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Technical Paper

Development of an Air Support System for Long-Distance Drive Comfort

Passenger fatigue during long distance driving is greatly influenced by the comfort performance of the seat. Seat comfort performance is determined by the appropriate contour of the seat and the appropriate pad with sufficient thickness. The height of vehicle has been lowered to enhance car styling, and battery for electric vehicle applied to the underbody of the vehicle, reducing the package space of the seat in the vehicle. These external factors eventually lead to a reduced pad thickness of the seat cushion and compromise one of the important components in the seat cushion compartment, creating an uncomfortable cushioning problem when driving long distances. To improve the cushion composition of the seat within a limited package, air bladders are applied to the underside of the cushion pad. In addition, the function to support the buttocks using the air bladders of the lower cushion, similar to lumbar support for the back, was implemented to improve cushion comfort performance.
Technical Paper

Development of Logistic Regression Models to Classify Seat Fit

The digital evaluation process of vehicle-seat dimensions is an efficient and cost-effective way to achieve better seating comfort and proper fit. The present study is intended to quantify the statistical relationships between seat dimensions (e.g., insert width and bolster height defined at SAE J2732) and subjective seat fit (e.g., too tight, right fit, or too wide). Subjective fit evaluations for 45 different vehicle seats and the corresponding vehicle seat dimensions at various cross-sectional planes were collected by seat engineers (experts). The best subset logistic regression analyses were applied to quantify the relationships between the collected expert evaluations and seat dimensions at each cross-sectional plane. As a result, significant seat dimensions on the seat fit were identified and their statistical relationships were quantified as regression coefficients.
Journal Article

A Study on the Characteristics of an Oil-Free Centrifugal Compressor for Fuel Cell Vehicles

The subject of this study is a centrifugal compressor for Fuel Cell Electric Vehicles (FCEV). Recently there is a growing interest in FCEVs since they are considered a realistic solution to environmental regulations for passenger cars to reduce emissions. Water vapor is the only byproduct of a reaction in the Proton Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack which generates electricity with oxygen from the surrounding air and hydrogen from a fuel tank. Auxiliary systems called Balance of Plant (BOP) serve to provide air and hydrogen to the stack in a correct ratio. The compressor is one of key components of this system because compression of the intake air brings an increase in efficiency and power density of the FCEV. This paper presents the characteristics of a 10 kW class centrifugal compressor with an oil-free bearing system. It consists of a shaft, two airfoil journal bearings and a pair of thrust bearings.
Technical Paper

A Study on Optimization of the Cross-Section of Door Impact Beam for Weight Reduction

This paper focuses on the optimization of the cross-section of a panel type impact door beam. The key parameters of the cross-section of the beam were artificially changed by using a geometry morphing tool FCM (Fast Concept Modeler), which is plugged in to CATIA. Then, the metamodel of FE (Finite Element) analysis results was created and optimized using LS-OPT. The ANOVA (Analysis of Variance) analysis of results was carried out to find the factor of weight reduction. Finally, a new cross section concept was proposed to overcome the limitation of old structure. The optimization was carried out for the beam with the final cross-section to have 10 % or more reduction in total weight.
Technical Paper

Development of the Rig and Hardware-in-the-Loop Test Bench for Evaluating Steering Performance

The development of vehicles faces changes in many future flows. The vehicle’s power transfer systems are being changed from conventional types to Hybrid, Electric and Hydrogen vehicles. At this moment, the technology of EPS (Electric Power Steering) system has been expanding from a simple torque assist system to LKAS(Lane Keeping Assist System), PAP(Park Assist Pilot), ALCAS(Active Lane Change System), ADAS(Advanced Driver Assistance System). A good test bench is necessary for the evaluation of both hardware and control logics of EPS in these complexities of development process. Simultaneous Rig and HILS tests can be performed to check that the steering hardware system can perform to the concept of the development vehicle and develop EPS control logic performances. The hardware performance of the steering system might be evaluated based on measured friction and stiffness, taking into account various driving conditions.
Technical Paper

Pre-Validation Method of Steering System by Using Hybrid Simulation

In this study, the preliminary validation method of the steering system is constructed and the objective is to satisfy the target performance in the conceptual design stage for minimizing the problems after the detailed design. The first consideration about steering system is how to extract the reliable steering effort for parking. The tire model commonly used in MBD(Multi-Body Dynamics) has limited ability to represent deformations under heavy loads. Therefore, it is necessary to study adequate tire model to simulate the behavior due to the large deformation and friction between the ground and the tire. The two approaches related with F tire model and mathematical model are used. The second is how to extract each link’s load in the conceptual design stage. Until now, each link’s load could be derived only by actual vehicle test, and a durability analysis was performed using only pre-settled RIG test conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Si-DLC Coated Tappet for Improved Wear Resistance

