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Technical Paper

Impact of Operating Parameters on Ignition System Energy Consumption

2014-04-01
2014-01-1233
The use of cooled EGR in gasoline engines improves the fuel efficiency of the engine through a variety of mechanisms, including improving the charge properties (e.g. the ratio of specific heats), reducing knock and enabling higher compression ratio operation and, at part loads conditions in particular, reducing pumping work. One of the limiting factors on the level of improvement from cooled EGR is the ability of the ignition system to ignite a dilute mixture and maintain engine stability. Previous work from SwRI has shown that, by increasing the ignition duration and using a continuous discharge ignition system, an improved ignition system can substantially increase the EGR tolerance of an engine [1, 2]. This improvement comes at a cost, however, of increased ignition system energy requirements and a potential decrease in spark plug durability. This work examines the impact of engine operating parameters on the ignition energy requirements under high dilution operation.
Technical Paper

The Effect of In-Cylinder Wall Wetting Location on the HC Emissions from SI Engines

1999-03-01
1999-01-0502
The effect of combustion chamber wall-wetting on the emissions of unburned and partially-burned hydrocarbons (HCs) from gasoline-fueled SI engines was investigated experimentally. A spark-plug mounted directional injection probe was developed to study the fate of liquid fuel which impinges on different surfaces of the combustion chamber, and to quantify its contribution to the HC emissions from direct-injected (DI) and port-fuel injected (PFI) engines. With this probe, a controlled amount of liquid fuel was deposited on a given location within the combustion chamber at a desired crank angle while the engine was operated on pre-mixed LPG. Thus, with this technique, the HC emissions due to in-cylinder wall wetting were studied independently of all other HC sources. Results from these tests show that the location where liquid fuel impinges on the combustion chamber has a very important effect on the resulting HC emissions.
Technical Paper

Development of Improved Arctic Engine Oil (OEA-30)

1999-05-03
1999-01-1523
U.S. Army arctic engine oil, MIL-L-46167B, designated OEA, provides excellent low-temperature operation and is multi functional. It is suitable for crankcase lubrication of reciprocating internal combustion engines and for power-transmission fluid applications in ground equipment. However, this product required 22-percent derated conditions in the two-cycle diesel engine qualifications test. Overall, OEA oil was limited to a maximum ambient temperature use of 5°C for crankcase applications. The technical feasibility of developing an improved, multi functional arctic engine oil for U.S. military ground mobility equipment was investigated. The concept was proven feasible, and the new oil, designated as OEA-30, has exceptional two-cycle diesel engine performance at full engine output and can be operated beyond the 5°C maximum ambient temperature limit of the MIL-L-46167B product.
Technical Paper

Octane Response of Premium-Recommended Vehicles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0883
A higher octane quality fuel used in premium-recommended vehicles has the potential for delivering better acceleration and power. Octane number is a standard measure for the anti-knock quality of a gasoline fuel. A higher octane number fuel can withstand more compression before detonation (or knock). Higher compression ratios directly correlate with engine power and thermodynamic efficiency. Hence engines that are designed for higher octane or premium grade fuels should typically develop higher power by extracting more from the calorific value of the fuel. However, in the case of premium-recommended vehicle models that are designed to run even on lower octane fuels, the extent of performance benefits of using premium grade higher octane fuels can be deciphered via vehicle testing. In this regard, two gasoline fuels with anti-knock index values (AKI) of 87 and 91 respectively were compared in five premium-recommended vehicles for acceleration and power benefits.
Technical Paper

Impact of Swirl Ratio on Combustion Performance of a Non-Pent Roof Combustion Chamber Engine

2015-04-14
2015-01-0743
In response to the sensitivity to diesel aftertreatment costs in the medium duty market, a John Deere 4045 was converted to burn gasoline with high levels of EGR. This presented some unique challenges not seen in light duty gasoline engines as the flat head and diesel adapted ports do not provide optimum in-cylinder turbulence. As the bore size increases, there is more opportunity for knock or incomplete combustion to occur. Also, the high dilution used to reduce knock slows the burn rates. In order to speed up the burn rates, various levels of swirl were investigated. A four valve head with different levels of port masking showed that increasing the swirl ratio decreased the combustion duration, but ultimately ran into high pumping work required to generate the desired swirl. A two valve head was used to overcome the breathing issue seen in the four valve head with port masking.
Technical Paper

