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Technical Paper

Integrated Metrology & Robotics Systems for Agile Automation

Aircraft manufacturing in the 21st century sees a future much different to that seen one and two decades before. Manufacturers of both military and commercial aircraft are challenged to become Lean, Agile and Flexible. As progress is slowly made toward introducing advanced assembly systems into production, the overall cost of automation is now more closely scrutinized. After spending tens of millions of dollars on large automated systems with deep foundations, many manufacturers find themselves locked into high cost manufacturing systems that have specific, inflexible configurations. This kind of scenario has caused a shift in the attitude of airframe assemblers, to go back to basics. Lean manufacturing is seen as a way to build aircraft with very low investment in equipment and tools. Today's advanced systems developers do understand the need for more affordable assembly systems.
Technical Paper

Inlet Hot Gas Ingestion (HGI) and Its Control in V/STOL Aircraft

A successful methodology was developed at Boeing Company to investigate hot-gas ingestion in vertical take-off and landing aircraft. It involves sub-scale model testing using specialized test facilities and test techniques. The baseline characteristics of hot-gas ingestion (HGI) and the performance of various HGI reduction techniques were qualitatively evaluated in the Boeing Hover Research Facility. Potential HGI reduction devices were then further tested at scaled pressures and temperatures in HGI facilities at NASA Lewis, Rolls Royce and British Aerospace. One of the successful HGI reduction devices was flight tested. This paper describes the application of Boeing HGI reduction methodology to three specific aircraft configurations.
Technical Paper

High Altitude Performance of High Bypass Ratio Engines - an Airframe Manufacturer's Point of View

The traditional method of determining the net thrust of an engine in cruise is explained. It is shown to result in a satisfactory net thrust uncertainty for jet and low bypass ratio engines but to be unsuitable for high bypass ratio engines. A redefinition of net thrust results in a new thrust determination method, called continuity method, which yields acceptable levels of net thrust uncertainty. The new method no longer requires supporting tests in a simulated altitude facility. The question is raised whether in future programs the demonstration of guaranteed cruise performance of an engine should not be carried out in flight tests rather than in an altitude test facility.
Technical Paper

Gas Turbines for Emergency Vehicles

Gas turbines have demonstrated their practicability in trucks, particularly those needing high horsepower and light weight combined with agility and reliability. These are the primary requirements of emergency vehicles such as fire fighting pumpers and crash trucks. Several installations powered by Boeing gas turbines are described, and comparisons to reciprocating engines are made. For vehicles of high power/weight ratio, the built-in torque converter feature of two-shaft gas turbines provides the automatic transmission feature that is needed for high density traffic operation or for hilly terrain. Trends in gas turbine design are briefly mentioned along with other system requirements for emergency vehicles.
Technical Paper

F/A-18 E/F Outer Wing Lean Production System

The Boeing F/A-18 E/F Program Wing Team, Lean Organization and Phantom Works have partnered to develop a “state of the art” lean production system for the Outer Wing that represents an evolutionary change in aircraft design and assembly methodology. This project is focused on improving quality, cycle and cost performance through the implementation of lean principles, technology integration and process improvements. This paper will discuss the approach taken to reach the end state objectives and the technologies and processes being developed to support it. Items to be discussed include lean principles and practices, new tooling concepts, improved part assembly techniques, advanced drilling systems, process flow enhancements and part handling/part delivery systems.
Technical Paper

Evolution to Lean Manufacturing A Case Study of Boeing of Spokane

The evolution of a manufacturing organization toward “Lean” manufacturing does not necessarily come cheaply or quickly. It is the experience at Boeing that technology and different visions can dramatically impact the evolutionary process-consuming great amounts of time and resources. The Boeing of Spokane case study, where aircraft floor panels are manufactured1, is but one of several case studies that suggests moving to “Lean” manufacturing is usually done in large steps, not small ones. These initial steps can be costly unless the systems (equipment and workforce) are flexible. Workforce flexibility is dependent on the attitude in the workforce as both touch and support labor move from their comfort zone to try new approaches and job descriptions. The workforce must be properly motivated to make the change. The equipment must also be flexible in adapting to new line layouts, product mixes, and process change or large cost penalties will be incurred.
Technical Paper

Engine Maintenance Cost Reduction Through Improved Component Design and Development

