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Technical Paper

Analysis of Interior Airflow in a Full-Scale Passenger-Compartment Model Using a Laser-Light-Sheet Method

Flow velocity distributions in the passenger compartment were measured from visualized images of particle flow paths obtained with a full-scale model. The flow paths were visualized using an approach that combined a particle tracing method with a pulse-laser light technique. Air was used as the fluid medium with the full-scale passenger compartment model and water was used as the fluid medium with a one-fourth scale model. A comparison of the results obtained with the two models confirmed that there was good agreement between the flow velocity distributions. Using the full-scale model, measurements were also made of the flow velocity distributions when two dummies were placed in the front-seats.
Technical Paper

Performance and Exhaust Emissions of Nissan FFV NX Coupe

The FFVs under study operates on either M85 or M0 or any mixture of the two. Nissan has been actively conducting reseach and development on flexible fuel vehicles (FFVs) to explore the possibilities for long-range energy conservation and air quality improvement. The engine converted for use in these FFVs is a 1.6 liter, four-cylinder in-line powerplant, with dual overhead camshafts and four valves per cylinder. It employs the Nissan Variable valve timing Control System (NVCS). The fuel sensor for measuring the methanol concentration in the fuel has been improved both in terms of accuracy and durability. This paper describes the engine performance and exhaust emission levels (formaldehydes unburned methanol and HC emissions) obtained with both M85 and M0.
Technical Paper

New PM Valve Seat Insert Materials for High Performance Engines

Internal combustion engines experience severe valve train wear and the reduction of valve seat and seat insert wear has been a long-standing issue. In this work, worn valve seats and inserts were examined to obtain a fundamental understanding of the wear mechanisms and the results were applied in developing new valve seat insert materials. The new exhaust valve insert material for gasoline engines is a sintered alloy steel containing Co-base hard particles, with lead infiltrated only for inserts used in unleaded gasoline engines. The new intake valve insert material for gasoline engines is a high-Mo sintered steel, obtained through transient liquid phase sintering and with copper precipitated uniformly. This material can be used for both leaded and unleaded gasoline engines. Valve and valve seat insert wear has long been an issue of concern to engine designers and manufacturers.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Gasoline-fueled HCCI Engine∼Mode Changes from SI Combustion to HCCI Combustion∼

Since the stable operating region of a gasoline-fueled HCCI engine is limited to the part load condition, a mode change between SI and HCCI combustion is required, which poses an issue due to the difference in combustion characteristics. This report focuses on the combustion characteristics in the transitional range. The combustion mode in the transitional range is investigated by varying the internal EGR rate, intake air pressure, and spark advance timing in steady-state experiments. In this parametric study, stable SI-CI combustion is observed. This indicates that the combustion mode transition is possible without misfiring or knocking, regardless of the speed of variable valve mechanism which includes VVA, VVEL, VTEC, VVL and so on, though the response of intake air pressure still remains as a subject to be examined in the actual application.
Technical Paper

Summary report of Japan Clean Air Program diesel and diesel fuel activities

Diesel emissions are significant issue worldwide, and emissions requirements have become so tough that. the application of after-treatment systems is now indispensable in many countries To meet even more stringent future emissions requirements, it has become apparent that the improvement of market fuel quality is essential as well as the development in engine and exhaust after-treatment technology. Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAP II) is being conducted to assess the direction of future technologies through the evaluation of current automobile and fuel technologies and consequently to realize near zero emissions and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction. In this program, effects of fuel properties on the performance of diesel engines and a vehicle equipped with two types of diesel NOx emission after-treatment devices, a Urea-SCR system and a NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalyst system, were examined.
Technical Paper

Effect of Catalyst Systems on Characteristics of Exhaust Hydrocarbon Species

The California Low-Emission Vehicle (LEV) standards mandate a reduction in non-methane organic gases (NMOG). With the aim of analyzing NMOG emissions, a comparison was made of the hydrocarbon species found in the exhaust gas when different types of catalyst systems and fuel specifications were used. NMOG emissions are usually measured by removing methane from the total hydrocarbon (THC) emissions and adding aldehyde and ketone emissions. The NMOG level found in this way is thus influenced by the rate of methane in THC emissions. Another important factor in the LEV standards is specific reactivity (SR), indicating the formation potential of ozone, which is one cause of photochemical smog. Specific reactivity is expressed by the amount of ozone generated per unit weight of NMOG emissions, and is affected by the respective proportion of hydrocarbon species in the total NMOG emissions.
Technical Paper

Study on Parameters Affecting NMOG Measurements and a Method to Improve its Accuracy

Nissan has developed a non-methane organic gas (NMOG) emission measuring method based on California Air Resources Board (CARB) procedures.1) In addition, a system to analyze the chemical species present in the exhaust gases at Low Emission Vehicles (LEV) and Ultra Low Emission Vehicles (ULEV) levels has been created. It was found that when using an electrically heated catalyst (EHC) to achieve the low emissions for LEV and ULEV levels, the interference between exhaust HC species and the contamination of the analyzing system are a serious problem for the measurement of speciated emissions. The methyl tertiary butyl ether (MTBE) contained in reformulated gasoline can interfere with HC speciation in the Chromatogram, requiring that the automatically speciated results be checked by a trained operator. The low exhaust HC emissions of bags 2 and 3 in the Federal Test Procedure (FTP) are nearly equal to that of the background air utilized in the constant volume sampler (CVS) dilution.
Technical Paper

