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Journal Article

Screening of Potential Biomass-Derived Streams as Fuel Blendstocks for Mixing Controlled Compression Ignition Combustion

2019-04-02
2019-01-0570
Mixing controlled compression ignition, i.e., diesel engines are efficient and are likely to continue to be the primary means for movement of goods for many years. Low-net-carbon biofuels have the potential to significantly reduce the carbon footprint of diesel combustion and could have advantageous properties for combustion, such as high cetane number and reduced engine-out particle and NOx emissions. We developed a list of over 400 potential biomass-derived diesel blendstocks and populated a database with the properties and characteristics of these materials. Fuel properties were determined by measurement, model prediction, or literature review. Screening criteria were developed to determine if a blendstock met the basic requirements for handling in the diesel distribution system and use as a blend with conventional diesel. Criteria included cetane number ≥40, flashpoint ≥52°C, and boiling point or T90 ≤338°C.
Technical Paper

SI Engine Trends: A Historical Analysis with Future Projections

2015-04-14
2015-01-0972
It is well known that spark ignited engine performance and efficiency is closely coupled to fuel octane number. The present work combines historical and recent trends in spark ignition engines to build a database of engine design, performance, and fuel octane requirements over the past 80 years. The database consists of engine compression ratio, required fuel octane number, peak mean effective pressure, specific output, and combined unadjusted fuel economy for passenger vehicles and light trucks. Recent trends in engine performance, efficiency, and fuel octane number requirement were used to develop correlations of fuel octane number utilization, performance, specific output. The results show that historically, engine compression ratio and specific output have been strongly coupled to fuel octane number.
Technical Paper

Review of Diesel Exhaust Aftertreatment Programs

1999-04-27
1999-01-2245
The DOE Office of Heavy Vehicle Technologies (OHVT) and its predecessor organizations have maintained aggressive projects in diesel exhaust aftertreatment since 1993. The Energy Policy Act of 1992, Section 2027, specifically authorized DOE to help accelerate the ability of U. S. diesel engine manufacturers to meet emissions regulations while maintaining the compression ignition engines inherently high efficiency. A variety of concepts and devices have been evaluated for NOx and Particulate matter (PM) control. Additionally, supporting technology in diagnostics for catalysis, PM measurement, and catalyst/reductant systems are being developed. This paper provides a summary of technologies that have been investigated and provides recent results from ongoing DOE-sponsored R&D. NOx control has been explored via active NOx catalysis, several plasma-assisted systems, electrochemical cells, and fuel additives.
Journal Article

Response Surface Energy Modeling of an Electric Vehicle over a Reduced Composite Drive Cycle

2014-04-01
2014-01-0818
Response surface methodology (RSM) techniques were applied to develop a predictive model of electric vehicle (EV) energy consumption over the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) standardized drive cycles. The model is based on measurements from a synthetic composite drive cycle. The synthetic drive cycle is a minimized statistical composite of the standardized urban (UDDS), highway (HWFET), and US06 cycles. The composite synthetic drive cycle is 20 minutes in length thereby reducing testing time of the three standard EPA cycles by over 55%. Vehicle speed and acceleration were used as model inputs for a third order least squared regression model predicting vehicle battery power output as a function of the drive cycle. The approach reduced three cycles and 46 minutes of drive time to a single test of 20 minutes.
Technical Paper

Resolving EGR Distribution and Mixing

2002-10-21
2002-01-2882
A minimally invasive spatially resolved capillary inlet mass spectrometer has been used to quantify EGR/air mixing in a Cummins V-8 medium-duty diesel engine. Two EGR-system hardware designs were evaluated in terms of EGR-air mixing at the intake manifold inlet and port-to-port EGR charge uniformity. Performance was assessed at four modalized-FTP engine conditions. One design is found to be considerably better, particularly at three of the four engine conditions. Specific questions such as the effect of maximizing mass air flow on EGR mixing, and if particular cylinders are EGR starved are investigated. The detailed performance characteristics suggest areas to focus improvement efforts, and serve as a foundation for identifying the non-uniformity EGR barriers and origins.
Technical Paper

Residual Stress Distribution in a Hydroformed Advanced High Strength Steel Component: Neutron Diffraction Measurements and Finite Element Simulations