Effect of Small Holes and High Injection Pressures on Diesel Engine Combustion

2002-03-04
2002-01-0494
The use of small-hole diesel injector tips and high injection pressures was investigated as a countermeasure to the increased particulate matter (PM) emissions formed when using exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) in diesel engines. This study examined the use of injector tip hole sizes down to about 0.09-mm (0.0035 in.), and injection pressures to 300 MPa (3000 bar, or 43,500 psi). The first phase of these studies was conducted in a high-temperature, high-pressure combustion bomb, with supporting calculations using a unit injector model, a jet-mixing model, and a diesel jet evaporation model. The second phase was conducted in a commercial diesel engine of 12.7-liter displacement designed to meet U.S. 1998 emissions levels. Engine tests were conducted with a baseline cam and a faster rise-rate cam, and three different hole tip sizes. The cams consisted of a baseline cam and a cam of similar design, but with a 12 percent faster rise rate.
Technical Paper

Virtual Cylinder Pressure Sensor (VCPS) with Individual Variable-Oriented Independent Estimators

2005-04-11
2005-01-0059
Tremendous amount of useful information can be extracted from the cylinder pressure signal for engine combustion control. However, the physical cylinder pressure sensors are undesirably expensive and their health need to be monitored for fault diagnostic purpose as well. This paper presents the results of the development of a virtual cylinder pressure sensor (VCPS) with individual variable-oriented independent estimators. Two neural network-based independent cylinder pressure related variable estimators were developed and verified at steady state. The results show that these models can predict the variables correctly compared with the extracted variables from the measured physical cylinder pressure sensor signal. Good generalization capabilities of the developed models are observed in the sense that the models work well not only for the training data set but also for the new inputs that they have never been exposed to before.
Technical Paper

Electrification and Integration of Accessories on a Class-8 Tractor

2005-04-11
2005-01-0016
This paper describes installation and testing of electrified engine accessories and fuel cell auxiliary power units for a Class-8 tractor. A 2.4 kW fuel cell APU (Auxiliary Power Unit) has been added to supply a 42 V power supply for electrification of air conditioning and water pump systems. A 42/12 V dual alternator was used to replace the OEM alternator to provide safety back-up in case of fuel cell failure. A QNX Real Time Operating System-based (RTOS) Rapid Prototype Electronic Control System (RPECS™), developed by Southwest Research Institute (SwRI™), is used for supervisory control and coordination between accessories and engine. A Controller Area Network (CAN) interface, from the engine Electronic Control Unit (ECU), and the RS232 interface, from the fuel cell controllers, provide system data and control for RPECS. Custom wiring to the hydrogen, water pump, and air conditioning systems also provide data to RPECS. The water pump system controller is autonomous.
Technical Paper

Coal-Water-Slurry Autoignition in a High-Speed Detroit Diesel Engine

1994-10-01
941907
Autoignition of coal-water-slurry (CWS) fuel in a two-stroke engine operating at 1900 RPM has been achieved. A Pump-Line-Nozzle (PLN) injection system, delivering 400mm3/injection of CWS, was installed in one modified cylinder of a Detroit Diesel Corporation (DI)C) 8V-149TI engine, while the other seven cylinders remained configured for diesel fuel. Coal Combustion was sustained by maintaining high gas and surface temperatures with a combination of hot residual gases, warm inlet air admission, ceramic insulated components and increased compression ratio. The coal-fueled cylinder generated 85kW indicated power (80 percent of rated power), and lower NOx levels with a combustion efficiency of 99.2 percent.
Technical Paper

Injection Pressure and Intake Air Density Effects on Ignition and Combustion in a 4-Valve Diesel Engine

