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Technical Paper

Shock Waves Generated by High-Pressure Fuel Sprays Directly Imaged by X-Radiography

Synchrotron x-radiography and a novel fast x-ray detector are used to visualize the detailed, time-resolved structure of the fluid jets generated by a high pressure diesel-fuel injection. An understanding of the structure of the high-pressure spray is important in optimizing the injection process to increase fuel efficiency and reduce pollutants. It is shown that x-radiography can provide a quantitative measure of the mass distribution of the fuel. Such analysis has been impossible with optical imaging due to the multiple-scattering of visible light by small atomized fuel droplets surrounding the jet. In addition, direct visualization of the jet-induced shock wave proves that the fuel jets become supersonic under appropriate injection conditions. The radiographic images also allow quantitative analysis of the thermodynamic properties of the shock wave.
Technical Paper

Degree of Hybridization Modeling of a Hydrogen Fuel Cell PNGV-Class Vehicle

An ADVISOR model of a PNGV-class (80 mpg) vehicle with a fuel cell / battery hybrid electric drivetrain is developed using validated component models. The vehicle mass, electric traction drive, and total net power available from fuel cells plus batteries are held fixed. Results are presented for a range of fuel cell size from zero (pure battery EV) up to a pure fuel cell vehicle (no battery storage). The fuel economy results show that some degree of hybridization is beneficial, and that there is a complex interaction between the drive cycle dynamics, component efficiencies, and the control strategy.
Technical Paper

US National Laboratory R&D Programs in Support of Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicle Batteries

The successful commercialization of Electric Vehicles (EVs) and Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEVs) can provide significant benefits by reducing the United States' growing dependence on petroleum fuels for transportation; decreasing polluting and greenhouse gas emissions; and facilitating a long-term transition to sustainable renewable energy sources. Recognizing these benefits, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) supports an active program of long-range R&D to develop electric vehicle (EV) and hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) technologies and to accelerate their commercialization. The DOE Office of Advanced Automotive Technologies (OAAT) supports several innovative R&D programs, conducted in partnership with DOE's national laboratories, industry, other government agencies, universities, and small businesses. The Office has two key R&D cooperative agreements with the U.S. Advanced Battery Consortium (USABC) to develop high-energy batteries for EVs and high-power batteries for HEVs.
Technical Paper

Energy Efficient Battery Heating in Cold Climates

In cold climates batteries in electric and hybrid vehicles need to be preheated to achieve desired performance and life cycle of the energy storage system and the vehicle. Several approaches are available: internal core heating; external electric heating of a module; internal electric heating in the module around each cell, internal fluid heating around each cell; and external fluid heating around each module. To identify the most energy efficient approach, we built and analyzed several transient thermal finite element models of a typical battery. The thermal transient response of the battery core was computed for the first four heating techniques, which were compared based on the energy required to bring the battery to the desired temperature in a given time. Battery core heating was the most effective method to warm battery quickly with the least amount of energy. Heating the core by applying high frequency alternating currents through battery terminals is briefly discussed.
Technical Paper

Thermal Evaluation of Toyota Prius Battery Pack

As part of a U.S. Department of Energy supported study, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has benchmarked a Toyota Prius hybrid electric vehicle from three aspects: system analysis, auxiliary loads, and battery pack thermal performance. This paper focuses on the testing of the battery back out of the vehicle. More recent in-vehicle dynamometer tests have confirmed these out-of-vehicle tests. Our purpose was to understand how the batteries were packaged and performed from a thermal perspective. The Prius NiMH battery pack was tested at various temperatures (0°C, 25°C, and 40°C) and under driving cycles (HWFET, FTP, and US06). The airflow through the pack was also analyzed. Overall, we found that the U.S. Prius battery pack thermal management system incorporates interesting features and performs well under tested conditions.
Technical Paper

A Modular Battery Management System for HEVs

Proper electric and thermal management of an HEV battery pack, consisting of many modules of cells, is imperative. During operation, voltage and temperature differences in the modules/cells can lead to electrical imbalances from module to module and decrease pack performance by as much as 25%. An active battery management system (BMS) is a must to monitor, control, and balance the pack. The University of Toledo, with funding from the U.S. Department of Energy and in collaboration with DaimlerChrysler and the National Renewable Energy Laboratory has developed a modular battery management system for HEVs. This modular unit is a 2nd generation system, as compared to a previous 1st generation centralized system. This 2nd generation prototype can balance a battery pack based on cell-to-cell measurements and active equalization. The system was designed to work with several battery types, including lithium ion, NiMH, or lead acid.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Lithium-Ion Battery Performance in Hybrid Electric Vehicles

In this study, three batteries were designed and these designs were evaluated in a hybrid vehicle simulation program. The battery designs were based on laboratory tests of 18650 cells for which a Lumped Parameter Battery Model was employed to correlate the cell impedance data. The three battery designs were each tested on three driving cycles, the Federal Urban Driving Schedule, the Highway Fuel Economy Test, and a special cycle developed to test the full power of the vehicle. The results of these simulation tests showed that the battery impedances were low for much of the time because the discharging and charging currents are not maintained at high levels for long periods of time on these cycles. For these conditions, the rates of heat generation in the batteries that were calculated by the simulation programs were low and may not be a serious problem.
Technical Paper

