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Technical Paper

Virtual Cylinder Pressure Sensor (VCPS) with Individual Variable-Oriented Independent Estimators

Tremendous amount of useful information can be extracted from the cylinder pressure signal for engine combustion control. However, the physical cylinder pressure sensors are undesirably expensive and their health need to be monitored for fault diagnostic purpose as well. This paper presents the results of the development of a virtual cylinder pressure sensor (VCPS) with individual variable-oriented independent estimators. Two neural network-based independent cylinder pressure related variable estimators were developed and verified at steady state. The results show that these models can predict the variables correctly compared with the extracted variables from the measured physical cylinder pressure sensor signal. Good generalization capabilities of the developed models are observed in the sense that the models work well not only for the training data set but also for the new inputs that they have never been exposed to before.
Technical Paper

Electrification and Integration of Accessories on a Class-8 Tractor

This paper describes installation and testing of electrified engine accessories and fuel cell auxiliary power units for a Class-8 tractor. A 2.4 kW fuel cell APU (Auxiliary Power Unit) has been added to supply a 42 V power supply for electrification of air conditioning and water pump systems. A 42/12 V dual alternator was used to replace the OEM alternator to provide safety back-up in case of fuel cell failure. A QNX Real Time Operating System-based (RTOS) Rapid Prototype Electronic Control System (RPECS™), developed by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI™), is used for supervisory control and coordination between accessories and engine. A Controller Area Network (CAN) interface, from the engine Electronic Control Unit (ECU), and the RS232 interface, from the fuel cell controllers, provide system data and control for RPECS. Custom wiring to the hydrogen, water pump, and air conditioning systems also provide data to RPECS. The water pump system controller is autonomous.
Technical Paper

Electronic Fuel System Development for Air-Cooled Motorcycles

Southwest Research Institute® (SwRI®) has developed electronic fuel injection (EFI) systems to be used on air-cooled motorcycle applications. In order to explore differences in application requirements between large and small displacement motorcycles, a large twin-cylinder, four-stroke, air-cooled motorcycle, and a small single cylinder, four-stroke, air-cooled motorcycle were utilized. The primary objectives of this study were to meet current and future emissions regulations for motorcycle exhaust emissions, to raise fuel economy, and to improve overall engine performance. The EFI development required baseline testing, control system setup, design of intake system components, installation of sensors and control unit, fuel system integration, steady-state and transient calibration, fuel consumption development, emissions development, performance improvement, and acceleration testing.
Technical Paper

The Turbo Trac Traction Drive CVT

A unique and attractive variator mechanism has been developed by Turbo Trac, Inc. and Southwest Research Institute (SwRI) for initial use in a heavy duty diesel truck application. High efficiency levels have been predicted with analytical models and confirmed with actual test data. Further, this variator incorporates a very stable and simple control system and has extremely high torque capacity. The prototype of the variator mechanism has also been configured with a modified Allison 650 series transmission for use as a series application in a Peterbilt truck, the final configuration will be a split power design. The setup includes a preliminary control system that allows for highway driving. It is emphasized, however, that Allison did not contribute to this design or any of the content of this paper.
Technical Paper

42-Volt Electric Air Conditioning System Commissioning and Control for a Class-8 Tractor

The electrification of accessories using a fuel cell as an auxiliary power unit reduces the load on the engine and provides opportunities to increase propulsion performance or reduce engine displacement. The SunLine™ Class 8 tractor electric accessory integration project is a United States Army National Automotive Center (NAC™) initiative in partnership with Cummins Inc., Dynetek™ Industries Ltd., General Dynamics C4 Systems, Acumentrics™ Corporation, Michelin North America, Engineered Machine Products (EMP™), Peterbilt™ Motors Company, Modine™ Manufacturing and Masterflux™. Southwest Research Institute is the technical integration contractor to SunLine™ Services Group. In this paper the SunLine™ tractor electric Air Conditioning (AC) system is described and the installation of components on the tractor is illustrated. The AC system has been designed to retrofit into an existing automotive system and every effort was made to maintain OEM components whenever modifications were made.
Technical Paper