Reduction of Wall Thickness of Ceramic Substrates for Automotive Catalysts

Ceramic honeycombs have been used as automotive catalyst supports in US, Japan, Europe and other highly urbanized countries. Now, engine output is a great concern for automanufacturers, and reduction of the wall thickness of honeycomb substrates became indespensable for maintenance of gas flow restriction to a certain low level. To reduce wall thickness, material should be strong to maintain canning strength of substrates. Mechanical strength was improved with high density cordierite. However, isostatic strength of whole substrates was still insufficient with reduced thin walls for canning in spite of the material's high mecanical strength. Discussion is carried out on further possibility of improving canning performance of thin wall substrates as well as flow restriction, and warm up characteristics.
Technical Paper

Development of Improved Metal-Supported Catalyst

A compact, high-performance and durable metal-supported catalyst has been developed by using the properties of the metal support effectively. The advantages of the metal-surpported catalyst against the ceramic-supported one are higher geometrical surface area, higher heat conductivity and thinner wall thickness. Higher geometlical surface area and higher heat conductivity lead to higher conversion efficiency after durability test and it allows reduction in catalyst volume. And the thinner wall thickness lowers gas flow resistance. But also, the metal-supported catalyst has the disadvantage of larger heat expansion and it requires special structure and material.
Technical Paper

Application of a Variable Valve Event and Timing System to Automotive Engines

This paper describes a new variable valve system that enables continuous control of valve events, i.e. time periods when the valve is open. In this system, valve events are controlled by varying the camshaft angular speed by means of an offset between the center of the camshaft and that of the medium member that transfers crankshaft torque to the camshaft. The medium member, a rotating disk, has a drive pin to enable the transfer of torque. The system has a mechanism that produces an offset between the center of the rotating disk and that of the camshaft as well as an actuator that drives the mechanism. This makes it possible to develop a compact system that can be installed in existing DOHC direct-acting valve train engines without making any major cylinder head modifications.
Technical Paper

A Study of Heat Rejection and Combustion Characteristics of a Low-temperature and Pre-mixed Combustion Concept Based on Measurement of Instantaneous Heat Flux in a Direct-Injection Diesel Engine

There have been strong demands recently for reductions in the fuel consumption and exhaust emissions of diesel engines from the standpoints of conserving energy and curbing global warming. A great deal of research is being done on new emission control technologies using direct-injection (DI) diesel engines that provide high thermal efficiency. This work includes dramatic improvements in the combustion process. The authors have developed a new combustion concept called Modulated Kinetics (MK), which reduces smoke and NOx levels simultaneously by reconciling low-temperature combustion with pre-mixed combustion [1, 2]. At present, research is under way on the second generation of MK combustion with the aim of improving emission performance further and achieving higher thermal efficiency [3]. Reducing heat rejection in the combustion chamber is effective in improving the thermal efficiency of DI diesel engines as well as that of MK combustion.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Prediction of Unburned HCs in a Lean-Burn Engine

Three-dimensional combustion simulation tools together with the Universal Coherent Flamelet Model (UCFM), a flame propagation model, have been applied to SI lean-burn combustion to study the influence of the equivalence ratio on the amount of unburned hydrocarbons (HCs). Unburned HCs from piston-cylinder crevices were taken into the consideration by using a calculation grid incorporating the actual crevice volume and shape and by applying an autoignition model to post-flame phenomena. The calculation results show the general tendencies for the total amount of unburned HCs and their distribution in the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Mixture Formation in a Direct Injection SI Engine with Optimized In-Cylinder Swirl Air Motion

This paper presents a study of mixture formation in the combustion chamber of a direct-injection SI engine. In-cylinder flow measurement was conducted using laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV) and particle image velocimetry (PIV), and visualization of fuel vapor behavior was done using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). Further, fast response flame ionization detector (FID) was used to measure the hydrocarbon (HC) concentrations in the vicinity of the spark plug. Thereby mixture concentrations in the vicinity of the spark plug, within the mixture distribution observed using LIF, were quantified. Results revealed that an upward flow forms near the center of the cylinder in the latter half of the compression stroke and goes from the piston crown toward the cylinder head. This upward flow is caused by the synergistic effect of the swirl motion generated in the cylinder and the cylindrical bowl provided in the piston crown eccentrically to the central axis of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Development of a Wear Resistant Aluminum Alloy for Automotive Components

Hypereutectic Al-Si alloy 390, containing large amounts of hard silicon particles, has mainly been used for wear-resistant alloy applications. In the case of hypereutectic Al-Si alloys, the primary silicon particle size and distribution must be controlled to obtain stable wear resistance. The service life of furnaces and molds is shortened by the high melting and casting temperatures required for controlling primary silicon. Furthermore, machinability is degraded by large primary silicon particles. To overcome these problems, a new wear-resistant Al-Si alloy has been developed which provides good castability and machinability. This alloy also has wear resistance and mechanical properties similar to those of the 390 alloy. Specifically, the problems regarding castability and machinability were solved by decreasing the silicon content of the 390 alloy, but that also reduced wear resistance.
Technical Paper

