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Technical Paper

Performance Test Results of a New On Board Emission Measurement System Conformed with CFR Part 1065

A new on-board portable emission measurement system (PEMS) for gaseous emissions has been designed and developed to meet CFR Part 1065 requirements. The new system consists of a heated flame ionization detector (HFID) for the measurement of total hydrocarbon, a heated chemiluminescence detector (HCLD) for the measurement of NOx, and a heated non-dispersive infra-red detector (HNDIR) for the measurement of CO and CO2. The oxygen interference and relative sensitivity of several hydrocarbon components have been optimized for the HFID. The CO2 and H2O quenching effect on the HCLD have been compensated using measured CO2 and H2O concentration. The spectral overlap and molecular interaction of H2O on the HNDIR measurement has also been compensated using an independent H2O concentration measurement. The basic performance of the new on-board emission measurement system has been verified accordingly with CFR part 1065 and all of the performances have met with CFR part 1065 requirement.
Technical Paper

The Potential for Achieving Low Hydrocarbon and NOx Exhaust Emissions from Large Light-Duty Gasoline Vehicles

Two large, heavy light-duty gasoline vehicles (2004 model year Ford F-150 with a 5.4 liter V8 and GMC Yukon Denali with a 6.0 liter V8) were baselined for emission performance over the FTP driving cycle in their stock configurations. Advanced emission systems were designed for both vehicles employing advanced three-way catalysts, high cell density ceramic substrates, and advanced exhaust system components. These advanced emission systems were integrated on the test vehicles and characterized for low mileage emission performance on the FTP cycle using the vehicle's stock engine calibration and, in the case of the Denali, after modifying the vehicle's stock engine calibration for improved cold-start and hot-start emission performance.
Technical Paper

Aging of Zeolite Based Automotive Hydrocarbon Traps

This paper analyzes the aging of zeolite based hydrocarbon traps to guide development of diagnostic algorithms. Previous research has shown the water adsorption ability of zeolite ages along with the hydrocarbon adsorption ability, and this leads to a possible diagnostic algorithm: the water concentration in the exhaust can be measured and related to aging. In the present research, engine experiments demonstrate that temperature measurements are also related to aging. To examine the relationship between temperature-based and moisture-based diagnostic algorithms, a transient, nonlinear heat and mass transfer model of the exhaust during cold-start is developed. Despite some idealizations, the model replicates the qualitative behavior of the exhaust system. A series of parametric studies reveals the sensitivity of the system response to aging and various noise factors.
Technical Paper

Unregulated Exhaust Emissions from Alternate Diesel Combustion Modes

Regulated and unregulated exhaust emissions (individual hydrocarbons, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), and nitro-polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (NPAH)) were characterized for the following alternate diesel combustion modes: premixed charge compression ignition (PCCI), and low-temperature combustion (LTC). PCCI and LTC were studied on a PSA light-duty high-speed diesel engine. Engine-out emissions of carbonyl compounds were significantly increased for all LTC modes and for PCCI-Lean conditions as compared to diesel operation; however, PCCI-Rich produced much lower carbonyl emissions than diesel operations. For PAH compounds, emissions were found to be substantially increased over baseline diesel operation for LTC-Lean, LTC-Rich, and PCCI-Lean conditions. PCCI-Rich operation, however, gave PAH emission rates comparable to baseline diesel operation.
Technical Paper

Emissions of Toxicologically Relevant Compounds Using Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Fuel and Aftertreatment at a Low NOx, Low Power Engine Condition

Previously we reported (SAE Paper 2005-01-0475) that emissions of toxicologically relevant compounds from an engine operating at low NOx conditions using Fischer-Tropsch fuel (FT100) were lower than those emissions from the engine using an ultra-low sulfur (15 PPM sulfur) diesel fuel (BP15). Those tests were performed at two operating modes: Mode 6 (4.2 bar BMEP, 2300 RPM) and Mode 11 (2.62 bar BMEP, 1500 RPM). We wanted to evaluate the effect on emissions of operating the engine at low power (near idle) in conjunction with the low NOx strategy. Specifically, we report on emissions of total hydrocarbon (HC), carbon monoxide (CO), NOx, particulates (PM), formaldehyde, acetaldehyde, benzene, 1,3-butadiene, gas phase polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAH's) and particle phase PAH's from a DaimlerChrysler OM611 CIDI engine using a low NOx engine operating strategy at Mode 22 (1.0 bar BMEP and 1500 RPM).
Technical Paper