2018-04-03
2018-01-0803
Today’s automotive industry is witnessing increasing applications of advanced high strength steels (AHSS) combined with innovative manufacturing techniques to satisfy fuel economy requirements of stringent environmental regulations. The integration of AHSS in novel automotive structure design has introduced huge advantages in mass reduction while maintaining their structural performances, yet several concerns have been raised for this relatively new family of steels. One of those concerns is their potentially high springback after forming, which can lead to geometrical deviation of the final product from its designed geometry and cause difficulties during assembly. From the perspective of accurate prediction, control and compensation of springback, further understanding on the effect of residual stress in AHSS parts is urged. In this work, the residual stress distribution in a 980GEN3 steel part after hydroforming is investigated via experimental and numerical approaches.
Journal Article

Removal of EGR Cooler Deposit Material by Flow-Induced Shear

2013-04-08
2013-01-1292
A number of studies have identified a tendency for exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) coolers to foul to a steady-state level and subsequently not degrade further. One possible explanation for this behavior is that the shear force imposed by the gas velocity increases as the deposit thickens. If the shear force reaches a critical level, it achieves a removal of the deposit material that can balance the rate of deposition of new material, creating a stabilized condition. This study reports efforts to observe removal of deposit material in-situ during fouling studies as well as an ex-situ removal through the use of controlled air flows. The critical gas velocity and shear stress necessary to cause removal of deposit material is identified and reported. In-situ observations failed to show convincing evidence of a removal of deposit material. The results show that removal of deposit material requires a relatively high velocity of 40 m/s or higher to cause removal.
Technical Paper

Reasons for changes in MPG Estimates, Model Year 1978 to the Present

1984-02-01
840500
In model year 1983, new car MPG declined for the first time in ten years. Accompanying this decline in MPG, the size of the average car increased, car weights and engine sizes increased and diesel sales declined - all reversing their movements over the previous ten years. Using carline MPG estimates and sales figures, it is estimated that new car MPG declined 0.29 in 1983 after rising 6.70 MPG over the previous four years. Furthermore, it is estimated that actions by new car buyers would have lowered the 1983 MPG 0.40 MPG through the purchase of larger cars, cars with larger engines and fewer diesel engines if the manufacturers had not made some fuel economy improvements and introduced some new high-MPG cars. A simple model of future fuel use increases as a function of MPG levels below a specified level consistent with the CAFE standards shows that the costs of lower fuel economy will only gradually be felt, but that these costs will increase over time and persist for over a decade.
Technical Paper

Rapid In Situ Measurement of Fuel Dilution of Oil in a Diesel Engine using Laser-Induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy

2007-10-29
2007-01-4108
A technique for rapid in situ measurement of the fuel dilution of oil in a diesel engine is presented. Fuel dilution can occur when advanced in-cylinder fuel injection techniques are employed for the purpose of producing rich exhaust for lean NOx trap catalyst regeneration. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) spectroscopy is used to monitor the oil in a Mercedes 1.7-liter engine operated on a dynamometer platform. A fluorescent dye suitable for use in diesel fuel and oil systems is added to the engine fuel. The LIF spectra are monitored to detect the growth of the dye signal relative to the background oil fluorescence; fuel mass concentration is quantified based on a known sample set. The technique was implemented with fiber optic probes which can be inserted at various points in the engine oil system. A low cost 532-nm laser diode was used for excitation.
Journal Article

RCCI Combustion Regime Transitions in a Single-Cylinder Optical Engine and a Multi-Cylinder Metal Engine

2017-09-04
2017-24-0088
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an approach to increase engine efficiency and lower engine-out emissions by using in-cylinder stratification of fuels with differing reactivity (i.e., autoignition characteristics) to control combustion phasing. Stratification can be altered by varying the injection timing of the high-reactivity fuel, causing transitions across multiple regimes of combustion. When injection is sufficiently early, combustion approaches a highly-premixed autoignition regime, and when it is sufficiently late it approaches more mixing-controlled, diesel-like conditions. Engine performance, emissions, and control authority over combustion phasing with injection timing are most favorable in between, within the RCCI regime.
Journal Article

