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Technical Paper

Hardware and Software Constraints for Automotive Firewall Systems?

2016-04-05
2016-01-0063
Introduction The introduction of Ethernet and Gigabit Ethernet [2] as the main invehicle network infrastructure is the technical foundation for different new functionalities such as piloted driving, minimizing the CO2- footprint and others. The high data rate of such systems influences also the used microcontrollers due the fact that a big amount of data has to be transferred, encrypted, etc. Figure 1 Motivation - Vehicles will become connected to uncontrolled networks The usage of Ethernet as the in-vehicle-network enables the possibility that future road vehicles are going to be connected with other vehicles and information systems to improve system functionality. These previously closed automotive systems will be opened up for external access (see Figure 1). This can be Car2X connectivity or connection to personal devices. Allowing vehicle systems to communicate with other systems that are not within their physical boundaries impose a previously non-existing security problem.
Technical Paper

Enhanced Injector Dead Time Compensation by Current Feedback

2016-04-05
2016-01-0088
The constant motivation for lower fuel consumption and emission levels has always been in the minds of most auto makers. Therefore, it is important to have precise control of the fuel being delivered into the engine. Gasoline Port fuel injection has been a matured system for many years and cars sold in emerging markets still favor such system due to its less system complexity and cost. This paper will explain injection control strategy of today during development, and especially the injector dead-time compensation strategy in detail and how further improvements could still be made. The injector current profile behavior will be discussed, and with the use of minimum hardware electronics, this paper will show the way for a new compensation strategy to be adopted.
Technical Paper

Motor Control in Auxiliary Drive Systems How to Choose the Best Fitting Electronic Solution

2014-04-01
2014-01-0323
In modern vehicles, the number of small electrical drive systems is still increasing continuously for blowers, fans and pumps as well as for window lifts, sunroofs and doors. Requirements and operating conditions for such systems varies, hence there are many different solutions available for controlling such motors. In most applications, simple, low-cost DC motors are used. For higher requirements regarding operating time and in stop-start capable systems, the focus turns to highly efficient and durable brushless DC motors with electronic commutation. This paper compares various electronic control concepts from a semiconductor vendor point of view. These concepts include discrete control using relays or MOSFETs. Furthermore integrated motor drivers are discussed, including system-on-chip solutions for specific applications, e.g. specific ICs for window lift motors with LIN interface.
Technical Paper

Timing Analysis and Tracing Concepts for ECU Development

2014-04-01
2014-01-0190
Integration scenarios for ECU software become more complicated, as more constraints with regards to timing, safety and security need to be considered. Multi-core microcontrollers offer even more hardware potential for integration scenarios. To tackle the complexity, more and more model based approaches are used. Understanding the interaction between the different software components, not only from a functional but also from a timing view, is a key success factor for high integration scenarios. In particular for multi-core systems, an amazing amount of timing data can be generated. Usually a multi-core system handles more software functionality than a single-core system. Furthermore, there may be timing interference on the multicore systems, due to the shared usage of buses, memory banks or other hardware resources.
Technical Paper

Efficient Multi-Core Software Design Space Exploration for Hybrid Control Unit Integration

2014-04-01
2014-01-0260
Multi-core systems are adopted quickly in the automotive domain, Proof of concepts have been implemented for power train, body and chassis, involving hard real-time constraints. However, depending on the degree of integration, it can be costly, especially in those cases where existing single-core software has to be migrated over. Furthermore, there seems to be a high level of uncertainty, whether a found solution, with regards to partitioning, mapping and orchestration of software is close to an optimum solution. Some integrated solutions demonstrate considerably less performance, for instance due to communication overhead compared to execution on single-core systems. This paper discusses a methodology, as to how to effectively and efficiently investigate the software architecture design space for multi-core software development.
Technical Paper

