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Technical Paper

Variable Orifice Geometry Verified on the Two-Phase Nozzle (VRD)

Innovative solutions for reducing particulate emissions will be necessary in order to comply with the even more stringent exhaust-gas standards of the future. The potential of a diesel nozzle with variable orifice geometry has long been common knowledge in the area of engine construction. But up to now, a fully functional solution of such a nozzle has not appeared which operates with a reduced orifice at low engine speeds and/or low loads. Here with regard to target costing, the requirements implicit in function and manufacture must also be taken into account. Using calculations on nozzle interior flow and injection-spray investigations, it will be shown which nozzle geometries best fulfill the various requirements. In order to achieve low levels of particulate emission in an engine with a combustion chamber designed for optimum use of a hole-type nozzle, the injection-spray direction and its geometry must to a large extent correspond to those of a hole-type nozzle.
Technical Paper

Real-Time Software for In-Vehicle Communication

This paper describes the architecture and the implementation of a software for the communication between networked in-vehicle ECUs. The communication software is based upon a real-time multitasking operating system. The operating system and the communication software form an application-independent platform for the implementation of distributed ECU software. The software architecture consists of several communication layers and a station management module. The communication layers provide network driver, data transfer services and an application interface that is independent of the used network protocol. The station management module is responsible for configuration and initialization of the communication controller, error detection during operation and error handling. The modula r structure of the architecture supports the simple adaptation of the software to different bus systems and communication controllers.
Technical Paper

New Approaches to Electronic Throttle Control

An electronic control of throttle angle is required for safety systems like traction control (ASR) and for advanced engine management systems with regard to further improvements of driving comfort and fuel economy. For applications, in which only ASR is required, two versions of a new traction control actuator (TCA) have been developed. Their function is based on controlling the effective length of the bowden cable between the accelerator pedal and the throttle. Besides retaining the mechanical linkage to the throttle, the concept has no need for a pedal position sensor, which is necessary for a drive-by-wire system. Design and performance of both actuators are described and their individual advantages are compared. Moreover, the communication of the system with ASR and its behaviour with regard to vehicle dynamics are illustrated.
Technical Paper

Methods of On-Board Misfire Detection

Misfiring of the engine can cause damage to the catalyst within short time and increase emissions. Under misfiring conditions, unburned fuel and oxygen are pumped into the catalyst, where its combustion heavily increases the temperature. For this reason there is a demand for fast detection of misfiring. Once judged, one can take countermeasures to avoid further temperature rise. Two methods of misfire detection with the prospect of future use in series production are discussed. A first approach uses the trace shape of the λ-sensor signal for evaluation. The second approach uses the speed fluctuations of the engine for detection. Efficient algorithms give the possibility of misfire detection in the full load-speed range with reasonable effort to protect the catalyst. However there will remain some misfire conditions, increasing the emissions above regulation limits, that cannot be detected by those methods.
Technical Paper

Electronic Control Units of Bosch EDC Systems

Todays injection systems for diesel engines work with highly sophisticated mechanical governors. But only by electronic control of diesel injection systems will it be possible to comply with the emission regulations and to achieve better performance. In 1986 BOSCH started volume production of Electronic Diesel Control (EDC). This paper will concentrate on the electronic control unit (ECU) as it was designed for use in passenger cars. The production ECU and the planned next-step ECU are outlined, explaining hardware and software. An outlook of development goals of the future EDC control-units is given.
Technical Paper

Automotive Specific Application of Sensor-Systems with Suitable Technologies and Appropriate Housings

If a sensor shall be applied in motor vehicles, all the components of the sensor must fulfil special requirements. Particular attention must be paid to the installation of the sensitive element and to the adaptation to which the sensor is to be put. The objective of this paper is to illustrate these demands more closely using three different types of sensors as examples: a displacement sensor, a pressure sensor and an acceleration sensor.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Control at Engine Management System MOTRONIC

Engine management control systems basically consist of injection and ignition control. Additionally, closed loop control systems incorporating air fuel ratio control, automatic idle speed control and cylinder selective knock control have proven to be essential. To keep the performance stable during the car's lifetime, extensive use is made of self-adaptive strategies. As a new feature of engine management control, the self-adaptive canister purge control improves driveability and prevents the leakage of fuel vapors. To simplify the closed loop control algorithms primarily during transient operation conditions a sophisticated sequential fuel injection is added. The paper presents the aforementioned self-adaptive closed loop control strategies and the MOTRONIC MI. 3 ECU. Future development trends in engine management and drive train control demand powerful communication links like the Controller Area Network (CAN). This requirement and its planned realisation is discussed.
Technical Paper