High maintenance costs of the three 40,000 lb. thrust class aircraft engines manufactured by Pratt and Whitney, General Electric, and Rolls-Royce are discussed. Primary emphasis is on existing engine problems which contribute to high shop visit rate. Maintenance cost in terms of monetary value is not discussed. Concludes that increased emphasis on total life cycle durability is necessary by the engine manufacturers. Recommends higher level of priority be given durability in design and analysis, pre-production proof-of-design testing, and engine program management.
Technical Paper

Engine Cycle Considerations for Future Transport Aircraft

Recent noise technology advancements have provided an increased understanding of true engine noise “floor” levels. This has led to changes in necessary engine cycle requirements for low-noise commercial airplanes. Updated prediction techniques for the core and jet noise sources are described, and lining technology improvements are reviewed. The need for further work in the core noise area is emphasized. The impact of these noise technology revisions on the best engine cycle for obtaining low noise is presented. It is concluded that engines with lower bypass ratios than previously anticipated may be acceptable.
Technical Paper

Electric 30,000 RPM Shave Spindle for C Frame Riveter and High Performance Compact Aerospace Drill

Two spindles are discussed in this paper. The first spindle was installed on nine C-frame riveters on the 737/757 wing line at the Boeing Renton facility. Due to discontinuing the use of Freon coolant and cutting fluid, the C-frame riveters had difficulty shaving 2034 ice box rivets with the existing 6000 RPM hydraulic spindles. The solution was to install electric 30,000 RPM shave spindles inside the existing 76.2 mm (3 in.) diameter hydraulic cylinder envelope. The new spindle is capable of 4 Nm (35 in. lbs.) of torque at full speed and 110 kgf (250 lbs.) of thrust. Another design of interest is the Electroimpact Model 09 spindle which is used for 20,000 RPM drilling and shaving on wing riveting systems. The Model 09 spindle is a complete servo-servo drilling system all mounted on a common baseplate. The entire spindle and feed assembly is only 6.5″ wide.
Technical Paper

Effective Planetary Exploration, Part 1: A Heuristic Method to Estimate EVA Walkback Range

This study examines the lunar environment, the lunar rover mission, and the factors that influence EMU walkback range in the event of a rover failure many kilometers from base. A heuristic method to estimate walkback range of EVA astronauts is presented. An attempt is made to quantify the EVA walkback factors that influence the total walkback range of the lunar EVA astronaut given a fixed duration of the EMU. A walkback range estimate can then be used to carefully structure EVA missions and will help in future designs of EMUs.
Technical Paper

Economic and Safety Aspects of Short Haul V/STOL Aircraft on High Density Routes

Intercity automobile travel has a direct effect on the volume of short haul air travel. Automobile transportation is quicker and more economical as compared with the long ground waiting time and higher rates of short air trips. A multistop system, using the V/STOL aircraft, between cities may save passengers time by closer departure points, and increased passenger miles may reduce rates. Advantages of speed and less cost enjoyed by automobile travelers may well be offset by these developments. A mere 15% transfer of short haul trips to aircraft could result in as much as 106% increase in air revenue passenger miles.
Technical Paper

EVA Operations Using the Spacelab Logistics Pallet for Hardware Deliveries

There are a large number of space structures, orbital replacement units (ORUs) and other components that must be transported to orbit on a regular basis for the assembly and maintenance of the International Space Station (ISS). Some of this hardware will be ferried on the Spacelab Logistics Pallet (SLP), which has a long and reliable history of space flight successes. The carrier is well used, well qualified, and very adaptable for repeated use in accommodating cargoes of various sizes and shapes. This paper presents an overview of past, present and future hardware design solutions that accommodate EVA operations on the SLP. It further demonstrates how analysis techniques and design considerations have influenced the hardware development, EVA operations, and compliance with human engineering requirements for the SLP.
Technical Paper

Dew Point Analysis Developments for Space Station

This paper reviews the recent G189A computer program developments in the area of humidity control for the U.S. Lab Module in the Space Station. The humidity control function is provided as an indirect or passive function by the Common Cabin Air Assemblies (CCAA) in pressurized elements or modules in the Space Station. The CCAAs provide active cabin temperature control through implementation of a digital/electromechanical control system (i.e., a proportional/integral (PI) control system). A selected cabin temperature can be achieved by this control system as long as the sensible and latent heat loads are within specified limits. In this paper three pertinent analytical cases directed to determining minimum or maximum dew point temperatures are discussed. In these cases the basic sensible heat loads are set at constant values.
Technical Paper

