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Technical Paper

An Intake Charge Cooling System for Application to Diesel, Gasoline and Natural Gas Engines

Low intake manifold temperature, well below ambient, has many applications in internal combustion engines. In diesel engines, it can reduce NOx to a level of 2.0 g/hp-hr or below, going beyond the 1994 heavy duty diesel engine emissions standards. In gasoline engines, it can allow high compression ratio, turbocharged operation without end gas knock. This will permit ready conversion of some heavy duty diesel engines to gasoline operation at increased power density and lower emissions. In natural gas engines, it will allow base diesel engine to be converted to stoichiometric natural gas operation without increasing thermal loads. A three way catalyst can then be used to reduce emissions.
Technical Paper

Homogeneous-Charge Compression-Ignition (HCCI) Engines

Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) combustion can be made to occur in a four-stroke engine with smooth and even combustion under some circumstances. It offers the possibility of light load operation without throttling, thus giving fuel economy like a diesel, in the same engine allowing full load operation with homogeneous charge, thus giving a power density comparable to a gasoline engine. This paper gives results of an experimental program in which the ranges of permissible values of the operating parameters were defined for HCCI operation of a four-stroke engine. It was found that HCCI required high exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) rates (in the range of 13 to 33 percent) and high intake temperatures (greater than 370°C). Under the right conditions HCCI combustion produced fuel economy results comparable with a D.I. diesel engine (ISFC in the range 180 to 200 g/kWh).
Technical Paper

Performance and Emissions of Ethanol and Ethanol-Diesel Blends in Direct-Injected and Pre-Chamber Diesel Engines

Fumigation, inline mixing, chemically stabilized emulsions and cetane improvers were evaluated as a means of using ethanol in diesel engines. Two turbocharged six-cylinder engines of identical bore and stroke were used, differing in combustion chamber type. Three alcohol proofs were evaluated: 200, 190, and 160. Alcohol was added at the following concentrations: 10, 25, and 50% except in the case of the cetane-improved alcohol. In the latter case a commercial ignition improver for diesel fuel, DII-3, was added to neat alcohol in the proportions of 10, 15, and 20%. Generally, the emissions of CO, total hydrocarbons, and oxides of nitrogen reflected the trends observed in the thermal efficiencies. At light loads, CO and HC emissions were higher than baseline, decreasing to near baseline levels at heavy loads accompanied with higher NOx.
Technical Paper

Evaluation of Emission Control Technology Approaches for Heavy-Duty Gasoline Engines

This paper summarizes a laboratory effort toward reducing nine-mode cycle composite emissions and fuel consumption in a heavy-duty gasoline engine, while retaining current durability performance. Evaluations involved standard carburetors, a Dresserator inductor, a Bendix electronic fuel injection system, exhaust manifold thermal reactors, and exhaust gas recirculation, along with other components and engine operating parameters. A system consisting of electronic fuel injection, thermal reactors with air injection and exhaust gas recirculation, was assembled which met specified project goals. An oxidation catalyst was included as an add-on during the service accumulation demonstration. In addition, the driveability of this engine configuration was demonstrated.
Technical Paper

Emissions Control of Gasoline Engines for Heavy-Duty Vehicles

This paper summarizes an investigation of reductions in exhaust emission levels attainable using various techniques appropriate to gasoline engines used in vehicles over 14,000 lbs GVW. Of the eight gasoline engines investigated, two were evaluated parametrically resulting in an oxidation and reduction catalyst “best combination” configuration. Four of the engines were evaluated in an EGR plus oxidation catalyst configuration, and two involved only baseline tests. Test procedures used in evaluating the six “best combination” configurations include: three engine emission test procedures using an engine dynamometer, a determination of vehicle driveability, and two vehicle emission test procedures using a chassis dynamometer. Dramatic reductions in emissions were attained with the catalyst “best combination” configurations. Engine durability, however, was not investigated.
Technical Paper

An Unthrottled Gaseous Fuel Conversion of a 2-Stroke Diesel Engine

The feasibility of converting a conventional unthrottled 2-stroke diesel engine to gaseous fuel was investigated. The development work was performed in two phases. In phase 1 the conversion concepts were built and tested on a single-cylinder engine. In phase 2 one of these was put into effect in a 6-cyl (DDA 6V-71) engine. The design concept with the most promise includes a divided combustion chamber utilizing a gas inlet valve in each chamber and a spark plug ignition source located in the prechamber. The concept has the potential of reducing the exhaust emissions well below the levels now existing in commercial diesels without exhaust smoke and odor and with equivalent fuel consumption and horsepower, as demonstrated in the single-cylinder conversion. Further development work remains to be done to perfect the concept for the multi-cylinder engine.
Technical Paper

Motorcycle Emissions, Their Impact, and Possible Control Techniques

Seven motorcycles, ranging in size from 100 to 1200 cm3, were tested for emissions characterization purposes. They were operated on the federal seven-mode test procedure (for 1971 and older light-duty vehicles), the federal LA-4 test procedure (for 1972 and later LDVs), and under a variety of steady-state conditions. Four of the machines tested had 4-stroke engines, and the other three had 2-stroke engines. Emissions which were measured included hydrocarbons, CO, CO2, NO, NOx, O2, aldehydes, light hydrocarbons, particulates, and smoke. Emissions of SOx were estimated on the basis of fuel consumed, and evaporative hydrocarbon losses were also estimated. Crankcase “blowby” emissions from one 4-stroke machine were measured. The impact of motorcycles on national pollutant totals was estimated, based on the test results and information from a variety of sources on national population and usage of motorcycles.
Technical Paper

Noise Reduction Techniques as They Apply to Engine-Generator Design and Treatment

Small engines may require soundproofing to eliminate one or more of the following effects: hearing loss, speech interference, community annoyance, detectability, and psychological disorientation. Detectability criteria are frequently associated with military applications and may require the use of a soundproof enclosure in addition to other engine treatments. Acoustical noise sources are conveniently classed as either aerodynamic or mechanical. Aerodynamic sources are predominant on small engines. Treatment of exhaust noise by individual components, e.g., muffler, is inadequate; a system approach, through the use of an electro-acoustic analog computer, has proved to be a much more satisfactory procedure.
Technical Paper

REDSOD - A New Concept in Earthmoving

REDSOD, an acronym for Repetitive Explosive Device for Soil Displacement, utilizes the energy generated within a combustion chamber by the combustion of compressed air and a hydrocarbon fuel to displace and move soil or material. An integral wedge-shaped base shoe with a large exhaust opening in its top surface is pushed into a soil overburden at depths up to 5 ft or more by a transporting vehicle. When the combustion chamber pressure has reached a maximum value, the hot, high pressure gases are released through the exhaust opening under the soil overburden. The soil is disaggregated and displaced up and out of the excavation. Deflectors can turn the direction of the soil's trajectory to deliver it to one side of the excavation. A greatly increased productivity per unit of equipment is possible over conventional earthmoving means.