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Technical Paper

Truck Frame Motion Prediction and Correlation

2006-04-03
2006-01-1257
Accurate motion prediction can be used to evaluate vibrations at seat track and steering wheel. This paper presents the prediction and correlation of truck frame motion from wheel force transducer (WFT) measurements. It is assumed that the method can be used to predict vibrations at seat track and steering wheel for unibody vehicles. Two durability events were used for calculation. WFT measurements were used as inputs applied on frame from suspension. Frame loads were then used as inputs to calculate frame motions using a FEA approach. The predicted frame motions are represented by four exhaust hangers and they are compared with measured motions of the same locations. The correlations include displacement, velocity, and acceleration. It is shown that good correlations are obtained in velocity and displacement. Acceleration shows bigger differences than velocity and displacement.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Finite Element Formulation for Computing Structure-Borne Vibration in a Body-In-White

2006-04-03
2006-01-1224
A new development in the area of the hybrid Finite Element Analysis (hybrid FEA) is presented. The hybrid FEA method combines the conventional FEA method with energy FEA (EFEA) for analysis of systems that contain both flexible and stiff members, and is suitable for mid-frequency computations. A formulation for analyzing flexible plates spot-welded to stiff beams when the excitation is applied on the stiff members is developed. Conventional FEA models are employed for modeling the behavior of the stiff members in a system. Appropriate damping elements are introduced in the connections between stiff and flexible members in order to capture the presence of the flexible members during the analyses of the stiff ones.
Technical Paper

Development of a Computerized Digital Resonance Fatigue Test Controller with Load Feedback Management

2006-04-03
2006-01-1620
In this report, the DCX Stress Lab and the Tool Development & Test Support groups investigated automating a resonant bending crankshaft fatigue test. Fatigue testing, in general, is a laborious process since many samples are needed for analysis. This makes development cost and speed dependant on the component test efficiency. In the case of crankshaft resonant bending testing, both cost and speed are influenced by the manual feedback operation needed to run the current procedure. In order to increase the efficiency of this process, this project sought to automate the following tasks: maintaining the load on the part, reacting to resonance changes in the part, mapping resonance changes, logging the number of cycles, and discerning resonance frequency shift failure modes objectively.
Technical Paper

Lightweight Magnesium Intensive Body Structure

2006-04-03
2006-01-0523
This paper describes a lightweight magnesium intensive automobile body structure concept developed at DaimlerChrysler to support a high fuel-efficiency vehicle project. This body structure resulted in more than 40% weight reduction over a conventional steel structure while achieving significantly improved structural performance as evaluated through CAE simulations. A business case analysis was conducted and showed promising results. One concept vehicle was built for the purpose of demonstrating concept feasibility. The paper also identifies areas for further development to enable such a vehicle to become a production reality at a later time.
Technical Paper

Sensitivity Analysis of Powertrain Cooling System Performance

2007-04-16
2007-01-0598
This paper identifies the difference in powertrain cooling system content levels using a nominal and a +3 Standard deviation maximum temperature design approach. Variation simulation analysis tools are used along with a 1-D cooling system performance model to predict resulting temperature distribution for different combinations of input variable populations. The analysis will show differential in powertrain cooling system content, mass, and impact to fuel economy for a nominal vs. +3 sigma design approach.
Technical Paper

Effect of Cross Flow on Performance of a PEM Fuel Cell

2007-04-16
2007-01-0697
A serpentine flow channel is one of the most common and practical channel layouts for a PEM fuel cell since it ensures the removal of water produced in a cell. While the reactant flows along the flow channel, it can also leak or cross to neighboring channels via the porous gas diffusion layer due to a high pressure gradient. Such a cross flow leads to effective water removal in a gas diffusion layer thus enlarging the active area for reaction although this cross flow has largely been ignored in previous studies. In this study, neutron radiography is applied to investigate the liquid water accumulation and its effect on the performance of a PEM fuel cell. Liquid water tends to accumulate in the gas diffusion layer adjacent to the flow channel area while the liquid water formed in the gas diffusion layer next to the channel land area seems to be effectively removed by the cross leakage flow between the adjacent flow channels.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Wind Tunnel Configurations for Testing Closed-Wheel Race Cars: A CFD Study

2006-12-05
2006-01-3620
This paper investigates the aerodynamic simulation accuracy of several types of wind tunnel test sections. Computational simulations were performed with a closed wheel race car in an 11.0 m2 adaptive wall, a 16.8 m2 open jet, and a 29.7 m2 slotted wall test section, corresponding to model blockage ratios of 20.9%, 13.7%, and 7.7%, respectively. These are compared to a simulation performed in a nearly interference-free condition having a blockage ratio of 0.05%, which for practical purposes of comparison, is considered a free air condition. The results demonstrate that the adaptive wall most closely simulates the free air condition without the need for interference corrections. In addition to this advantage, the significantly smaller size of the adaptive wall test section offers lower capital and operating costs.
Technical Paper

Model Based Development and Auto Testing: A Robust Approach for Reliable Automotive Software Development