Modeling, Simulation, and Hardware-in-the-Loop Transmission Test System Software Development

This paper describes the development of a generic test cell software designed to overcome many vehicle-component testing difficulties by introducing modern, real-time control and simulation capabilities directly to laboratory test environments. Successfully demonstrated in a transmission test cell system, this software eliminated the need for internal combustion engines (ICE) and test-track vehicles. It incorporated the control of an advanced AC induction motor that electrically simulated the ICE and a DC dynamometer that electrically replicated vehicle loads. Engine behaviors controlled by the software included not only the average crankshaft torque production but also engine inertia and firing pulses, particularly during shifts. Vehicle loads included rolling resistance, aerodynamic drag, grade, and more importantly, vehicle inertia corresponding to sport utility, light truck, or passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Method for Analyzing Lubricating Oil Contamination of Aircraft Systems

Cabin air quality is of continuing importance [1]. Contamination of air with particulates or vapors has the potential of affecting the health of passengers and flight crew. Therefore, measures are required to maintain acceptable levels of cabin air quality. One potential source of cabin air contamination is lubricating oils used in the engines. Type II oils are required for the main engines, but Type I or Type II oils can be used for the APU, with Type I recommended by some engine manufacturers for its cold-start properties. Southwest Research Institutes (SwRI®) Department of Emissions Research used an internally developed analytical method called Direct Filter Injection/Gas Chromatograph (DFI/GC™) to analyze for volatile fractions of lubricating oil contaminants on Environmental Control System (ECS) components. Samples of two standard Type II aviation turbine lubricating oils were analyzed with the DFI/GC™ method and their spectra examined.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic System Configurations for Improved Efficiency

The design and selection of a hydraulic system for a particular machine is based upon a variety of factors which include: functionality, performance, safety, cost, reliability, duty cycle, component availability, and efficiency. With higher fuel costs and requirements to reduce engine exhaust emissions, new hydraulic system configurations should be considered. Traditional hydraulic systems conssume an excessive amount of energy due to metering losses. A single pump usually supplies flow to multiple functions, with differing flow and pressure requirements resulting in excessive metering losses. The energy of mass and inertial loads is usually dissipated by metering losses. Opportunities exist for reducing metering losses by the use of multiple pumps and by using hydrostatic control of individual functions. Hydrostatic control also allows for energy recovery when used in conjunction with an energy storage system.
Technical Paper

Inductances of Automotive Electromagnetic Devices

A quantitative relationship between inductances and operating currents of automotive electromagnetic devices was necessary for experimentally assessing the nature of the spark that occurs when a current-carrying conductor in an automobile electrical system is broken. Various automotive electromagnetic devices were obtained, and their inductances and dc operating currents were measured. A plot of the data showed, as expected, that an inverse relationship existed, and regression analysis showed that the relationship could be expressed as where L is inductance in millihenries, and I is current in amperes. This formula, which provided sufficient accuracy for the intended experiments, may be used for estimating the inductance of an automotive electromagnetic device if the current drawn by the device is known.
Technical Paper

Paint Integrity and Corrosion Sensor

Atmospheric corrosion of steels, aluminum alloys, and Al-clad aluminum alloys is a problem for many civil engineering structures, commercial and military vehicles, and aircraft. Paint is usually the primary means to prevent the corrosion of steel bridge components, automobiles, trucks, and aircraft. Under ideal conditions, the coating provides a continuous layer that is impervious to moisture. At present, maintenance cycles for commercial and military aircraft and ground vehicles, as well as engineered structures, is based on experience and appearance rather than a quantitative determination of coating integrity. To improve the maintenance process and reduce costs, sensors are often used to monitor corrosion. The present suite of sensors designed to detect corrosion and marketed to predict the lifetime of the engineered components, however, are not useful for determining the condition of the protective paint coatings.
Technical Paper

