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Technical Paper

A Numerical and Experimental Study Towards Possible Improvements of Common Rail Injectors

2002-03-04
2002-01-0500
The aim of this work is to propose modifications to the managing of the 1st generation Common Rail injectors in order to reduce actuation time towards multiple injection strategies. The current Common Rail injector driven by 1st ECU generation is capable of operating under stable conditions with a minimum dwell between two consecutive injections of 1.8 ms. This limits the possibility in using proper and efficient injection strategies for emission control purposes. A previous numerical study, performed by the electro-fluid-mechanical model built up by Matlab-Simulink environment, highlighted different area where injector may be improved with particular emphasis on electronic driving circuit and components design. Experiments carried out at injector Bosch test-bench showed that a proper control of the solenoid valve allowed reducing drastically the standard deviation during the pilot pulses.
Journal Article

A Primer on Building a Hardware in the Loop Simulation and Validation for a 6X4 Tractor Trailer Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-0118
This research was to model a 6×4 tractor-trailer rig using TruckSim and simulate severe braking maneuvers with hardware in the loop and software in the loop simulations. For the hardware in the loop simulation (HIL), the tractor model was integrated with a 4s4m anti-lock braking system (ABS) and straight line braking tests were conducted. In developing the model, over 100 vehicle parameters were acquired from a real production tractor and entered into TruckSim. For the HIL simulation, the hardware consisted of a 4s4m ABS braking system with six brake chambers, four modulators, a treadle and an electronic control unit (ECU). A dSPACE simulator was used as the “interface” between the TruckSim computer model and the hardware.
Technical Paper

A RANS CFD 3D Methodology for the Evaluation of the Effects of Cycle By Cycle Variation on Knock Tendency of a High Performance Spark Ignition Engine

2014-04-01
2014-01-1223
Knocking combustions heavily limits the efficiency of Spark Ignition engines. The compression ratio is limited in the design stage of the engine development, letting to Spark Advance control the task of reducing the odds of abnormal combustions. A detailed analysis of knocking events can help improving engine performance and diagnosis strategies. An effective way is to use advanced 3D CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) simulation for the analysis and prediction of combustion performance. Standard 3D CFD approach is based on RANS (Reynolds Averaged Navier Stokes) equations and allows the analysis of the mean engine cycle. However knocking phenomenon is not deterministic and it is heavily affected by the cycle to cycle variation of engine combustions. A methodology for the evaluation of the effects of CCV (Cycle by Cycle Variability) on knocking combustions is here presented, based on both the use of Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools and experimental information.
Technical Paper

A Simulation-Based Comparison of Different Power Split Configurations with Respect to the System Efficiency

2012-04-16
2012-01-0438
In power-split configuration, the input power is split into two parts, one of which is transmitted from the internal combustion engine through one or more planetary gear(s) to the wheels. The other part is generated as electricity and passes through an electrical variator to assist the driving torque. The latter has the characteristic of poor efficiency. In this simulation study, a comparison among the input power-split, compound power-split, and two mode power-split are discussed. Output power-split is not mentioned in this paper due to its limited applicability in specific vehicles. The idea of selection of the electrical machines is explained: the speed and torque of electrical machines was taken into consideration for the required transmission ratios spread.
Technical Paper

A Study of Jackknife Stability of Class VIII Vehicles with Multiple Trailers with ABS Disc/Drum Brakes

2004-03-08
2004-01-1741
This study investigated the jackknife stability of Class VIII double tractor-trailer combination vehicles that had mixed braking configurations between the tractor and trailers and dolly (e.g. ECBS disc brakes on the tractor and pneumatic drum brakes on the trailers and dolly). Brake-in-turn maneuvers were performed with varying vehicle loads and surface conditions. Conditions with ABS ON for the entire vehicle (and select-high control algorithm on the trailers and dolly) found that instabilities (i.e. lane excursions and/or jackknifes) were exhibited under conditions when the surface friction coefficient was 0.3. It was demonstrated that these instabilities could be avoided while utilizing a select-low control algorithm on the trailers and dolly. Simulation results with the ABS OFF for the tractor showed that a tractor equipped with disc brakes had greater jackknife stability.
Technical Paper

