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Technical Paper

Investigation on Differences in Engine Efficiency with Regard to Fuel Volatility and Engine Load

An HSDI Diesel engine was fuelled with standard Swedish environmental class 1 Diesel fuel (MK1), Soy methyl ester (B100) and n-heptane (PRF0) to study the effects of both operating conditions and fuel properties on engine performance, resulting emissions and spray characteristics. All experiments were based on single injection diesel combustion. A load sweep was carried out between 2 and 10 bar IMEPg. For B100, a loss in combustion efficiency as well as ITE was observed at low load conditions. Observed differences in exhaust emissions were related to differences in mixing properties and spray characteristics. For B100, the emission results differed strongest at low load conditions but converged to MK1-like results with increasing load and increasing intake pressures. For these cases, spray geometry calculations indicated a longer spray tip penetration length. For low-density fuels (PRF0) the spray spreading angle was higher.
Technical Paper

Combustion Chamber Geometry Effects on the Performance of an Ethanol Fueled HCCI Engine

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion is limited in maximum load due to high peak pressures and excessive combustion rate. If the rate of combustion can be decreased the load range can be extended. From previous studies it has been shown that by using a deep square bowl in piston geometry the load range can be extended due to decreased heat release rates, pressure rise rates and longer combustion duration compared to a disc shaped combustion chamber. The explanation for the slower combustion was found in the turbulent flow field in the early stages of the intake stroke causing temperature stratifications throughout the charge. With larger temperature differences the combustion will be longer compared to a perfectly mixed charge with less temperature variations. The methods used for finding this explanation were high-speed cycle-resolved chemiluminescence imaging and fuel tracer planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF), together with large eddy simulations (LES).
Journal Article

Investigation of the Combustion Characteristics with Focus on Partially Premixed Combustion in a Heavy Duty Engine

Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) has shown its potential by combining high combustion controllability with emission characteristics that are close to those of an HCCI engine. In order to get PPC the ignition delay needs to be long enough for the fuel and air to mix prior to combustion. This can be achieved by injecting the fuel sufficiently early while running with high EGR. In order to find out where and how PPC occurs a map that shows the changes in combustion characteristics with injection timing and EGR was created. The combustion characteristics were studied in a six cylinder heavy duty engine where the Start of Injection (SOI) was swept from early to late injection over a wide range of EGR levels. The emissions were monitored during the sweeps and in the most promising regions, with low emissions and high efficiency, additional changes in injection pressure and engine speed were applied to get a more versatile picture of the combustion.
Journal Article

Closed-Loop Combustion Control for a 6-Cylinder Port-Injected Natural-gas Engine

High EGR rates combined with turbocharging has been identified as a promising way to increase the maximum load and efficiency of heavy duty spark ignition engines. With stoichiometric conditions a three way catalyst can be used which means that regulated emissions can be kept at very low levels. Obtaining reliable spark ignition is difficult however with high pressure and dilution. There will be a limit to the amount of EGR that can be tolerated for each operating point. Open loop operation based on steady state maps is difficult since there is substantial dynamics both from the turbocharger and from the wall heat interaction. The proposed approach applies standard closed loop lambda control for controlling the overall air/fuel ratio for a heavy duty 6-cylinder port injected natural gas engine. A closed loop load control is also applied for keeping the load at a constant level when using EGR.
Journal Article

Ethanol-Diesel Fumigation in a Multi-Cylinder Engine

Fumigation was studied in a 12 L six-cylinder heavy-duty engine. Port-injected ethanol was ignited with a small amount of diesel injected into the cylinder. The setup left much freedom for influencing the combustion process, and the aim of this study was to find operation modes that result in a combustion resembling that of a homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) engine with high efficiency and low NOx emissions. Igniting the ethanol-air mixture using direct-injected diesel has attractive properties compared to traditional HCCI operation where the ethanol is ignited by pressure alone. No preheating of the mixture is required, and the amount of diesel injected can be used to control the heat release rate. The two fuel injection systems provide a larger flexibility in extending the HCCI operating range to low and high loads. It was shown that cylinder-to-cylinder variations present a challenge for this type of combustion.
Technical Paper