Predicting Light-Duty Vehicle Fuel Economy as a Function of Highway Speed

2013-04-08
2013-01-1113
The fueleconomy.gov website provides information such as “window label” fuel economy for city, highway, and combined driving for all U.S.-legal light-duty vehicles from 1984 to present. The site is jointly maintained by the U.S. Department of Energy and the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), and also offers a considerable amount of consumer information and advice pertaining to vehicle fuel economy and energy-related issues. Included with advice pertaining to driving styles and habits is information concerning the trend that as highway cruising speed is increased, fuel economy will degrade. An effort was undertaken to quantify this “conventional wisdom” through analysis of dynamometer testing results for 74 vehicles at steady-state speeds from 50 to 80 mph. Using this experimental data, several simple models were developed to predict individual vehicle fuel economy and its rate of change over the 50-80 mph speed range interval.
Journal Article

Predicting Individual Fuel Economy

2011-04-12
2011-01-0618
To make informed decisions about travel and vehicle purchase, consumers need unbiased and accurate information of the fuel economy they will actually obtain. In the past, the EPA fuel economy estimates based on its 1984 rules have been widely criticized for overestimating on-road fuel economy. In 2008, EPA adopted a new estimation rule. This study compares the usefulness of the EPA's 1984 and 2008 estimates based on their prediction bias and accuracy and attempts to improve the prediction of on-road fuel economies based on consumer and vehicle attributes. We examine the usefulness of the EPA fuel economy estimates using a large sample of self-reported on-road fuel economy data and develop an Individualized Model for more accurately predicting an individual driver's on-road fuel economy based on easily determined vehicle and driver attributes. Accuracy rather than bias appears to have limited the usefulness of the EPA 1984 estimates in predicting on-road MPG.
Journal Article

Piston Bowl Optimization for RCCI Combustion in a Light-Duty Multi-Cylinder Engine

2012-04-16
2012-01-0380
Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) is an engine combustion strategy that produces low NO and PM emissions with high thermal efficiency. Previous RCCI research has been investigated in single-cylinder heavy-duty engines. The current study investigates RCCI operation in a light-duty multi-cylinder engine at 3 operating points. These operating points were chosen to cover a range of conditions seen in the US EPA light-duty FTP test. The operating points were chosen by the Ad Hoc working group to simulate operation in the FTP test. The fueling strategy for the engine experiments consisted of in-cylinder fuel blending using port fuel-injection (PFI) of gasoline and early-cycle, direct-injection (DI) of diesel fuel. At these 3 points, the stock engine configuration is compared to operation with both the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) and custom-machined pistons designed for RCCI operation.
Technical Paper

Physical Properties of Bio-Diesel and Implications for Use of Bio-Diesel in Diesel Engines

2007-10-29
2007-01-4030
In this study we identify components of a typical biodiesel fuel and estimate both their individual and mixed thermo-physical and transport properties. We then use the estimated mixture properties in computational simulations to gauge the extent to which combustion is modified when biodiesel is substituted for conventional diesel fuel. Our simulation studies included both conventional diesel combustion (DI) and premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI). Preliminary results indicate that biodiesel ignition is significantly delayed due to slower liquid evaporation, with the effects being more pronounced for DI than PCCI. The lower vapor pressure and higher liquid heat capacity of biodiesel are two key contributors to this slower rate of evaporation. Other physical properties are more similar between the two fuels, and their impacts are not clearly evident in the present study.
Technical Paper

Phosphorous Poisoning and Phosphorous Exhaust Chemistry with Diesel Oxidation Catalysts

2005-04-11
2005-01-1758
Phosphorous in diesel exhaust is derived via engine oil consumption from the zinc dialkyldithiophosphate (ZDDP) oil additive used for engine wear control. Phosphorous present in the engine exhaust can react with an exhaust catalyst and cause loss of performance through masking or chemical reaction. The primary effect is loss of light-off or low temperature performance. Although the amount of ZDDP used in lube oil is being reduced, it appears that there may is a minimum level of ZDDP needed for engine durability. One of the ways of reducing the effects of the resulting phosphorous on catalysts might be to alter the chemical state of the phosphorous to a less damaging form or to develop catalysts which are more resistant to phosphorous poisoning. In this study, lube oil containing ZDDP was added at an accelerated rate through a variety of engine pathways to simulate various types of engine wear or oil disposal practices.
Technical Paper

Performance of a NOX Adsorber and Catalyzed Particle Filter System on a Light-Duty Diesel Vehicle