GDI: Interaction Between Mixture Preparation, Combustion System and Injector Performance

The development of future engine generations for Gasoline Direct Injection requires sophisticated combustion systems to reach reduced fuel consumption and future emission standards. The design process of these combustion systems has to be based on a fundamental knowledge of the interacting mixture preparation mechanisms. Beside the air motion inside the cylinder mixture preparation is mainly feeded by the fuel spray quality, injector performance respectively. The article therefore presents a fundamental analysis of the GDI mixture preparation and affords an insight into the injector development. Comprehensive experimental studies were performed in high pressure/temperature vessels using Phase Doppler Anemometry, Laser Induced Fluorescence and video techniques to define the significant fuel spray features for GDI. CFD-calculations were additionally applied to study the temporal behavior of the mixture preparation under injection parameter variation.
Technical Paper

Advanced Engine Misfire Detection for SI-Engines

This paper presents a system concept for detecting combustion misfire. The relevant research grew out of the more stringent requirements for On-Board Diagnostic systems (OBDII) mandated by the California Air Resources Board (CARB), effective as of model year 1997 onward. The system concept is based on evaluation of variations in crankshaft speed. Processes using engine roughness are applied in non-critical operating areas and/or on engines with a small number of cylinders. The modulation process is used in more critical areas. Research was done using a 12-cylinder engine and indicated the potential to comply with the California Air Resources Board's regulations for the model year (MY) 1997 and later.
Technical Paper

Bus System for Wiring Actuators of Restraint Systems

The continuing increase in the performance of restraint systems has led to a drastic increase in the number of actuator devices. The individual wiring of the igniters becomes more and more problematic through the accompanied large number of plug connections and cables. Along with demands for weight and volume reduction, there are requirements for EMI and short circuit protection to eliminate erroneous deployment and misuse. As a solution, a new multi-protocol dual wire bus system is described that has the capability to supply energy and address multiple peripheral output stages to simultaneously fire any combination of actuators.
Technical Paper

Large Eddy Simulations and Tracer-LIF Diagnostics of Wall Film Dynamics in an Optically Accessible GDI Research Engine

Large Eddy Simulations (LES) and tracer-based Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) measurements were performed to study the dynamics of fuel wall-films on the piston top of an optically accessible, four-valve pent-roof GDI research engine for a total of eight operating conditions. Starting from a reference point, the systematic variations include changes in engine speed (600; 1,200 and 2,000 RPM) and load (1000 and 500 mbar intake pressure); concerning the fuel path the Start Of Injection (SOI=360°, 390° and 420° CA after gas exchange TDC) as well as the injection pressure (10, 20 and 35 MPa) were varied. For each condition, 40 experimental images were acquired phase-locked at 10° CA intervals after SOI, showing the wall-film dynamics in terms of spatial extent, thickness and temperature.
Technical Paper

Water Load Determination Approach in Two Wheeler Exhaust System

Future emission norms in India (BS6) necessitates the 2 wheeler industry to work towards emission optimization measures. Engine operation at stoichiometric Air-Fuel Ratio (AFR) would result in a good performance, durability and least emissions. To keep the AFR close to stoichiometric condition, an Oxygen sensor is placed in the exhaust system, which detects if air-fuel mixture is rich (λ<1) or lean (λ>1) and provides feedback to fuel injection system for suitable fuel control. O2 sensor has a ceramic element, which needs to be heated to a working temperature for its functioning. The ceramic element would break (thermal shock) if water in liquid form comes in contact with it when the element is hot.
Technical Paper

Investigation on the Transient Behavior of a Two-Wheeler Single Cylinder Engine Close to Idling with Electronic Throttle Control

The introduction of new emission legislation and the demand of increased power for small two-wheelers lead to an increase of technical requirements. Especially for single cylinder engines with high compression ratio the transient behavior close to idling is challenging. The demand for two-wheeler specific responsiveness of the vehicle requires low overall rotational inertia as well as small intake manifold volumes. The combination with high compression ratio can lead to a stalling of the engine if the throttle opens and closes very quickly in idle operation. The fast opening and closing of the throttle is called a throttle blip. Fast, in this context, means that the blipping event can occur in one to two working cycles. Previous work was focused on the development of a procedure to apply reproducible blipping events to a vehicle in order to derive a deeper physical understanding of the stalling events.