2006-04-03
2006-01-1420
Automotive electronics and software is getting complex day by day. More and more features and functions are offered and supported by software in place of hardware. Communication is carried out on the CAN bus instead of hard wired circuits. This architectural transition facilitates lots of flexibility, agility and economy in development. However, it introduces risk of unexpected failures due to insufficient testing and million of possible combinations, which can be created by users during the life time of a product. Model based development supports an effective way of handling these complexities during simulation and also provide oracle for its validation. Based on priorities and type of applications, test vectors can be auto generated and can be used for formal verification of the models. These auto-generated test vectors are valuable assets in testing and can be effectively reused for target hardware (ECU) verification.
Technical Paper

Development of an Engine Test Cell for Rapid Evaluation of Advanced Powertrain Technologies using Model-Controlled Dynamometers

2006-04-03
2006-01-1409
Current engine development processes typically involve extensive steady-state and simple transient testing in order to characterize the engine's fuel consumption, emissions, and performance based on several controllable inputs such as throttle, spark advance, and EGR. Steady-state and simple transient testing using idealistic load conditions alone, however, is no longer sufficient to meet powertrain development schedule requirements. Mapping and calibration of an engine under transient operation has become critically important. And, independent engine development utilizing accelerated techniques is becoming more attractive. In order to thoroughly calibrate new engines in accelerated fashion and under realistic transient conditions, more advanced testing is necessary.
Technical Paper

Reliability and Robust Design of Automotive Thermal Systems - A Federated Approach

2006-04-03
2006-01-1576
Today automotive thermal systems development is a joint effort between an OEM and its suppliers. This paper presents a pilot program showing how OEMs and suppliers can jointly develop a reliable and robust thermal system using CAE tools over the internet. Federated Intelligent Product Environment (FIPER) has been used to establish B2B communication between OEMs and suppliers. Suppliers remotely run thermal systems computer models at the OEM site using the FIPER B2B feature.
Technical Paper

Rearview Mirror Reflectivity and the Tradeoff Between Forward and Rearward Seeing

1992-02-01
920404
In a laboratory study and in a mathematical modeling effort, we evaluated the effects of rearview mirror reflectivity on older and younger subjects' seeing ability under conditions designed to simulate night driving with headlamp glare present in the mirror. Rearview mirror reflectivity was varied while observers were required to detect both rearward stimuli seen through the mirror and forward stimuli seen directly. Lower reflectivity resulted in improved ability to see forward and reduced ability to see to the rear. The reduction in ability to see to the rear was much larger than the improvement in forward seeing. The results of the modeling and the laboratory study were in broad agreement, although there were some significant discrepancies. Although the present results cannot be used to make specific recommendations for rearview mirror reflectivity, they suggest that the reduction in rearward vision as reflectivity is lowered should be considered carefully.
Technical Paper

Grammatical Evolution Based Tool for Predicting Multivariable Response Surface for Laser Lap Welding

2008-04-14
2008-01-1372
The problem of predicting the quality of weld is critical to manufacturing. A great deal of data is collected under multiple conditions to predict the quality. The data generated at Daimler Chrysler has been used to develop a model based on grammatical evolution. Grammatical Evolution Technique is based on Genetic Algorithms and generates rules from the data which fit the data. This paper describes the development of a software tool that enables the user to choose input variables such as the metal types of top and bottom layers and their thickness, intensity and speed of laser beam, to generate a three dimensional map showing weld quality. A 3D weld quality surface can be generated in response to any of the two input variables picked from the set of defining input parameters. This tool will enable the user to pick the right set of input conditions to get an optimal weld quality. The tool is developed in Matlab with Graphical User Interface for the ease of operation.
Technical Paper

Effects of Processing Time on Strengths and Failure Modes of Dissimilar 5754/7075 and 7075/5754 Spot Friction Welds in Lap-Shear Specimens

2008-04-14
2008-01-1138
In this investigation, dissimilar 5754/7075 and 7075/5754 spot friction welds were first made under different processing conditions. The spot friction welds in lap-shear specimens were tested under quasi-static loading conditions. The optimal processing times to maximize the failure loads of the 5754/7075 and 7075/5754 welds under lap-shear loading conditions are identified. The maximum failure load of the 7075/5754 welds is about 40% larger than that of the 5754/7075 welds. Optical micrographs of both types of spot friction welds made at different processing times before and after failure are examined. The micrographs show different weld geometries and different failure modes of spot friction welds made at different processing times. The failure modes of the 5754/7075 and 7075/5754 spot friction welds appear to be quite complex and strongly depend on the geometry and the strength of the interfacial surface between the two deformed sheet materials.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Turbocharged E85 Engine for Formula SAE Racing

2008-06-23
2008-01-1774
A summary of the design and development process for a Formula SAE engine is described. The focus is on three fundamental elements on which the entire engine package is based. The first is engine layout and displacement, second is the fuel type, and third is the air induction method. These decisions lead to a design around a 4-cylinder 600cc motorcycle engine, utilizing a turbocharger and ethanol E-85 fuel. Concerns and constraints involved with vehicle integration are also highlighted. The final design was then tested on an engine dynamometer, and finally in the 2007 M-Racing FSAE racecar.
Technical Paper