2001-05-07
2001-01-1933
A prototype emissions control system consisting of a close-coupled lightoff catalyst, catalyzed diesel particle filter (CDPF), and a NOX adsorber was evaluated on a Mercedes A170 CDI. This laboratory experiment aimed to determine whether the benefits of these technologies could be utilized simultaneously to allow a light-duty diesel vehicle to achieve levels called out by U.S. Tier 2 emissions legislation. This research was carried out by driving the A170 through the U.S. Federal Test Procedure (FTP), US06, and highway fuel economy test (HFET) dynamometer driving schedules. The vehicle was fueled with a 3-ppm ultra-low sulfur fuel. Regeneration of the NOX adsorber/CDPF system was accomplished by using a laboratory in-pipe synthesis gas injection system to simulate the capabilities of advanced engine controls to produce suitable exhaust conditions. The results show that these technologies can be combined to provide high pollutant reduction efficiencies in excess of 90% for NOX and PM.
Technical Paper

Performance of a Half-Heusler Thermoelectric Generator for Automotive Application

2018-04-03
2018-01-0054
Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) have been researched and developed for harvesting energy from otherwise wasted heat. For automotive applications this will most likely involve using internal combustion engine exhaust as the heat source, with the TEG positioned after the catalyst system. Applications to exhaust gas recirculation systems and compressed air coolers have also been suggested. A thermoelectric generator based on half-Heusler thermoelectric materials was developed, engineered, and fabricated, targeting a gasoline passenger sedan application. This generator was installed on a gasoline engine exhaust system in a dynamometer cell, and positioned immediately downstream of the close-coupled three-way catalyst. The generator was characterized using a matrix of steady-state conditions representing the important portions of the engine map. Detailed performance results are presented.
Technical Paper

Performance of Biodiesel Blends of Different FAME Distributions in HCCI Combustion

2009-04-20
2009-01-1342
As the world market develops for biodiesel fuels, it is likely that a wider variety of biodiesels will become available, both locally and globally, and require engines to operate on a wider variety of fuels than experienced today. At the same time, tighter emissions regulations and a drive for improved fuel economy have focused interest on advanced combustion modes such as HCCI or PCCI, which are known to be more sensitive to fuel properties. This research covers two series of biodiesel fuels. In the first, B20 blends of natural methyl esters derived from palm, coconut, rape, soy, and mustard were evaluated at light load in an HCCI research engine to determine combustion and performance characteristics. These fuels showed performance differences between the biodiesels and the base #2 ULSD fuel, but did not allow separation of chemical effects due to the small number of fuels and correlation of various properties.
Technical Paper

Performance Evaluation and Optimization of Diesel Fuel Properties and Chemistry in an HCCI Engine

2009-11-02
2009-01-2645
The nine CRC fuels for advanced combustion engines (FACE fuels) have been evaluated in a simple, premixed HCCI engine under varying conditions of fuel rate, air-fuel ratio, and intake temperature. Engine performance was found to vary mainly as a function of combustion phasing as affected by fuel cetane and engine control variables. The data was modeled using statistical techniques involving eigenvector representation of the fuel properties and engine control variables, to define engine response and allow optimization across the fuels for best fuel efficiency. In general, the independent manipulation of intake temperature and air-fuel ratio provided some opportunity for improving combustion efficiency of a specific fuel beyond the direct effect of targeting the optimum combustion phasing of the engine (near 5 CAD ATDC).
Technical Paper

Particulate Matter and Aldehyde Emissions from Idling Heavy-Duty Diesel Trucks

2003-03-03
2003-01-0289
As part of a multi-agency study concerning emissions and fuel consumption from heavy-duty diesel truck idling, Oak Ridge National Laboratory personnel measured CO, HC, NOx, CO2, O2, particulate matter (PM), aldehyde and ketone emissions from truck idle exhaust. Two methods of quantifying PM were employed: conventional filters and a Tapered Element Oscillating Microbalance (TEOM). A partial flow micro-dilution tunnel was used to dilute the sampled exhaust to make the PM and aldehyde measurements. The work was performed at the U.S. Army's Aberdeen Test Center's (ATC) climate controlled chamber. ATC performed 37 tests on five class-8 trucks (model years ranging from 1992 to 2001). One was equipped with an 11 hp diesel auxiliary power unit (APU), and another with a diesel direct-fired heater (DFH). The APU powers electrical accessories, heating, and air conditioning, whereas a DFH heats the cab in cold weather. Both devices offer an alternative to extended truck-engine idling.
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