Developmental Fuels Emissions Evaluation

Emissions characterization of three, small off-road engines of less than 19 kW power rating operating on two developmental fuels and one reference fuel was performed. The two fuels were formulated to remove benzene completely, curtail sulfur, and in one blend, include a substantial proportion of ethyl tert-butyl ether (ETBE). The engines selected included one side-valve four-stroke engine, one overhead valve four-stroke engine and one handheld two-stroke engine. The engines were maintained in stock condition. Exhaust emissions from operation with the two developmental fuels were compared to those from operation with light-duty certification-grade gasoline. California Air Resources Board (CARB) Small Off-Road Engine (SORE) emissions test methods and test cycles were used to test the engines. Duplicate tests were performed on each engine using dilute sampling procedures. Hydrocarbon speciation was performed on one replicate with each fuel.
Technical Paper

Regulated and Unregulated Exhaust Emissions Comparison for Three Tier II Non-Road Diesel Engines Operating on Ethanol-Diesel Blends

Regulated and unregulated emissions (individual hydrocarbons, ethanol, aldehydes and ketones, polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitro-PAH, and soluble organic fraction of particulate matter) were characterized in engines utilizing duplicate ISO 8178-C1 eight-mode tests and FTP smoke tests. Certification No. 2 diesel (400 ppm sulfur) and three ethanol/diesel blends, containing 7.7 percent, 10 percent, and 15 percent ethanol, respectively, were used. The three, Tier II, off-road engines were 6.8-L, 8.1-L, and 12.5-L in displacement and each had differing fuel injection system designs. It was found that smoke and particulate matter emissions decreased with increasing ethanol content. Changes to the emissions of carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen varied with engine design, with some increases and some decreases. As expected, increasing ethanol concentration led to higher emissions of acetaldehyde (increases ranging from 27 to 139 percent).
Technical Paper

Development of the Sequence IIIG Engine Oil Certification Test

American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Sequence III Engine Oil Certification Tests have been used for the past forty-five years to evaluate lubricant performance characteristics for valvetrain wear, viscosity increase, and piston deposit formation. Minimum performance standards for passenger car light duty gasoline engine oil categories are set by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) (1) and the American Petroleum Institute (API) (2). This paper describes the development of the new ASTM Sequence IIIG Engine Oil Certification Test for use in evaluating the performance characteristics of engine oils meeting the next generation, low sulfur, low phosphorus, ILSAC GF-4 and API licensing requirements.
Technical Paper

Marine Outboard and Personal Watercraft Engine Gaseous Emissions, and Particulate Emission Test Procedure Development

The U.S. EPA and the California Air Resources Board have adopted standards to reduce emissions from recreational marine vessels. Existing regulations focus on reducing hydrocarbons. There are no regulations on particulate emissions; particulate is expected to be reduced as a side benefit of hydrocarbon control. The goal of this study was to develop a sampling methodology to measure particulate emissions from marine outboard and personal watercraft engines. Eight marine engines of various engine technologies and power output were tested. Emissions measured in this program included hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, oxides of nitrogen. Particulate emissions will be presented in a follow-up paper.
Technical Paper