Mechatronic Solution for Electronic Turbocharger

2003-03-03
2003-01-0712
An innovative way of lowering engine fuel consumption is to reduce engine displacement. However, smaller engines featuring reduced swept volume typically exhibit insufficient torque at low engine speeds. Conventional exhaust turbochargers are not able to compensate for this behavior and additionally suffer from the familiar turbo lag. One possible solution may be an electrically assisted turbocharger, with a high-speed motor providing the extra boost at low engine speeds. A critical factor for the efficiency of the concept is the ratio of the electric motor torque and the rotational mass inertia of the rotor. Testbench evaluation shows acceleration times of 0.5 seconds to reach speeds up to 70,000 rpm. Typically, the electrical load of such systems goes up to 3 kW. Target motors are various types of electrically commutated motors such as BLDC, switched reluctance or induction motors.
Technical Paper

System-Level Partitioning Using Mission-Level Design Tool for Electronic Valve Application

2003-03-03
2003-01-0865
In defining innovative and cost-effective chip sets for future automotive applications, system architects need high-level tools that allow them to rapidly determine the best silicon partitioning for a given application in terms of system performance as well as cost. The tool needs to be flexible, modular, and swift such that the system designer can perform abstract simulation iterations quickly for various functional partitioning scenarios, without requiring excessive computer resources. The tool must also be portable and adaptable to provide a simulation environment suitable to systems- or car-manufacturers for in-depth applications simulation and architecture assessment. The semiconductor component definition process using such a “mission-level” design tool for the automotive application electronic valve will be demonstrated. Methods for the analysis of electronic valve control system architectures using mission-level simulation will be developed.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Field-Stressed Power Inverter Modules from Electrified Vehicles

2015-04-14
2015-01-0421
This paper presents a reliability study of a directly cooled IGBT module after a test drive of 85,000 Km in a fuel cell electric vehicle, as well as of an indirectly cooled IGBT module after a test drive of 200,000km in a hybrid car on public roads. At the end of the test drive, the inverter units were disassembled and analyzed with regard to the lifetime consumption. First, electrical measurements were carried out and the results were compared with the ones obtained directly after module production (End of Line test). After that, ultrasonic microscopy was performed in order to investigate any delamination in the solder layers. As a third step, an optical inspection was performed to monitor damages in the housing, formation of cracks or degradation of wire bonds. The results show none of the depicted failure modes could be found on the tested power modules after the field test. Obviously, no significant life time consumption could be observed.
Technical Paper

Spontaneous Transistor Failures in Automotive Power Electronics

2014-04-01
2014-01-0228
The amount of electronics in vehicles is increasing, so is the amount of power electronics circuits, like inverters for electric motor drives or dc/dc converters. The muscles of these circuits are power transistors like MOSFETs and IGBTs - in each circuit are several of them. While MOSFETs and IGBTs have advanced over the years in terms of their performance, their wide product spectrum and feature spectrum as well as cost, they are still not unbreakable, but semiconductors which are more sensitive to electrical or thermal overstress than, a relay for instance. Especially electrical overstress, like overvoltage or over current, may damage a power transistor within a short time frame. Hence, electrical overstress must be avoided when designing the power electronics circuit. However, even a power transistor in a carefully designed power electronics circuit, may still be exposed to over current, short circuit, over voltage, over temperature and so forth.
Technical Paper

Hybrid Cars Setting New Challenges for Optimized Power Semiconductors

2014-04-01
2014-01-0242
The electrification of the powertrain is still one of the main challenges and innovation drivers for modern cars. With the introduction of the Toyota Prius, launched in Japan in 1997 the first commercially available hybrid car in mass production, the development continued towards the BMW i3 launched in July 2013. One main component for all kind of hybrid cars is still the power semiconductor, which is used for DC/DC converters and for the inverter to drive the electric motor for the traction control. What makes the selection of the right power semiconductor complex, is the variety of different voltage levels within the car (from standard 12V board net, the new 48V board net all the way up to 400V and above) plus different requirements in terms of switching and conduction performance, or accordingly power losses. The selection of device by application and voltage will be discussed in this paper.
Technical Paper

