tens of units at home and abroad. Since 2004, 32 passenger vehicles have been offered for the Department of Energy's controlled hydrogen fleet and infrastructure demonstration and validation project in the U.S. In the meantime, from 2006, 30 passenger vehicles as well as four buses, featuring the in-house developed fuel cell stack and its associated components, are currently under the domestic operation for the FCEV learning demonstration led by the Ministry of Knowledge and Economy.
Technical Paper

Seat Common Frame Design Optimization

2010-04-12
2010-01-0390
Due to technological evolutions and social demands, motor vehicles are requested to be enhanced in terms of occupant safety and comfort. As a result, many countries are reinforcing crash regulations and new car assessment programs. Automotive seats are essential parts for providing passenger safety and comfort and have become most important. Many automotive companies concentrate on optimization of the seat structure. This paper presents an overview of the recent evolution of the seat structures and gives a development procedure covering seat frame design, optimization and validation. Through the study, a competitive frame design is drawn as a case result and a design guideline and a standard development procedure is established
Technical Paper

Aeroacoustics Predictions of Automotive HVAC Systems

2010-04-12
2010-01-0415
Acoustics comfort is a key point for the ground transportation market and in particular in the automotive area. A significant contributor to the noise levels in the cabin in the range 200Hz to 3000Hz is the HVAC (Heating, Ventilating, and Air Conditioning) system, consisting of sub-systems such as the air intake duct, thermal mixing unit, blower, ducts, and outlet vents. The noise produced by an HVAC system is mainly due to aeroacoustics mechanisms related to the flow fluctuations induced by the blower rotation. The structure borne noise related to the surface induced vibrations and to the noise transmission through the dash or plastic panels may also contribute but is not considered in this study. This study presents a digital approach for HVAC aeroacoustics noise predictions related to the ducts and outlet vents. In order to validate the numerical method flow and acoustics measurements are performed on production HVAC systems placed in an anechoic room.
Technical Paper

Characteristic Evaluation and Improvement of Suspension Rattle Noise

2010-04-12
2010-01-1141
The purpose of this paper is to identify and reduce the suspension rattle noise. First, the characteristics of the rattle noise are analyzed experimentally in the time and frequency domain. It was found that the rattle noise and vibration at shock absorber mounting point are strongly correlated. Second, the sensitivity analysis of design parameters is performed using a half car model in ADAMS. The result of the simulation model is verified by comparison with test. Finally, the influence of design parameters for the rattle noise is investigated. The study shows that the shock absorber mounting bushing is the most sensitive parameter to affect the suspension rattle noise. This paper shows how the suspension rattle noise can be improved.
Technical Paper

Development of Control Logic and Optimization of Catalyst in DeNOx System with Secondary Injection for Euro 6

2010-04-12
2010-01-1067
A technical approach to reduce NOx and to minimize the fuel consumption caused by the DeNOx aftertreatment system was introduced. The NEDC mode test of the HMC (Hyundai Motor Company) DeNOx system was done with a Euro 5 vehicle (ETW (Equivalent Test Weight) = 1,810 kg, 143 kW, 430 N⋅m), which resulted in that the Euro 6 legislation standards were met. The NOx and HC emissions were, respectively, measured to be 0.059 g/km and 0.087 g/km with the hydrothermal-aged catalysts, and CO₂ was increased by ≺ 4%.
Technical Paper

Model Based Optimization of Supervisory Control Parameters for Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2008-04-14
2008-01-1453
Supervisory control strategy of a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) provides target powers and operating points of an internal combustion engine and an electric motor. To promise efficient driving of the HEV, it is needed to find the proper values of control parameters which are used in the strategy. However, it is very difficult to find the optimal values of the parameters by doing experimental tests, since there are plural parameters which have dependent relationship between each other. Furthermore variation of the test results makes it difficult to extract the effect of a specific parameter change. In this study, a model based parameter optimization method is introduced. A vehicle simulation model having the most of dynamics related to fuel consumption was developed and validated with various experimental data from real vehicles. And then, the supervisory control logic including the control parameters was connected to the vehicle model.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Powertrain Control Strategy for Series-Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicles

2007-08-05
2007-01-3472
The series-parallel hybrid electric vehicle(HEV), which employs a planetary gear set to combine one internal combustion engine(ICE) and two electric motors(EMs), can take advantages of both series and parallel hybrid system. The efficient powertrain operating point of the system can be obtained by the instantaneous optimization of equivalent fuel consumption. However, heavy computational requirements and variable constraints of the optimization process make it difficult to build real-time control strategy. To overcome the difficulty, this study suggests the control strategy which divides the optimization process into 2 stages. In the first stage, a target of charge/discharge power is determined based on equivalent fuel consumption, then in the second stage, an engine operating point is determined taking power transfer efficiency into account.
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