Durability of Low-Emissions Small Off-Road Engines

The goal of the project was to reduce tailpipe-out hydrocarbon (HC) plus oxides of nitrogen (NOx) emissions to 50 percent or less of the current California Air Resources Board (CARB) useful life standard of 12 g/hp-hr for Class I engines, or 9 g/hp-hr for Class II engines. Low-emission engines were developed using three-way catalytic converters, passive secondary-air induction (SAI) systems, and in two cases, enleanment. Catalysts were integrated into the engine's mufflers, where feasible, to maintain a compact package. Due to the thermal sensitivity of these engines, carburetor calibrations were left unchanged in four of the six engines, at the stock rich settings. To enable HC oxidation under such rich conditions, a simple passive supplemental air injection system was developed. This system was then tuned to achieve the desired HC+NOx reduction.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of Sample Bag Hydrocarbon Emissions and Carbon Dioxide Permeation Properties

The equipment for collecting dilute exhaust samples involves the use of bag materials (i.e., Tedlar®) that emit hydrocarbons that contaminate samples. This study identifies a list of materials and treatments to produce bags that reduce contamination. Based on the average emission rates, baked Tedlar®, Capran® treated with alumina deposition, supercritical CO2 extracted Kynar® and supercritical CO2 extracted Teflon NXT are capable of achieving the target hydrocarbon emission rate of less than 15 ppbC per 30 minutes. CO2 permeation tests were also performed. Tedlar, Capran, Kynar and Teflon NXT showed comparable average permeation rates. Based on the criteria of HC emission performance, changes in measured CO2 concentration, ease of sealing, and ease of surface treatment, none of the four materials could be distinguished from one another.
Technical Paper

Development of a Methodology to Separate Thermal from Oil Aging of a Catalyst Using a Gasoline-Fueled Burner System

Typically, an engine/dynamometer thermal aging cycle contains combinations of elevated catalyst inlet temperatures, chemical reaction-induced thermal excursions (simulating misfire events), and average air/fuel ratio's (AFR's) to create a condition that accelerates the aging of the test part. In theory, thermal aging is predominantly a function of the time at an exposure temperature. Therefore, if a burner system can be used to simulate the exhaust AFR and catalyst inlet and bed temperature profile generated by an engine running an accelerated aging cycle, then a catalyst should thermally age the same when exposed to either exhaust stream. This paper describes the results of a study that examined the aging difference between six like catalysts aged using the Rapid Aging Test (RAT) cycle (an accelerated thermal aging cycle). Three catalysts were aged using a gasoline-fueled engine aging stand; the other three were aged using a computer controlled burner system.
Technical Paper

Roadmap for Hybridization of Military Tactical Vehicles: How Can We Get There?

The U.S. Army's National Automotive Center has contracted with Illinois Institute of Technology Research Institute (IITRI), Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), and Advanced Propulsion, LLC, to evaluate the effects on fuel consumption and logistics that would result from hybridizing the powertrains of the Army's tactical wheeled vehicle fleet. This paper will outline the approach taken to perform that evaluation and present a synopsis of results achieved to date.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Emissions and Fuel Economy Characteristics of Conventional, Additized, and Substantially Synthetic Diesel Fuels in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

This study compared four different candidate fuels which were prepared by blending different components with a typical No. 2 diesel. Two fuels were blended with a synthetic diesel prepared from natural gas condensate, and all candidate fuels were splash blended with a proprietary additive package from International Fuel Technology Inc. (IFT). These fuels were then compared to the No. 2 diesel and to a California Air Resources Board (CARB) equivalent diesel fuel. The comparisons included fuel properties such as sulfur content, aromatics, cetane, lubricity, distillation; emissions; and fuel consumption. Emission testing was conducted on a 1991 Detroit Diesel Series 60. The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) transient cycle was utilized for emissions, fuel characterization was performed according to ASTM standards, and fuel consumption was calculated by the carbon balance method.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Durable Emission Controls for Large Nonroad SI Engines

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is developing emission standards for nonroad spark-ignition engines rated over 19 kW. Existing emission standards adopted by the California Air Resources Board for these engines were derived from emission testing with new engines, with an approximate adjustment applied to take deterioration into account. This paper describes subsequent testing with two LPG-fueled engines that had accumulated several thousand hours of operation with closed-loop control and three-way catalysts. These engines were removed from forklift trucks for characterization and optimization of emission levels. Emissions were measured over a wide range of steady-state points and several transient duty cycles. Optimized emission levels from the aged systems were generally below 1.5 g/hp-hr THC+NOx and 10 g/hp-hr CO.
Technical Paper