Effects of Gas Flow and Mixture Properties on Engine-Out HC Emissions

The geometry and area of the notch in the swirl control valve installed in the intake port were varied to analyze the effects on HC emissions. A swirl control valve functions to promote the formation of a homogeneous mixture, enabling the amount of liquid fuel supplied to the cylinder to be reduced. For this reason, it is difficult to obtain an added effect through the combined use of a swirl control valve and an auxiliary-air type of injector for assisting fuel atomization. Tumble (vertical swirl) flow fields are effective in shortening the combustion period. This results in a higher exhaust gas temperature at an equivalent level of combustion stability. It was thought that swirl flow fields produce residual gas flow in the cylinder after the completion of the main combustion period. It is surmised that the residual gas flow functions to diffuse and promote after-burning of the unburned HC layer.
Technical Paper

Simultaneous Attainment of Low Fuel Consumption High Output Power and Low Exhaust Emissions in Direct Injection SI Engines

This paper describes simultaneous attainment in improving fuel consumption, output power and reducing HC emissions with a direct injection S.I. engine newly developed in Nissan. Straight intake port is adopted to increase discharge coefficient under WOT operation and horizontal swirl flow is generated by a swirl control valve to provide stable stratified charge combustion under part load conditions. As a result, fuel consumption is reduced by more than 20% and power output is improved by approximately 10%. Moreover, unburned HC is reduced by equivalently 30% in engine cold start condition. An application of diagnostic and numerical simulation tools to investigate and optimize various factors are also introduced.
Technical Paper

The Development of Driveability Index and the Effects of Gasoline Volatility on Engine Performance

To reduce engine exhaust emissions, we have had to deal with this global environmental problem from the fuel side by introducing oxygenated fuels, reducing the RVP and using low aromatics. But when we change the fuel components and distillation, we must take note about how these affect the engine driveability. We have used T50, T90, RVP and so on as the fuel index up to the present. It is possible to characterize the fuel from one aspect, but these indexes don't always represent the real feature of the fuel. In this paper we propose a New Driveability Index (here in after referred to as NDI) that is more realistic and accurate than the other fuel indexes. We used a 1600cc DOHC L4 MPI type engine. We used Model Gasolines and Market Gasolines, see Appendix(1), (2) and (3), and tested them according to the Excess Air Ratio Response Test Method (here in after referred to as λ-R Test) that was suggested in SAE paper #930375, and we calculated the NDI statistically.
Technical Paper

Potentiality of the Modification of Engine Combustion Rate for NOx Formation Control in the Premixed SI Engine

In order to study the potentiality of the modification of the combustion rate for NOx formation control in the spark ignition (SI) engine, the authors first developed a new mathematical model by assuming the stepped gas temperature gradient in the cylinder. The predicted results from this new mathematical model show good coincidence with the experimental data. Second, the authors discuss the effects of the modification of the combustion rate on NOx formation using the new mathematical model. It was concluded that NOx formation in the premixed SI engine would be essentially determined by the specific fuel consumption only, regardless of any modification of the engine combustion rate.
Technical Paper

Low-cost FC Stack Concept with Increased Power Density and Simplified Configuration: Utilizing an Advanced MEA with Integrated Molded Frame

In 2006, Nissan began limited leasing of the X-TRAIL FCV equipped with their in-house developed Fuel Cell (FC) stack. Since then, the FC stack has been improved in durability, cold start-up capability, cost and size with the aim of promoting full-scale commercialization of FCVs. However, reduction of cost and size has remained a significant challenge because limited mass transport through the membrane electrode assembly (MEA) has made it difficult to increase the rated current density of the FC. Furthermore, it has been difficult to reduce the variety of FC stack components due to the complex stack configuration. In this study, improvements have been achieved mainly by adopting an advanced MEA to overcome these difficulties. First, the adoption of a new MEA and separators has improved mass transport through the MEA for increased rated current density. Second, an integrated molded frame (IMF) has been adopted as the MEA support.
Technical Paper

A Study of an Analysis Method for Trace Substances in Vehicle Exhaust Gas

A new method for measuring unregulated substances in the exhaust gas is being investigated to clarify the influence of the vehicles' exhaust emissions into the environment. This paper explains our work on developing an analysis method for detecting and quantifying trace substances in the exhaust gas. A new analysis method was examined that uses thermal desorption to analyze trace amounts of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in vehicle exhaust gas. This technique is faster than conventional methods and does not require any preconditioning of the samples before analysis. While lead and chloromethane were detected in the exhaust gas samples, it was made clear that these substances did not originate in the engine system. Accordingly, the results of this study indicate that careful attention must be paid to the test environment and the presence of measurement interfering substances in exhaust samples when measuring trace constituents in the exhaust gas from low-emission vehicles.