Non-standard CAN Network Topologies Verification at High Speed Transmission Rate using VHDL-AMS

2010-04-12
2010-01-0688
This paper considers the verification of non-standard CAN network topologies of the physical layer at high speed transmission rate (500.0Kbps and 1.0Mbps). These network topologies including single star, multiple stars, and hybrid topologies (multiple stars in combination with linear bus or with ring topology) are simulated by using behavior modeling language (VHDL-AMS) in comparison to measurement. Throughout the verification process, CAN transceiver behavioral model together with other CAN physical layer simulation components have been proved to be very accurate. The modeling of measurement environment of the CAN network is discussed, showing how to get the measurement and simulation results well matched. This demonstrates that the simulation solution is reliable, which is highly desired and very important for the verification requirement in CAN physical layer design.
Technical Paper

Non-Intrusive Tracing at First Instruction

2015-04-14
2015-01-0176
In recent years, we see more and more ECUs integrating a huge number of application software components. This process mostly results from the increasing amount of so called in-house software in various fields like electric-drive, chassis and driver assistance systems. The software development for these systems is partially moved from the supplier to the car manufacturers. Another important trend is the introduction of new network architectures intending to meet the growing communication requirements. For such ECUs the software integration scenarios become more complicated, as more quality of service requirements with regards to timing, safety and security need to be considered [2]. Multi-core microcontrollers offer even more potential variants for integration scenarios. Understanding the interaction between the different software components, not only from a functional, but also from a timing view, is a key success factor for modern electronic systems [6,7,8,9].
Technical Paper

Seamless Solutions for Powertrain Systems

2002-03-04
2002-01-1303
Fuel efficiency and clean combustion engine versus high engine performance - which will increase up to factor 10 in the next 5 years - with less engine displacement are driving more complex engine control systems in today's and future vehicles. The challenge is not only to design a perfect engine, but also to incorporate the right semiconductors. Beside this demand on high sophisticated electronics the demand on cost reduction - especially for small cars - is one driving factor for a smart partitioning. Infineon offers sensors, microcontrollers and power semiconductors for today's engine management platforms and therefore owns the right technologies to manufacture those devices. This opens up the possibility to integrate more functionality in less devices as in today's partitioning or to define electronics to simplify complex control strategies and to optimize the performance of each device.
Technical Paper

Cost Efficient Partitioning for New Generation of Automatic Transmission Gearbox Controllers

2006-04-03
2006-01-0403
This paper shall present advancements in electronic transmission control circuits addressing new challenges in the gearbox striving for improved vehicle efficiency and comfort of driving. Efficient chipset design, requires finding the optimal partitioning, that is the mapping of functionality to hardware or software and analog or digital circuit technology. The efficiency will be judged by minimal cost whilst achieving improved functionality and required scalability for a platform approach. Specific examples demonstrated are smart sensor architecture and new mapping of control strategies, realized with a novice integrated current control IC concept. Comparisons on system level are used to evaluate different function mappings as well as component partitioning. Details of the most optimized mapping and partitioning will be elaborated and first results of implementation in silicon components will be shown.
Technical Paper

The BRAKE Project - Centralized Versus Distributed Redundancy for Brake-by-Wire Systems

2002-03-04
2002-01-0266
This paper presents the objectives and preliminary results of the BRAKE project - a joint effort of Delphi Automotive Systems, Infineon Technologies, Volvo Car Corporation and WindRiver. The objective of this project is to use microelectronics technologies to design a distributed Brake-by-Wire system including: A distributed fault tolerant system for enhanced safety An extension of the OSEK based operating system for a distributed time triggered architecture An open interface between vehicle control, and brake system control The results comprise the requirements, interface specification (see [1]), a full simulation model, a hardware-in-the-loop bench, and a demonstration vehicle. The application has been developed using advanced automatic code generation for Infineon's TriCore based automotive microcontrollers.
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