A Dual-Use Hybrid Electric Command and Control Vehicle

Until recently, U.S. government efforts to dramatically reduce emissions, greenhouse gases and vehicle fuel consumption have primarily focused on passenger car applications. Similar aggressive reductions need to be extended to heavy vehicles such as delivery trucks, buses, and motorhomes. However, the wide range of torques, speeds, and powers that such vehicles must operate under makes it difficult for any current powertrain system to provide the desired improvements in emissions and fuel economy. Hybrid electric powertrains provide the most promising, near-term technology that can satisfy these requirements. This paper highlights the configuration and benefits of a hybrid electric powertrain capable of operating in either a parallel or series mode. It describes the hybrid electric components in the system, including the electric motors, power electronics and batteries.
Technical Paper

Dimethoxy Methane in Diesel Fuel: Part 1. The Effect of Fuels and Engine Operating Modes on Emissions of Toxic Air Pollutants and Gas/Solid Phase PAH

The objective of this study was to quantify engine-out emissions of potentially toxic compounds from a modern diesel engine operated with different fuels including 15% v/v dimethoxy methane in a low sulfur diesel fuel. Five diesel fuels were examined: a low-sulfur, low-aromatic hydrocracked (∼1 ppm) fuel, the same low sulfur fuel containing 15% v/v dimethoxy methane, a Fischer-Tropsch fuel, a CARB fuel, and an EPA number 2 certification fuel. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine was controlled with a SwRI Rapid Prototyping Electronic Control system. The engine was operated over 4 speed-load modes. Each operating mode and fuel combination was run in triplicate. Thirty three potentially toxic compounds were measured for each fuel and mode.
Technical Paper

Dimethoxy Methane in Diesel Fuel: Part 3. The Effect of Pilot Injection, Fuels and Engine Operating Modes on Emissions of Toxic Air Pollutants and Gas/Solid Phase PAH

The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of pilot fuel injection on engine-out emissions of potentially toxic compounds from a modern diesel engine operated with different fuels including 15% v/v dimethoxy methane in a low-sulfur diesel fuel. Five diesel fuels were examined: a low-sulfur (∼1 ppm), low aromatic, hydrocracked fuel, the same low-sulfur fuel containing 15% v/v dimethoxy methane, a Fischer-Tropsch fuel, a California reformulated fuel, and a EPA number 2 certification fuel. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine was controlled with a SwRI Rapid Prototyping Electronic Control system. The pilot fuel injection was either turned off or turned on with engine control by either Location of Peak Pressure (LPP) of combustion or the original equipment manufacturer (OEM) calibration strategy. These three control strategies were compared over 2 speed-load modes run in triplicate. Thirty-three potentially toxic compounds were measured.
Technical Paper

Oxygenates screening for AdvancedPetroleum-Based Diesel Fuels: Part 2. The Effect of Oxygenate Blending Compounds on Exhaust Emissions

Adding oxygenates to diesel fuel has shown the potential for reducing particulate (PM) emissions in the exhaust. The objective of this study was to select the most promising oxygenate compounds as blending components in diesel fuel for advanced engine testing. A fuel matrix was designed to consider the effect of molecular structure and boiling point on the ability of oxygenates to reduce engine-out exhaust emissions from a modern diesel engine. Nine test fuels including a low-sulfur (∼1 ppm), low-aromatic hydrocracked base fuel and 8 oxygenate-base fuel blends were utilized. All oxygenated fuels were formulated to contain 7% wt. of oxygen. A DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine for light-duty vehicles was controlled with a SwRI Rapid Prototyping Electronic Control System. The base fuel was evaluated in four speed-load modes and oxygenated blends only in one mode. Each operating mode and fuel combination was run in triplicate.
Technical Paper

Diesel Fuel Ignition Quality as Determined in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™) - Part IV

This paper reports on the fourth part of a continued study on further research and development with the automated Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™). Research over the past six years (reported in SAE papers #961182, 971636 and 1999-01-3591) has demonstrated the capabilities of this automated apparatus to measure the ignition quality and accurately determine a derived cetane number (DCN) for a wide range of middle distillate and non-conventional diesel fuels. The present paper reports on a number of separate investigations supporting these continued studies.
Technical Paper

