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Technical Paper

Spatial Non-Uniformities in Diesel Particulate Trap Regeneration

Diesel particulate trap regeneration is a complex process involving the interaction of phenomena at several scales. A hierarchy of models for the relevant physicochemical processes at the different scales of the problem (porous wall, filter channel, entire trap) is employed to obtain a rigorous description of the process in a multidimensional context. The final model structure is validated against experiments, resulting in a powerful tool for the computer-aided study of the regeneration behavior. In the present work we employ this tool to address the effect of various spatial non-uniformities on the regeneration characteristics of diesel particulate traps. Non-uniformities may include radial variations of flow, temperature and particulate concentration at the filter inlet, as well as variations of particulate loading. In addition, we study the influence of the distribution of catalytic activity along the filter wall.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effect of a Catalyzed Particulate Filter on the Emissions from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR

The effects of a catalyzed particulate filter (CPF) and Exhaust Gas Recirculation (EGR) on heavy-duty diesel engine emissions were studied in this research. EGR is used to reduce the NOx emissions but at the same time it can increase total particulate matter (TPM) emissions. CPF is technology available for retrofitting existing vehicles in the field to reduce the TPM emissions. A conventional low sulfur fuel (371 ppm S) was used in all the engine runs. Steady-state loading and regeneration experiments were performed with CPF I to determine its performance with respect to pressure drop and particulate mass characteristics at different engine operating conditions. From the dilution tunnel emission characterization results for CPF II, at Mode 11 condition (25% load - 311 Nm, 1800 rpm), the TPM, HC and vapor phase emissions (XOC) were decreased by 70%, 62% and 62% respectively downstream of the CPF II.
Technical Paper

Wet Versus Dry Turning: A Comparison of Machining Costs, Product Quality, and Aerosol Formation

The use of cutting fluid in machining operations not only poses a health risk to workers but also creates environmental challenges associated with fluid treatment and disposal. In an effort to minimize these concerns and eliminate the costs associated with cutting fluids, e.g., purchase, maintenance, and treatment, dry machining is increasingly being considered as an alternative. This paper is focused on comparing dry and wet machining approaches from several perspectives, including air quality, product quality, and economics. Both experimental and analytical work is presented. Experiments have been performed to determine the effect cutting fluid has on product quality and aerosol generation in the wet and dry turning of gray cast iron. To compare costs in wet and dry turning, a cost model, which includes cutting fluid-related components, has also been established.
Technical Paper

Design and Development of a Model Based Feedback Controlled Cooling System for Heavy Duty Diesel Truck Applications Using a Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation

A thermal management system for heavy duty diesel engines is presented for maintaining acceptable and constant engine temperatures over a wide range of operational conditions. It consists of a computer controlled variable speed coolant pump, a position controlled thermostat, and a model-based control strategy. An experimentally validated, diesel engine cooling system simulation was used to demonstrate the thermal management system's capability to reduce power consumption. The controller was evaluated using a variety of operating scenarios across a wide range of loads, vehicle speeds, and ambient temperatures. Three metrics were used to assess the effects of the computer controlled system: engine temperature, energy savings, and cab temperature. The proposed control system provided very good control over the engine coolant temperatures while maintaining engine metal temperatures within a desired range.
Technical Paper

Recovery of Waste Polystyrene Generated by Lost Foam Technology in the Automotive Industry

In the automotive industry, lost foam casting is a relatively new technology, which is gaining popularity among manufacturers. Lost foam casting is a process in which an expanded polystyrene pattern is formed into the shape of the part to be cast. More complex parts are fabricated by simply gluing several simple patterns together. The pattern is then coated with a refractory material consisting of a mineral mixture and binders. Finally, hot metal is poured into the pattern, evaporating the expanded polystyrene and taking shape of the coating shell. However, the automotive industry has observed that a significant number of these fabricated, coated patterns are damaged, or do not meet specifications prior to casting. These are not reusable and inevitably are landfilled. It is the goal of this project to develop a simple, reliable, and inexpensive technology to recover expanded polystyrene from the glue and coating constituents.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Dilution Effects on Particle Size Measurement from a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine with EGR

A study of particle size distributions was conducted on a Cummins M11 1995 engine using the Scanning Mobility Particle Sizer (SMPS) instrument in the baseline and downstream of the Catalyzed Particulate Filter (CPF). Measurements were made in the dilution tunnel to investigate the effect of primary dilution ratio and mixture temperature on the nuclei and accumulation mode particle formation. Experiments were conducted at two different engine modes namely Mode 11 (25% load - 311 Nm, 1800 rpm) and Mode 9 (75% load - 932 Nm, 1800 rpm). The nanoparticle formation decreased with increasing dilution ratios for a constant mixture temperature in the baseline as well as downstream of the CPF II for Mode 11 condition. At Mode 9 condition in the baseline, the dilution ratio had a little effect on the nanoparticle formation, since the distribution was not bimodal and was dominated by accumulation mode particles.
Technical Paper