1994-10-01
941919
Diesel engine optimization for low emissions and high efficiency involves the use of very high injection pressures. It was generally thought that increased injection pressures lead to improved fuel air mixing due to increased atomization in the fuel jet. Injection experiments in a high-pressure, high-temperature flow reactor indicated, however, that high injection pressures, in excess of 150 MPa, leads to greatly increased penetration rates and significant wall impingement. An endoscope system was used to obtain movies of combustion in a modern, 4-valve, heavy-duty diesel engine. Movies were obtained at different speeds, loads, injection pressures, and intake air pressures. The movies indicated that high injection pressure, coupled with high intake air density leads to very short ignition delay times, ignition close to the nozzle, and burning of the plumes as they traverse the combustion chamber.
Technical Paper

Development and Application of Advanced Control Techniques to Heavy-Duty Natural Gas Engines

1996-10-01
961984
Advancements in natural gas engine control technology can result in natural gas engines which are more efficient, powerful, responsive, and durable than those currently available. The vast majority of hardware required to make these advancements exists or can be modified for application on natural gas engines. Given this, an investigation to develop and incorporate advanced natural gas engine control technology was completed. Advanced control techniques for equivalence ratio control, knock detection and control, misfire detection and control, and turbocharger transient surge supression are detailed in this paper. Control strategies were developed and applied to a heavy-duty on-highway natural gas engine using a personal computer-based prototyping control system. The engine control system advancements resulted in a natural gas engine with increased efficiency, power density, and response, along with reduced emissions over the current state-of-the-art in natural gas engines.
Technical Paper

Observation of Transient Oil Consumption with In-Cylinder Variables

1996-10-01
961910
Only a limited understanding of the oil consumption mechanism appears to exist, especially oil consumption under transient engine operating conditions. This is probably due to the difficulty in engine instrumentation for measuring not only oil consumption, but also for measuring the associated in-cylinder variables. Because of this difficulty, a relatively large number of experiments and tests are often necessary for the development of each engine design in order to achieve the target oil consumption that meets the requirements for particulate emissions standards, oil economy, and engine reliability and durability. Increased understanding and logical approaches are believed to be necessary in developing the oil-consumption reduction technology that effectively and efficiently accomplishes the tasks of low oil-consumption engine development.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Novel Two-Stroke Engine Scavenging Arrangement: The Neutron Engine

1995-09-01
952140
A unique two-stroke engine design is investigated in which fresh mixture is introduced into the cylinder through a valve in the piston crown, and exhausted through peripheral cylinder ports. The engine behaves as a free-piston engine through a portion of the cycle when the piston lifts off the valve seat. The fresh air jet rising along the cylinder centerline effectively displaces the burned gases with little mixing of the two streams. The concept was analyzed by a combination of dynamic cycle simulation and prediction of the in-cylinder flow characteristics by multidimensional modeling. The cycle simulation program considered the dynamics of the piston during its free motion as well as under the kinematic constraints of the crank system. A zero-dimensional thermodynamic model of the cylinder was used to predict cycle pressure and temperature, indicated power, fuel consumption, and flow in and out of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

Development of an Electronically-Controlled Natural Gas-Fueled John Deere PowerTech 8.1 L Engine

1995-08-01
951940
Development of a state of the art, electronically controlled natural gas-fueled engine is detailed in this paper. The engine is a lean burn, turbochargedaftercooled engine controlled by a full authority electronic control system. This system controls fuel metering, spark timing, boost pressure, throttle position, and governing. The control system features closed-loop/adaptive-learn fuel control with feedback provided by a universal exhaust gas oxygen sensor. The development of the engine included development of the control system and other engine components, as well as a substantial amount of steady-state and transient control system calibration work. This effort led to a final engine calibration which provides good efficiency and transient response while meeting CARB ULEV emissions levels.
Technical Paper

Nox Control in Heavy-Duty Diesel Engines - What is the Limit?

1998-02-23
980174
Methods to reduce direct injected diesel engine emissions in the combustion chamber will be discussed in this paper. The following NOx emission reduction technologies will be reviewed: charge air chilling, water injection, and exhaust gas recirculation (EGR). Emphasis will be placed on the development of an EGR system and the effect of EGR on NOx and particulates. The lower limit of NOx that can be obtained using conventional diesel engine combustion will be discussed. Further reductions in NOx may require changing the combustion process from a diffusion flame to a homogeneous charge combustion system.
Technical Paper