Development of a Transient Duty Cycle for Large Nonroad SI Engines

The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has proposed emission standards for nonroad spark-ignition engines rated over 19 kW. Existing emission standards adopted by the California Air Resources Board require testing on a steady-state duty cycle. This paper presents the results of measurements to characterize normal operation from forklift trucks, which are the dominant application for these engines. In combination with previous measurements with a welder to represent constant-speed applications, the measured data were used to derive a composite 20-minute transient duty cycle for emission testing for all nonroad industrial spark-ignition engines.
Technical Paper

Advanced Performance of Metallic Converter Systems Demonstrated on a Production V8 Engine

It has been shown within the catalyst industry that the emission performance with higher cell density technology and therefore with higher specific geometric area is improved. The focus of this study was to compare the overall performance of high cell density catalysts, up to 1600cpsi, using a MY 2001 production vehicle with a 4.7ltr.V8 engine. The substrates were configured to be on the edge of the design capability. The goal was to develop cost optimized systems with similar emission and back pressure performance, which meet physical and production requirements. This paper will present the results of a preliminary computer simulation study and the final emission testing of a production vehicle. For the pre-evaluation a numerical simulation model was used to compare the light-off performance of different substrate designs in the cold start portion of the FTP test cycle.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Emission Characteristics of Conventional, Hydrotreated, and Fischer-Tropsch Diesel Fuels in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

This study compared diesel exhaust emission from four different diesel fuels: a conventional low sulfur D2 diesel (0.03% sulfur, 28% aromatics), California Air Resources Board (CARB) diesel (0.015% sulfur, 8% aromatics), “Swedish” diesel (<0.001% sulfur, 4% aromatics), and a Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) diesel (<0.0001% sulfur, <0.1% aromatics) fuel. The comparison included regulated emissions, hydrocarbon speciation, air toxics, aldehydes and ketones, particle size distribution, and greenhouse gas emissions. Testing was conducted using a Cummins B-Series engine installed both in a heavy light-duty truck operating on a chassis dynamometer and on an engine dynamometer. The chassis driving cycles included city, highway, and aggressive driving operation. Engine dynamometer tests included the U.S. transient cycle.
Technical Paper

Heavy-Duty Diesel Truck In-Use Emission Test Program for Model Years 1950 through 1975

Criteria pollutants were measured from ten Class 7 and 8 (i.e., gross vehicle weights > 33,000 lb) heavy-duty diesel trucks with engine model years between 1953 and 1975. The data was used by EPA to estimate that period's particulate matter emission rates for these type engines and will be used to develop dose response relationships with existing epidemiological data. Particulate samples were analyzed for sulfate and volatile organic fraction. Carbon soot was estimated. The trucks had particulate emissions of 2 to 10 g/mi as compared to 1 to 6 g/mi for trucks with model year engines from 1975 through the mid-1980s, and less than 1 g/mi for post-1988 trucks.
Technical Paper

Characterization of Particle Size Distribution of a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine During FTP Transient Cycle Using ELPI

Particle number concentrations and size distributions were measured for the diluted exhaust of a 1991 diesel engine during the US FTP transient cycle for heavy-duty diesel engines. The engine was operated on US 2-D on-highway diesel fuel. The particle measurement system consisted of a full flow dilution tunnel as the primary dilution stage, an air ejector pump as the secondary dilution stage, and an electrical low pressure impactor (ELPI) for particle size distribution measurements. Particle number emission rate was the highest during the Los Angeles Non Freeway (LANF) and the Los Angeles Freeway (LAF) segments of the transient cycle. However, on brake specific number basis the LAF had the lowest emission level. The particle size distribution was monomodal in shape with a mode between 0.084 μm and 0.14 μm. The shape of the size distribution suggested no presence of nanoparticles below the lower detection limit of the instrument (0.032 μm), except during engine idle.