Inertial Contributions to the Pressure Drop of Diesel Particulate Filters

Wall-flow Diesel particulate filters operating at low filtration velocities usually exhibit a linear dependence between the filter pressure drop and the flow rate, conveniently described by a generalized Darcy's law. It is advantageous to minimize filter pressure drop by sizing filters to operate within this linear range. However in practice, since there often exist serious constraints on the available vehicle underfloor space, a vehicle manufacturer is forced to choose an “undersized” filter resulting in high filtration velocities through the filter walls. Since secondary inertial contributions to the pressure drop become significant, Darcy's law can no longer accurately describe the filter pressure drop. In this paper, a systematic investigation of these secondary inertial flow effects is presented.
Technical Paper

Noise and Emission Reduction Strategies for a Snowmobile

The following paper discusses alternative strategies for reducing noise and emission production from a two-stroke snowmobile. Electric, two-stroke and four-stroke solutions were analyzed and considered for entry in the Clean Snowmobile Challenge (CSC) 2000. A two-stroke solution was utilized primarily due to time constraints. Complete snowmobile competition results are provided. The electric solution, while the most effective at reducing emissions, is negatively impacted by weight and cost. A modified two-stroke solution, limited by cost and complexity, does not provide the required improvements in emissions. A four-stroke solution reduces noise and emissions and provides an acceptable trade-off between noise, emissions, performance and cost.
Technical Paper

Using a Manufacturing Process Classification System for Improved Environmental Performance

In terms of manufacturing processes and systems, decision-makers may encounter difficulty in making environmentally friendly choices. This difficulty arises largely because of the nascency of environmentally responsible manufacturing. There is a sparsity of environmental information on processes and a variety of seemingly unconnected tools, methods, concepts, etc. To help decisions-makers understand the nature of a process and identify the appropriate tools/methods that may be most suited to reducing environmental impact, a classification system for manufacturing processes is established. Methods and tools for environmentally responsible manufacturing are then identified for each class. Two examples are presented to show how the new classification system may be applied in environmentally responsible manufacturing.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Character and Deposition Rates of Sulfur Species in the EGR Cooling System of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

Various measurement techniques were employed to quantify sulfuric acid deposition levels and concentration of sulfuric acid in the condensate from the recirculated exhaust gas heat exchanger of a 1995 Cummins M11 heavy-duty diesel engine. Methods employed included a modified version of the sulfur species sampling system developed by Kreso et al. (1)*, rinsing the heat exchanger, and experiments employing a condensate collection device (CCD). The modified sampling system was applied to the inlet and outlet of the heat exchanger in order to quantify the changes in various sulfur compounds. Doped sulfur fuel (3300 to 4000 ppm S) was used to increase the concentrations of the various oxides of sulfur (SOx). These tests were performed at mode 9 of the old EPA 13-mode test cycle (1800 RPM, 932N*m) with 17-20% exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) at two EGR outlet temperatures: 160°C and 103°C.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Computer-Aided Engineering Model for Automobile Climate Control System Simulation and Application Part I: A/C Component Simulations and Integration

This paper details the computer algorithm which was developed to determine the A/C refrigeration circuit balance point under the system transient operating conditions. The A/C circuit model consisting of major component submodels, such as the evaporator, compressor, condenser, orifice, air handling system, and connecting hoses, are included in the study. Pressure drop and thermal capacity for the evaporator, condenser, and connecting ducts/hoses are also considered in the simulation. The results obtained from the simulation model are in good agreement with the experimental data. Users can take advantage of this CAE tool to optimize the A/C system design and to minimize the development process with time-saving and cost-effective perspectives.
Technical Paper

A Dynamic Computer-Aided Engineering Model for Automobile Climate Control System Simulation and Application Part II: Passenger Compartment Simulation and Applications

A Computer-Aided Engineering (CAE) model for automobile climate control system is presented to provide engineers with an cost effective analysis tool for designing, developing, and optimizing the vehicle interior climate. It is the objective of this paper to develop a mathematical model which predicts the lumped temperature and lumped humidity variations inside the passenger compartment under design and operating conditions. The transient nature of the passenger cabin temperature, average interior mass temperature, and humidity are modeled using three coupled non-linear ordinary differential equations based on mass and energy balances. These equations are then solved by a fourth-order Runge-Kutta method with adaptive step size control.
Technical Paper

A Computational Model Describing the Performance of a Ceramic Diesel Particulate Trap in Steady-State Operation and Over a Transient Cycle

A model for calculating the trap pressure drop, various particulate properties, filtration characteristics and trap temperatures was developed during the steady-state and transient cycles using the theory originated by Opris and Johnson, 1998. This model was validated with the data obtained from the steady-state cycles run with an IBIDEN SiC diesel particulate filter. To evaluate the trap experimental filtration efficiency, raw exhaust samples were taken upstream and downstream of the trap. A trap scaling and equivalent comparison model was developed for comparing different traps at the same volume and same filtration area. Using the model, the trap pressure drop data obtained from different traps were compared equivalently at the same trap volume and same filtration area. The pressure drop performance of the IBIDEN SiC trap compared favorably to the previously tested NoTox SiC and the Cordierite traps.
Technical Paper

The Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation Part 2 – Model Validation Using Transient Data

The Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation (VECSS) computer code has been developed at the Michigan Technological University to simulate the thermal response of a cooling system for an on-highway heavy duty diesel powered truck under steady and transient operation. In Part 1 of this research, the code development and verification has been presented. The revised and enhanced VECSS (version 8.1) software is capable of simulating in real-time a Freightliner FLD 120 truck with a Detroit Diesel Series 60 engine, Behr McCord radiator, Allied signal / Garrett Automotive charge air cooler and turbocharger, Kysor DST variable speed fan clutch, DDC oil and coolant thermostat. Other cooling system components were run and compared with experimental data provided by Kysor Cooling Systems. The experimental data were collected using the Detroit Diesel Electronic Control's (DDEC) Electronic Control Module (ECM) and the Hewlett Packard (HP) data acquisition system.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Effects of Exhaust Gas Recirculation on Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Emissions

The effects of exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) on heavy-duty diesel emissions were studied at two EPA steady-state operating conditions, old EPA mode 9* (1800 RPM, 75% Load) and old EPA mode 11 (1800 RPM, 25% Load). Data were collected at the baseline, 10% and 16% EGR rates for both EPA modes. The study was conducted using a 1995 Cummins M11-330E heavy-duty diesel engine and compared to the baseline emissions from the Cummins 1988 and 1991 L10 engines. The baseline gas-, vapor- and particle-phase emissions were measured together with the particle size distributions at all modes of operation. The total particulate matter (TPM) and vapor phase (XOC) samples were analyzed for physical, chemical and biological properties. The results showed that newer engines with electronic engine controls and higher injector pressures produce TPM decreases from the 1988 to 1991 to 1995 engines with the solids decreasing more than the soluble organic fraction (SOF) of TPM.
Technical Paper

Compound Electroformed Metal Nozzles for High Pressure Gasoline Injection

The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects that higher fluid injection pressures and nozzle geometry have on compound fuel injector nozzle performance. Higher pressures are shown to significantly reduce droplet size, increase the discharge coefficient and reduce the overall size of a nozzle spray. It is also shown that the geometry has a significant effect on nozzle performance, and it can be manipulated to give a desired spray shape.
Technical Paper

Dynamic Modeling of Forces on Snowplow Equipped Trucks

A major task of road and airfield maintenance for transportation departments in the Northern United States and in cold regions globally is snow removal. In addition, there is a service industry built on snowplow equipped light trucks to remove snow from vehicle serviceways and parking lots. Thus, a source of stresses on a truck frame are the forces applied by the plow. Unfortunately, very little research has been performed to provide design models that will predict these forces. In this paper, both theoretical and experimental work on developing expressions for snowplow forces will be discussed.
Technical Paper

The Performance of a Spark-Ignited Stratified-Charge Two Stroke Engine Operating on a Kerosine Based Aviation Fuel

This study examines the feasibility of broadening the fuel capabilities of a direct-injected two-stroke engine with stratified combustion. A three cylinder, direct-injected two-stroke engine was modified to operate on JP-5, a kerosene-based jet fuel that is heavier, more viscous, and less volatile than gasoline. Demonstration of engine operation with such a fuel after appropriate design modifications would significantly enhance the utilization of this engine in a variety of applications. Results have indicated that the performance characteristics of this engine with jet fuel are similar to that of gasoline with respect to torque and power output at low speeds and loads, but the engine's performance is hampered at the higher speeds and loads by the occurrence of knock.
Technical Paper

A Computer Simulation of the Turbocharged Diesel Engine as an Enhancement of the Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation

A computer simulation of the turbocharged direct- injection diesel engine was developed to enhance the capabilities of the Vehicle Engine Cooling System Simulation (VECSS) developed at Michigan Technological University. The engine model was extensively validated against Detroit Diesel Corporation's (DDC) Series 60 engine data. In addition to the new engine model a charge-air-cooler model was developed and incorporated into the VECSS. A Freightliner truck with a Detroit Diesel's Series 60 engine, Behr McCord radiator, AlliedSignal/Garrett Automotive charge air cooler, Kysor DST variable speed fan clutch and other cooling system components was used for the study. The data were collected using the Detroit Diesel Electronic Controls (DDEC)-Electronic Control Module (ECM) and Hewlett Packard data acquisition system. The enhanced model's results were compared to the steady state TTD (top tank differential) data.
Technical Paper

Computational Design of Experiments for Compound Fuel Injector Nozzles

A computational design of experiments was constructed to analyze two basic nozzle designs. Several geometric features of the nozzles such as cavity height, exit orifice area, turbulence generator area and exit orifice position in addition to the pressure differential across the injector were used in a 2k factorial design study. Performance characteristic which were analyzed in an analysis of variance study included the discharge coefficient. atomization efficiency and predicted spray pattern. The computational design of experiments revealed which of the studied parameters had the greatest influence on a given nozzle performance characteristic. These results were compared to a similar investigation which was later performed experimentally from which similar conclusions were drawn.