Fuel Lubricity: Statistical Analysis of Literature Data

2000-06-19
2000-01-1917
A number of laboratory-scale test methods are available to predict the effects of fuel lubricity on injection system wear. Anecdotal evidence exists to indicate that these methods produce poor correlation with pump wear, particularly for fuels that contain lubricity additives. The issue is further complicated by variations in the lubricity requirements of full-scale equipment and the test methodologies used to evaluate the pumps. However, the cost of performing full-scale equipment testing severely limits the quantity of data available for validation of the laboratory procedures at any single location. In the present study, the technical literature was reviewed and all previously published data was combined to form a single database of 175 pump stand results. This volume of data allows far more accurate statistical analysis than is possible with tests performed at a single location. The results indicate differences in the effectiveness of the standardized laboratory-scale methods.
Technical Paper

An Unthrottled Gaseous Fuel Conversion of a 2-Stroke Diesel Engine

1975-02-01
750159
The feasibility of converting a conventional unthrottled 2-stroke diesel engine to gaseous fuel was investigated. The development work was performed in two phases. In phase 1 the conversion concepts were built and tested on a single-cylinder engine. In phase 2 one of these was put into effect in a 6-cyl (DDA 6V-71) engine. The design concept with the most promise includes a divided combustion chamber utilizing a gas inlet valve in each chamber and a spark plug ignition source located in the prechamber. The concept has the potential of reducing the exhaust emissions well below the levels now existing in commercial diesels without exhaust smoke and odor and with equivalent fuel consumption and horsepower, as demonstrated in the single-cylinder conversion. Further development work remains to be done to perfect the concept for the multi-cylinder engine.
Technical Paper

Intentional Failure of a 5000 psig Hydrogen Cylinder Installed in an SUV Without Standard Required Safety Devices

2007-04-16
2007-01-0431
A vehicle's gasoline fuel tank was removed and replaced with a 5,000-psig, Type-III, aluminum-lined hydrogen cylinder. High-pressure cylinders are typically installed with a thermally-activated pressure relief device (PRD) designed to safely vent the contents of the cylinder in the event of accidental exposure to fire. The objective of this research was to assess the results of a catastrophic failure in the event that a PRD were ineffective. Therefore, no PRD was installed on the vehicle to ensure cylinder failure would occur. The cylinder was pressurized and exposed to a propane bonfire in order to simulate the occurrence of a gasoline pool fire on the underside of the vehicle. Measurements included temperature and carbon monoxide concentration inside the passenger compartment of the vehicle to evaluate tenability. Measurements on the exterior of the vehicle included blast wave pressures. Documentation included standard, infrared, and high-speed video.
Technical Paper

Selective Interrupt and Control: An Open ECU Alternative

2018-04-03
2018-01-0127
To enable the evaluation of off-calibration powertrain operation, a selective interrupt and control (SIC) test capability was developed as part of an EPA evaluation of a 1.6 L EcoBoost® engine. A control and data acquisition device sits between the stock powertrain controller and the engine; the device selectively passes through or modifies control signals while also simulating feedback signals. This paper describes the development process of SIC that enabled a test engineer to command off-calibration setpoints for intake and exhaust cam phasing as well as ignition timing without the need for an open ECU duplicating the stock calibration. Results are presented demonstrating the impact of ignition timing and cam phasing on engine efficiency. When coupled with combustion analysis and crank-domain data acquisition, this test configuration provides a complete picture of powertrain performance.
Journal Article

Development of a Structurally Optimized Heavy Duty Diesel Cylinder Head Design Capable of 250 Bar Peak Cylinder Pressure Operation

2011-09-13
2011-01-2232
Historically, heavy-duty diesel (HDD) engine designs have evolved along the path of increased power output, improved fuel efficiency and reduced exhaust gas emissions, driven both by regulatory and market requirements. The various technologies employed to achieve this evolution have resulted in ever-increasing engine operating cylinder pressures, higher than for any other class of internal combustion engine. Traditional HDD engine design architecture limits peak cylinder pressure (PCP) to about 200 bar (2900 psi). HDD PCP had steadily increased from the early 1970's until the mid 2000's, at which point the structural limit was reached using traditional methods and materials. Specific power output reversed its historical trend and fell at this time as a result of technologies employed to satisfy new emissions requirements, most notably exhaust gas recirculation (EGR).
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