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Technical Paper

Automotive Traction Fluids: A Shift in Direction for Transmission Fluid Technology

Driven by global demands for improved fuel economy and reduced emissions, significant improvements have been made to engine designs and control systems, vehicle aerodynamics, and fuel quality. Improvements, such as the continuously slipping torque converter, have also been made to automatic transmissions to increase vehicle efficiency. Recently, belt-continuously variable transmissions (b-CVTs) have been commercialized with the promise of significant fuel economy improvements over conventional automatic transmissions. Automotive traction drive transmissions may soon join belt-CVTs as alternative automatic transmission technology. Much of the information reported in technical and trade publications has been on the mechanics of these traction drive systems. As automotive traction drives move closer to commercial reality, more attention must be given to the performance requirements of the automotive traction fluid.
Technical Paper

Assessing the Lubrication Needs for M85 Fueling Using Short-Trip Field and Engine Dynomometer Tests

The technology has been developed which will allow manufacturers to produce cars capable of running on methanol/gasoline blends with a methanol content up to 85% (i.e., M85). These cars will operate on varying methanol/gasoline ratios without any adjustments from the driver. The dual-fuel capability is attractive since vehicle use will not be handicapped by a restricted fuel distribution system. In addition, it provides the option of running on an environmentally “cleaner” fuel where it is available. The advent of fuel-flexible vehicles encourages the development of lubricants which will satisfy the demands of both fuels. The unique properties of methanol, however, increase the challenges of meeting the lubricant performance needs. Field and engine dynamometer testing have been aimed at understanding the response of key lubricant variables with M85. Short-trip, cold-weather conditions have been of particular concern.
Technical Paper

Application of a New Fleet Test Procedure to Investigate Emulsion Formation Tendencies of Motor Oils

There is concern over water-in-oil emulsion formation in passenger cars in the field. Crankcase pressure measurements in the ASTM Sequence IID rust test have been used to indicate possible emulsion formation tendencies of lubricants. This paper presents the development of a short duration emulsion fleet test procedure which demonstrates low car-to- car variability and correlates well with a previous fourmonth winter emulsion fleet test. Physical emulsion characteristics and used oil analyses are described. Evaluation of both Sequence IID reference oils and commercial oils in this field test reveals a lack of correlation between Sequence IID crankcase pressure results and field performance. The new procedure has been applied to investigate the impact of additive and base oil variations on the emulsion-forming tendencies of lubricants in the field. Base oil variables such as viscosity grade, composition, and volatility were evaluated.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Evaluation to Determine the Effect of an Organometallic Fuel Additive on Particulate Trap Regeneration

The regenerative characteristics of a diesel particulate filter have been experimentally examined. The effect of particulate accumulation on system backpressure was of primary interest. To improve particulate regeneration, a copper compound was added to the fuel. The test results demonstrate that copper-containing fuel additives improve the regeneration characteristics of the filter, maintaining system backpressure at an acceptable level. Improved regeneration performance is expected to extend the operating range and life of the filter system. A model describing regeneration characteristics was developed to indicate the benefits of fuel copper concentration in controlling system backpressure.