A Study of Vehicle Response Asymmetries During Severe Driving Maneuvers

2004-03-08
2004-01-1788
During Phase VI of the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's (NHTSA) Light Vehicle Rollover Research Program, three of the twenty-six light vehicles tested exhibited significant response asymmetries with respect to left versus right steer maneuvers. This paper investigates possible vehicle asymmetric characteristics and unintended inputs that may cause vehicle asymmetric response. An analysis of the field test data, results from suspension and steering parameter measurements, and a summary of a computer simulation study are also given.
Technical Paper

AFR Control on a Single Cylinder Engine Using the Ionization Current

1998-02-23
980203
Over the years numerous researchers have suggested that the ionization current signal carries within it combustion relevant information. The possibility of using this signal for diagnostics and control provides motivation for continued research in this area. To be able to use the ion current signal for feedback control a reliable estimate of some combustion related parameter is necessary and therein lies the difficulty. Given the nature of the ion current signal this is not a trivial task. Fei An et al. [1] employed PCA for feature extraction and then used these feature vectors to design a neural network based classifier for the estimation of air to fuel ratio (AFR). Although the classifier predicted AFR with sufficient reliability, a major draw back was that the ion current signals used for prediction were averaged signals thus precluding a cycle to cycle estimate of AFR.
Journal Article

Achieving Very Low PN Emissions with an Advanced Multi-Hole Injector Functionality and Adapted Spray Targeting Under High Fuel Pressure Conditions

2014-10-13
2014-01-2605
In the near future, emissions legislation will become more and more restrictive for direct injection SI engines by adopting a stringent limitation of particulate number emissions in late 2017. In order to cope with the combustion system related challenges coming along with the introduction of this new standard, Hitachi Automotive Systems Ltd., Hitachi Europe GmbH and IAV GmbH work collaboratively on demonstrating technology that allows to satisfy EU6c emissions limitations by application of Hitachi components dedicated to high pressure injection (1). This paper sets out to describe both the capabilities of a new high pressure fuel system improving droplet atomization and consequently mixture homogeneity as well as the process of utilizing the technology during the development of a demonstrator vehicle called DemoCar. The Hitachi system consists of a fuel pump and injectors operating under a fuel pressure of 30 MPa.
Technical Paper

Achieving the Max - Potential from a Variable Compression Ratio and Early Intake Valve Closure Strategy by Combination with a Long Stroke Engine Layout

2017-09-04
2017-24-0155
The combination of geometrically variable compression (VCR) and early intake valve closure (EIVC) proved to offer high potential for increasing efficiency of gasoline engines. While early intake valve closure reduces pumping losses, it is detrimental to combustion quality and residual gas tolerance due to a loss of temperature and turbulence. Large geometric compression ratio at part load compensates for the negative temperature effect of EIVC with further improving efficiency. By optimizing the stroke/bore ratio, the reduction in valve cross section at part load can result in greater charge motion and therefore in turbulence. Turbocharging means the basis to enable an increase in stroke/bore ratio, called β in the following, because the drawbacks at full load resulting from smaller valves can be only compensated by additional boosting pressure level.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Attenuation Performance of Perforated Absorbing Silencers

2001-04-30
2001-01-1435
The acoustic attenuation performance of a single-pass, perforated concentric silencer filled with continuous strand fibers is investigated theoretically and experimentally. One-dimensional analytical and three-dimensional boundary element methods are employed to predict the acoustic attenuation in the absence of mean flow. Measured complex characteristic impedance and wave number are used to account for the wave propagation through absorbing fiber. The perforation impedance facing the fiber is also presented in terms of the complex characteristic impedance and wave number. The effects of perforate duct porosity and the fiber density are examined. Comparisons of predictions with the experiments illustrate the need for multidimensional analysis at higher frequencies, while the one-dimensional treatment provides a reasonable accuracy at lower frequencies, as expected. The study also shows a significant improvement in the acoustic attenuation of the silencer due to fiber absorption.
Technical Paper