On the Use of Force Feedback for Cost Efficient Robotic Drilling

Drilling is one of the most costly and labour-intensive operations in aircraft assembly. Rather than automating with expensive fixtures and precise machinery, our approach is to make use of standard low-cost robot equipment in combination with sensor feedback. The focus is to eliminate the sliding movement of the end-effector during the clamp-up, called the skating effect, and to keep the end-effector orthogonal to the surface, thus avoiding holes that are not perpendicular. To that end, force feedback is used for building up pressure to clamp up an end-effector to the work-piece surface prior to drilling. The system, including the planning of force parameters for each hole to be drilled, was programmed in DELMIA. The drilling was accomplished with the aid of an extension to the ABB Rapid language called ExtRapid, which is an XML-like code that is interpreted by the force feedback controller downstream in the process.
Technical Paper

A Predictive Real Time NOx Model for Conventional and Partially Premixed Diesel Combustion

A previously presented robust and fast diagnostic NOx model was modified into a predictive model. This was done by using simple yet physically-based models for fuel injection, ignition delay, premixed heat release rate and diffusion combustion heat release rate. The model can be used both for traditional high temperature combustion and for high-EGR low temperature combustion. It was possible to maintain a high accuracy and calculation speed of the NOx model itself. The root mean square of the relative model error is 16 % and the calculation speed is around one second on a PC. Combustion characteristics such as ignition delay, CA50 and the general shape of the heat release rate are well predicted by the combustion model. The model is aimed at real time NOx calculation and optimization in a vehicle on the road.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Partially Premixed Combustion

Partially Premixed Combustion (PPC) provides the potential of simultaneous reduction of NOx and soot for diesel engines. This work attempts to characterize the operating range and conditions required for PPC. The characterization is based on the evaluation of emission and in-cylinder measurement data of engine experiments. It is shown that the combination of low compression ratio, high EGR rate and engine operation close to stoichiometric conditions enables simultaneous NOx and soot reduction at loads of 8bar, 12bar, and 15bar IMEP gross. The departure from the conventional NOx-soot trade-off curve has to be paid with a decline in combustion efficiency and a rise in HC and CO emissions. It is shown that the low soot levels of PPC come along with long ignition delay and low combustion temperature. A further result of this work is that higher inlet pressure broadens the operating range of Partially Premixed Combustion.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Formaldehyde and Fuel-Tracer LIF Imaging in a High-Speed Diesel Engine With Optically Accessible Realistic Combustion Chamber

Simultaneous laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) imaging of formaldehyde and a fuel-tracer have been performed in a high-speed diesel engine. N-heptane and isooctane were used as fuel and toluene was used as a tracer. This arrangement made it possible to make simultaneous measurements of toluene by exciting at 266 nm and detecting at 270-320 nm while exciting formaldehyde at 355 nm and detecting at 400-500 nm. The aim of this study is to investigate how traditional fuel tracer and natural-occurring formaldehyde formed in the cool chemistry are transported in the piston bowl. A range of ignition delays were created by running the engine with different amounts of EGR. During this sweep the area where the low-temperature reactions take place were studied. The measurements were performed in a 0.5-l, single-cylinder optical engine running under conditions simulating a cruise-point, i.e., about 2.2 bar imep.
Technical Paper

Digital Human Models' Appearance Impact on Observers' Ergonomic Assessment

The objective of this paper is to investigate whether different appearance modes of the digital human models (DHM or manikins) affect the observers when judging a working posture. A case where the manikin is manually assembling a battery in the boot with help of a lifting device is used in the experiment. 16 different pictures were created and presented for the subjects. All pictures have the same background, but include a unique posture and manikin appearance combination. Four postures and four manikin appearances were used. The subjects were asked to rank the pictures after ergonomic assessment based on posture of the manikin. Subjects taking part in the study were either manufacturing engineering managers, simulation engineers or ergonomists. Results show that the different appearance modes affect the ergonomic judgment. A more realistic looking manikin is rated higher than the very same posture visualized with a less natural appearance.
Technical Paper

A Catalytic NOX After-Treatment System for Heavy-Duty Trucks Using Diesel Fuel as Reducing Agent

An advanced catalytic exhaust after-treatment system addresses the problem of NOX emissions from heavy-duty diesel trucks, relying on real-time catalyst modelling. The system consists of de-NOX catalysts, a device for injection of a reducing agent (diesel fuel) upstream the catalysts, and computer programmes to control the injection of the reducing agent and to model the engine and catalysts in real time. Experiments with 5 different air-assisted injectors were performed to determine the effect of injector design on the distribution of the injected diesel in the exhaust gas stream. A two-injector set-up was investigated to determine whether system efficiency could be increased without increasing the amount of catalyst or the amount of reducing agent necessary for the desired outcome. The results were verified by performing European standard transient cycle tests as well as stationary tests.