Most bucket type valvetrain engines use DLC coated tappet for low friction and fuel efficiency. However the requirements on coating robustness have been increased as the tribological environments have become more severe by use of low viscosity oil or higher engine output. In order to obtain higher coating efficiency and improved wear resistance, 5∼9 at.% Si doped DLC (Si-DLC) coated tappet has been developed using PACVD process. Thermal stability and wear resistance of Si-DLC were improved impressively than those of DLC, although mechanical properties such as hardness and adhesion were degradated. It seems that Si suppresses a graphitization of DLC and thin SixOy film on coating surface acts as a barrier to oxidation or flash heat.
Technical Paper

Study on Characteristics of Motor Output Power Depending on Current Sensor Response in Eco-Friendly Vehicles

The current sensor for motor control is one of the main components in inverters for eco-friendly vehicles. Recently, as the higher performance of torque control has become required, the current sensor measurement error and accuracy of motor controls have become more significant. Since the response time of the sensor affects the motor output power, the response delay of the sensor causes measurement errors of the current. Accordingly, the voltage vector changes, and a motor output power deviation occurs. In the case of the large response delay of the sensor, as motor speed increases, then difference between motoring and generating output power becomes larger and larger. This results in the deterioration of power performance in high-speed operation. The deviation of the voltage vector magnitude is the main cause of motor output power deviation and imbalance through the simulation.
Journal Article

Development of Personalized Engine Sound System using Active Sound Design Technology

An important trend among vehicle NVH engineers is the production of attractive engine acceleration sound quality for the enhancement of a vehicle's image and performance. In addition, customers have increasing interest and enjoyment in customizing their cars to reflect their personal taste and preferences. The PESS (Personalized Engine Sound System) has been developed for making a unique and individually customizable vehicle concept. The system allows the customers an opportunity to create a variety of engine sounds in a single vehicle using active sound design technology. In this system, three different engine sound concepts are pre-defined, Dynamic, Sporty, and Extreme. Each of the engine sounds can then be adjusted with parameters that determine the timbre, such as main order, rumble, and high order. In addition, the pedal position during acceleration has also been used as a parameter to further personalize the experience.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Driver's Behavior and Environmental Conditions on Thermal Management of Electric Vehicles

Worldwide projections anticipate a fast-growing market share of the battery electric vehicles (BEVs) to meet stringent emissions regulations for global warming and climate change. One of the new challenges of BEVs is the effective and efficient thermal management of the BEV to minimize parasitic power consumption and to maximize driving range. Typically, the total efficiency of BEVs depends on the performance and power consumption of the thermal management system, which is highly affected by several factors, including driving environments (ambient temperature and traffic conditions) and driver's behavior (aggressiveness). Therefore, this paper investigates the influence of these factors on energy consumption by using a comprehensive BEV simulation integrated with a thermal management system model. The vehicle model was validated with experimental data, and a simulation study is performed by using the vehicle model over various traffic scenarios generated from a traffic simulator.
Journal Article

A Study of the Disc Scoring Generation Principle and Reduction(III)

In the latest works [12], we presented the guideline for reducing Metal pick up(MPU, the main component of disc scoring) by controlling the location of the roughness of disc, the brake pad friction coefficients and the disc slot's size. In this study, the previously studied iron transfer theory to 'Cu free' brake pad and the disc surface roughness controlling methods which are based on the mass production manufacturing process are applied. It is possible to suggest the ways to improve the scoring-free disc without reducing friction coefficient between the disc and pad, and any demerit such as increased wear and airplane noise like conventional slot discs [11].
Technical Paper

The Development of Active Geometry Control Suspension (AGCS) System

This paper presents the development of the active geometry control suspension(AGCS) system as the world-first, unique and patented chassis technology, which has more advantages than the conventional active chassis control systems in terms of basic concept. The control approach of the conventional systems such as active suspensions(slow active, full active) and four wheel steering(4WS) system is directly to control the same direction with acting load to stabilize vehicle behavior resulting from external inputs, but AGCS controls the cause of vehicle behaviors occurring from vehicle and thus makes the system stable because it works as mechanical system after control action. The effect of AGCS is the remarkable enhancement of avoidance performance in abrupt lane change driving by controlling the rear bump toe geometry.