Development of Cold Working Process for 4340M Steel

A new process has been developed to cold work fastener holes on commercial aircraft flap tracks fabricated of 4340M steel. The process consists of pressing a high strength solid mandrel through a previously prepared hole in a defined manner. This process exhibits high tool life, low overall cost and eliminates the necessity for a final ream operation.
Technical Paper

Detailed Integration Analysis of the Space Station Life Support System

A considerable amount of integrated Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) analysis has been performed and documented for the proposed habitable Space Station. Earlier analytic activities have resulted in highly refined models simulating Temperature and Humidity Control (THC) and Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) hardware. As the mechanisms by which these items affect the Space Station environment have become better understood (along with the effects due to operation of various Man Systems utilities), the next stage of the integrated analysis task has been accomplished; i.e., the simulation of the Atmosphere Control and Supply (ACS) subsystem. The focus of the present paper is upon the ACS function in the overall life support system. Modeling of the ACS is unique among the life support disciplines in that it requires accurate representation of all other ECLSS subsystems that interact with the cabin atmosphere (which has now been achieved) in order to be realistic.
Technical Paper

Design Trade-Offs that Determine Fastener Selection

Fastener selection entails two functions, a staff function to select a group of fasteners for consideration and a design function to select the most suitable fastener for a specific function. This paper itemizes in detail the considerations that enter into each function in selecting fasteners for commercial and military aircraft, military unmanned vehicles, and space vehicles. Characteristics of specific bolts and fasteners are also tabulated.
Technical Paper

Composite Structure for Orbiting Space Stations

An overview of composite structure required for manned orbiting space stations is presented. Following a brief introduction of typical configurations and major subsystems, the major structural areas requiring composite structure and their particular functions and requirements are discussed. A summary weight breakdown is presented to assess the dependence of launch weight on these areas. To illustrate, the primary wall composite structure is presented in detail. The design interplay of boost, pressure, meteoroid, radiation, and thermal control requirements are presented. Resultant composite structure for each remaining major structural area is presented in summary form with a brief description of typical design compromises required.
Technical Paper

Comparative Test Data Assessment and Simplified Math Modelling for the Vapor Compression Distillation Subsystem

Space Station Freedom (SSF) has an extended mission duration of 30 years. Trade studies for extended missions of manned spacecraft almost invariably show that large resupply weight and consequent cost savings can be achieved by recovering potable water from wastewater sources. This rationale has led to the present baseline Water Recovery and Management (WRM) system for the Permanently Manned Capability (PMC) phase of SSF. The baseline WRM includes the Vapor Compression Distillation (VCD) subsystem for recovering water from urine. This process serves as a preliminary processing step in achieving potable water from wastewater sources. The basic principle of the VCD is that water is evaporated from urine and then condensed in a zero-gravity device containing an evaporator and a condenser in a rotating drum. The VCD was selected for the baseline WRM following the assessment of test results from competitive urine processing subsystems obtained from the Comparative Test (CT) program.
Technical Paper

CFD Studies on the ECLSS Airflow and CO2 Accumulation of the International Space Station

During a recent International Space Station (ISS) flight (Flight 2A.1), an improper ventilation event might have occurred and resulted in stuffy air, as reported by the crew. Even though no air samples were analyzed, the accumulation of metabolic CO2 in the ISS was suspected as the cause of the crew sickness. With no possibility of conducting an on-orbit test of this kind, it was decided to utilize Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) analysis to investigate this problem. Based on the Flight 2A.1 and 2A.2a configurations, a CFD model of the air distribution system was built to characterize airflow between the ISS elements. This model consists of Inter-module Ventilation (IMV) covering the Functional Cargo Block (FGB), two Pressurized Mating Adapters (PMA-1 and PMA-2), the Node-1, and portions of the Orbiter volume.
Technical Paper

Boeing Research Aerodynamic/Icing Tunnel Capabilities and Calibration

Flight testing of aircraft under natural icing conditions can be extremely tedious, time consuming, costly, and somewhat risky. However, such testing has been required to demonstrate the effectiveness of anti-icing systems and to certify new aircraft models. To reduce the need for extensive flight testing, Boeing has built a new icing tunnel that has the capability for developing ice shapes and evaluating anti-icing features on full scale sections of critical parts of the aircraft. The icing tunnel was made by modifying an existing 5 ft by 8 ft Boeing Wind Tunnel to add icing capabilities. This paper describes the design specifications, the tunnel capabilities, and the major equipment systems and presents the results of the tunnel calibration relative to the specified requirements.