The Prospects for Electric and Hybrid Electric Vehicles: Second-Stage Results of a Two-Stage Delphi Study

A two-stage Delphi study was conducted to collect information that would enable a technical and economic assessment of electric (EV) and hybrid electric (HEV) vehicles. The first-stage worldwide survey was completed in fall 1994 while the second-stage was completed by summer 1995. The paper reports results from the second round of the survey and the major differences between the two rounds. This second-stage international survey obtained information from 93 expert respondents from the automotive technology field. The second stage response provided the following key results. EVs will penetrate the market first followed by internal combustion engine powered HEVs while gas turbine and fuel cell powered HEVs will not have any significant penetration until after 2020. By 2020 EVs and internal combustion engine powered HEVs are projected to have approximately a 15% share of the new vehicle market.
Technical Paper

An Overview of ARES Research

With an intention to improve the performance of reciprocating engines used for distributed generation US-Dept. of Energy has launched ARES program. Under this program, the performance targets for these natural gas-fuelled stationary engines are ≻ 50% efficiency and NOx emissions ≺ 0.1 g/bhp-hr by 2013. This paper presents two technologies developed under this program. Lean-burn operation is very popular with engine manufacturers as it offers simultaneous low-NOx emissions and high engine efficiencies, while not requiring the use of any aftertreatment devices. Though engines operating on lean-burn operation are capable of better performance, they are currently limited by the inability to sustain reliable ignition under lean conditions. Addressing such an issue, research has evaluated the use of laser ignition as an alternative to the conventional Capacitance Discharge Ignition (CDI).
Technical Paper

Development of Modular Electrical, Electronic, and Software System Architectures for Multiple Vehicle Platforms

Rising costs continue to be a problem within the automotive industry. One way to address these rising costs is through modularity. Modular systems provide the ability to achieve product variety through the combination and standardization of components. Modular design approaches used in development of vehicle electrical, electronic, and software (EES) systems allow sharing of architectures/modules between different product lines (vehicles). This modular design approach may provide economies of scale, reduced development time, reduced order lead-time, easier product diagnostics, maintenance and repair. Other benefits of this design approach include development of a variety of EES systems through component swapping and component sharing. In this paper, new optimization algorithms and software tools are presented that allow vehicle EES system design engineers to develop modular architectures/modules that can be shared across vehicle platforms (for OEMs) and across OEMs (for suppliers).
Technical Paper

Development and Implementation of SAE DC Charging Digital Communication for Plug-in Electric Vehicle DC Charging

This paper outlines the development and progress of implementing the SAE J2931, J2847/2 and J1772 communication standards to accomplish off-board DC charging. Communication between the off-board DC Electric Vehicle Supply Equipment (EVSE) and Plug-in Electric Vehicle (PEV) occurs on the pilot wire of the SAE J1772 connector via HomePlug Green PHY power line communication (PLC). An Electric Vehicle Communication Controller (EVCC) was developed to interface with the PEV's Battery Energy Control Module (BECM). A Supply Equipment Communication Controller (SECC) was also developed to interface with the DC EVSE's Power Control Module (PCM). Firmware was developed to implement the SAE J2931/1 communication stack, which is harmonized with the ISO/IEC DIS 15118-2 and DIN 70121 standards for DC charging communication.
Technical Paper

A Least-Cost Method for Prioritizing Battery Research

A methodology has been developed for identifying the combination of battery characteristics which lead to least-cost electric vehicles. Battery interrelationships include specific power vs, specific energy, peak power vs. specific energy and DOD, cycle life vs. DOD, cost vs. specific energy and peak power, and volumetric and battery size effects. The method is illustrated for the “second car” mission assuming lead/acid batteries. Reductions in life-cycle costs associated with future battery research breakthroughs are estimated using a sensitivity technique. A research prioritization system is described.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of Electric Vehicle Life Cycle Costs to Consumers

A methodology for evaluating life cycle cost of electric vehicles (EVs) to their buyers is presented. The methodology is based on an analysis of conventional vehicle costs, costs of drivetrain and auxiliary components unique to EVs, and battery costs. The conventional vehicle's costs are allocated to such subsystems as body, chassis, and powertrain. In electric vehicles, an electric drive is substituted for the conventional powertrain. The current status of the electric drive components and battery costs is evaluated. Battery costs are estimated by evaluating the material requirements and production costs at different production levels; battery costs are also collected from other sources. Costs of auxiliary components, such as those for heating and cooling the passenger compartment, are also estimated. Here, the methodology is applied to two vehicle types: subcompact car and minivan.

Lithium Ion Batteries in Electric Drive Vehicles

This research focuses on the technical issues that are critical to the adoption of high-energy-producing lithium Ion batteries. In addition to high energy density / high power density, this publication considers performance requirements that are necessary to assure lithium ion technology as the battery format of choice for electrified vehicles. Presentation of prime topics includes: • Long calendar life (greater than 10 years) • Sufficient cycle life • Reliable operation under hot and cold temperatures • Safe performance under extreme conditions • End-of-life recycling To achieve aggressive fuel economy standards, carmakers are developing technologies to reduce fuel consumption, including hybridization and electrification. Cost and affordability factors will be determined by these relevant technical issues which will provide for the successful implementation of lithium ion batteries for application in future generations of electrified vehicles.