The ASTM Test Monitoring Center - Evolving in a Changing Industry

This paper traces the evolution of the ASTM Test Monitoring Center (TMC) from its modest beginnings in 1976 to the present. Formed as an unbiased and non-aligned group within ASTM Subcommittee D02.B, the TMC operates a reference oil based calibration system that serves both the producers and users of automotive lubricants. Governed by the ASTM Test Monitoring Board, the center's primary mission is to calibrate engine dynamometer test stands used to conduct various ASTM test methods for evaluating lubricant performance. The core services of the TMC have remained the same over its nearly 25 year history. The center stores and distributes ASTM reference oils and is responsible for assuring, through the use of analytical testing, the quality and consistency of the oils. The number of reference oils handled by the TMC has steadily increased over time such that today the center inventories some 100 different formulations having a total volume of 65,000 gallons.
Technical Paper

Life-Cycle Cost Sensitivity to Battery-Pack Voltage of an HEV

A detailed component performance, ratings, and cost study was conducted on series and parallel hybrid electric vehicle (HEV) configurations for several battery pack and main electric traction motor voltages while meeting stringent Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles (PNGV) power delivery requirements. A computer simulation calculated maximum current and voltage for each component as well as power and fuel consumption. These values defined the peak power ratings for each HEV drive system's electric components: batteries, battery cables, boost converter, generator, rectifier, motor, and inverter. To identify a superior configuration or voltage level, life cycle costs were calculated based on the components required to execute simulated drive schedules. These life cycle costs include the initial manufacturing cost of components, fuel cost, and battery replacement cost over the vehicle life.
Technical Paper

Nanoparticle Growth During Dilution and Cooling of Diesel Exhaust: Experimental Investigation and Theoretical Assessment

Nanoparticle formation during exhaust sampling and dilution has been examined using a two-stage micro-dilution system to sample the exhaust from a modern, medium-duty diesel engine. Growth rates of nanoparticles at different exhaust dilution ratios and temperatures have been determined by monitoring the evolution of particle size distributions in the first stage of the dilution system. Two methods, graphical and analytical, are described to determine particle growth rate. Extrapolation of size distribution down to 1 nm in diameter has been demonstrated using the graphical method. The average growth rate of nanoparticles is calculated using the analytical method. The growth rate ranges from 6 nm/sec to 24 nm/sec, except at a dilution ratio of 40 and primary dilution temperature of 48 °C where the growth rate drops to 2 nm /sec. This condition seems to represent a threshold for growth. Observed nucleation and growth patterns are consistent with predictions of a simple physical model.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Ignition Behaviour of the ASTM D-613 Primary Reference Fuels and Full Boiling Range Diesel Fuels in the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™) - Part III

This paper reports on the third part of a continued study (SAE Papers 961182, 971636) to develop the Ignition Quality Tester (IQT™). Past research has shown that this automated laboratory/refinery apparatus can be used to accurately predict the cetane number of middle distillates and alternative fuels using small sample volumes (< 50 mL). The paper reports on the main objective of a study performed by Advanced Engine Technology Ltd. (AET), in co-operation with its research partners. The primary research objective of this work is to further the understanding of fuel preparation (fuel air mixing) and start of combustion processes in the IQT™. Key to this understanding is the manner in which single molecule compounds and full boiling-range diesel fuels behave during these processes. Insights are provided into the manner in which the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) D-613 primary reference fuels (PRFs) undergo fuel preparation and start of combustion in the IQT™.
Technical Paper

Effects of Catalyst Formulation on Vehicle Emissions With Respect to Gasoline Fuel Sulfur Level

Proposed emissions standards will require that emissions control systems function at extremely high efficiency. Recently, studies have shown that elevated gasoline fuel sulfur levels (GFSL) can impair catalytic converter efficiency. In this study, a variety of tri-metal catalysts were evaluated to determine if formulation changes could reduce emissions sensitivity to GFSL. Catalysts with elemental composition similar to an OEM, but with double the precious metal (PM) loading, were evaluated using 38 and 620 ppm GFSL. Doubling the PM loading significantly reduced catalyst sensitivity to sulfur. Doubling the rhodium loading, at the expense of the platinum loading, significantly improved NOx emission sulfur sensitivity.