Inhomogeneities in HCCI Combustion: An Imaging Study

2005-05-11
2005-01-2122
A four-valve-pentroof, direct-injection, optical engine fueled with n-heptane has been operated at four different steady-state HCCI operating conditions including 10% and 65% residuals, both at low and high swirl conditions. Both, planar toluene LIF and volume chemiluminescence show large scale inhomogeneity in the ensemble averaged images. The interpretation of the toluene-tracer LIF signals (when premixed with the fresh-air charge) as a marker for reaction homogeneity is discussed. A binarization scheme and a statistical analysis of the LIF images were applied to the per-cycle planar-LIF images revealing inhomogeneities both from cycle-to-cycle and within the regions of individual cycles that track with the average heat release rate. Comparison of these two homogeneity metrics between the four operating conditions reveals weak but discernable differences.
Technical Paper

Slip Resistance Predictions for Various Metal Step Materials, Shoe Soles and Contaminant Conditions

1987-11-01
872288
The relationship of slip resistance (or coefficient of friction) to safe climbing system maneuvers on high profile vehicles has become an issue because of its possible connection to falls of drivers. To partially address this issue, coefficients of friction were measured for seven of the more popular fabricated metal step materials. Evaluated on these steps were four types of shoe materials (crepe, leather, ribbed-rubber, and oil-resistant-rubber) and three types of contaminant conditions (dry, wet-water, and diesel fuel). The final factor evaluated was the direction of sole force application. Results showed that COF varied primarily as a function of sole material and the presence of contaminants. Unexpectedly, few effects were attributible to the metal step materials. Numerous statistical interactions suggested that adequate levels of COF are more likely to be attained by targeting control on shoe soles and contaminants rather than the choice of a particular step material.
Technical Paper

Model Analysis of a Diesel Engine Cylinder Block using HEXA8 Finite Elements - Analysis and Experiment

1988-10-01
881853
Analytical and experimental investigations of a diesel engine cylinder block are performed. An attempt is made to reduce modeling and analysis costs in the design process of an engine. Traditionally, the engine has been modeled using either 8-node or 20-node solid elements for stress and thermal analyses and modeled using 4-node plate and shell elements for the dynamic analysis. In this paper, a simpler finite element modeling technique using only 8 node solid elements for both dynamic and static analyses is presented. Based on this integrated modeling technique of finite elements, eigenvalues are calculated and compared with the experimental data obtained from modal testing of an actual engine cylinder block.
Technical Paper

Process to Achieve NVH Goals: Subsystem Targets via “Digital Prototype” Simulations

1999-05-17
1999-01-1692
A process to achieve vehicle system level NVH objectives using CAE simulation tools is discussed. Issues of modeling methodology, already covered adequately in the literature, are less emphasized so that the paper can focus on the application of a process that encompasses objective setting, design synthesis, and performance achievement using simulation predictions. A reference simulation model establishes correlation levels and modeling methods that are applied to future predictions. The new model, called a “Digital Mule”, is an early new product “design intent” simulation used to arrive at subsystem goals to meet the vehicle level NVH objectives. Subsystem goals are established at discrete noise paths where structure borne noise enters the body subsystem. The process also includes setting limits on the excitation sources, such as suspension and powertrain.
Technical Paper

Perforated Damping Treatment; A Novel Approach to Reduction of Weight

1999-05-17
1999-01-1679
In noise and vibration control, damping treatments are applied on panel surfaces to dissipate the energy of flexural vibrations. Presence of damping treatment on the surface of a panel also plays an important role in the resulting vibro-acoustic characteristics of the composite system. The focus of this study is to explore possibilities of reducing the weight of damping treatments by means of perforation without sacrificing performance. The power injection concept from Statistical Energy Analysis (SEA) is used in conjunction with Finite Element Analysis (FEA) to predict the effect of perforated unconstrained layer treatments on flat rectangular panels. Normalized radiated sound power of the treated panels are calculated to assess the effect of varying percentage of perforation on structural-acoustic coupling.
Technical Paper

Representation of Constrained/Unconstrained Layer Damping Treatments in FEA/SEA Vehicle System Models: A Simplified Approach

1999-05-17
1999-01-1680
In this study, a simplified approach to modeling the dynamics of damping treatments in FEA (Finite Element)/ SEA (Statistical Energy) models is presented. The basic idea is to represent multi-layered composite structures with an equivalent layer. The properties of the equivalent layer are obtained by using the RKU (Ross, Kerwin and Ungar) method. The procedure presented here does not require any special pre-processing of the finite element input file and it does not increase the number of active degrees of freedom in the model, thereby making it possible to include the effect of these treatments in large system/subsystem level models. The equivalent properties obtained from RKU analysis can also be used in the SEA system models. In this study, both unconstrained and constrained layer damping treatments applied to simple structures (e.g., flat panels) as well as production vehicle components are examined.
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