Acoustic Characteristics of Coupled Dissipative and Reactive Silencers

2003-05-05
2003-01-1643
The acoustic characteristics of a hybrid silencer consisting of two dissipative chambers and a Helmholtz resonator are investigated first computationally and experimentally. Complex wave number and characteristic impedance are used for the dissipative chambers to account for the wave propagation through absorbing material. Three-dimensional boundary element method (BEM) is employed to predict the transmission loss in the absence of mean flow and the predictions are compared with the experimental results obtained from an impedance tube setup. Noting that the long connecting tube between acoustic elements may reduce the transmission loss near the resonance frequency, two alternative hybrid silencers with short connecting tubes are also investigated by BEM. The present study shows the effectiveness of hybrid silencers over a wide frequency range and demonstrates the importance of understanding each acoustic element, as well as their interaction in designing silencers.
Journal Article

Acoustic Emission Processing for Turbocharged GDI Engine Control Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-1622
In the field of passenger car engines, recent research advances have proven the effectiveness of downsized, turbocharged and direct injection concepts, applied to gasoline combustion systems, to reduce the overall fuel consumption while respecting particularly stringent exhaust emissions limits. Knock and turbocharger control are two of the most critical factors that influence the achievement of maximum efficiency and satisfactory drivability, for this new generation of engines. The sound emitted from an engine encloses many information related to its operating condition. In particular, the turbocharger whistle and the knock clink are unmistakable sounds. This paper presents the development of real-time control functions, based on direct measurement of the engine acoustic emission, captured by an innovative and low cost acoustic sensor, implemented on a platform suitable for on-board application.
Technical Paper

Advanced Turbocharger Model for 1D ICE Simulation - Part I

2013-04-08
2013-01-0581
Standard compressor and turbine maps obtained from steady-state test bench measurements are not sufficient for assessing transient turbocharger behavior. This also makes them inappropriate for gauging combustion-engine response and fuel consumption. Nor do they allow for the widely differing operating conditions which, apart from aerodynamics, have a major influence on heat transfer and turbocharger efficiency. This paper looks at a more complex approach of modeling the turbocharger as well developing appropriate measurement methods (“advanced turbocharger model”). This includes non-destructive measurements under various heat transfer conditions to define the turbocharger's adiabatic behavior needed to describe charge-air pressure increase in the compressor and engine exhaust gas backpressure from the turbine for transient engine operation.
Technical Paper

Advancements in Tire Modeling Through Implementation of Load and Speed Dependent Coefficients

2005-11-01
2005-01-3543
An existing tire model was investigated for additional normal load-dependent characteristics to improve the large truck simulations developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) for the National Advanced Driving Simulator (NADS). Of the existing tire model coefficients, plysteer, lateral friction decay, aligning torque stiffness and normalized longitudinal stiffness were investigated. The findings of the investigation led to improvements in the tire model. The improved model was then applied to TruckSim to compare with the TruckSim table lookup tire model and test data. Additionally, speed-dependent properties for the NADS tire model were investigated (using data from a light truck tire).
Technical Paper

Advantages of Diesel Engine Control Using In-Cylinder Pressure Information for Closed Loop Control

2003-03-03
2003-01-0364
Increasing emissions regulations, diagnostics capability, and other demands in vehicle refinement, have led to the need for increasingly complex engine control systems. These demands have led to in-cylinder combustion control, especially for the diesel engine. Diesel engine combustion relies heavily on the auto-ignition process. Therefore accurate control of this process is important and will become even more important for HCCI-engines. This paper discusses the configuration of a diesel engine for in-cylinder combustion control. It describes the digital evaluation of the cylinder pressure signal and the computation of the physical parameters necessary for proper combustion analysis, along with methods for using the calculated combustion parameter for engine control. The paper demonstrates the advantages of electronic engine control combined with in-cylinder pressure information. The paper also addresses some of the future challenges of engine control.
Technical Paper

Air System Control for Advanced Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0970
In order to satisfy environmental regulations while maintaining strong performance and excellent fuel economy, advanced diesel engines are employing sophisticated air breathing systems. These include high pressure and low pressure EGR (Hybrid EGR), intake and exhaust throttling, and variable turbine geometry systems. In order to optimize the performance of these sub-systems, system level controls are necessary. This paper presents the design, benefits and test results of a model-based air system controller applied to an automotive diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Air-Fuel Ratio Control for a High Performance Engine using Throttle Angle Information

1999-03-01
1999-01-1169
This paper presents the development of a model-based air/fuel ratio controller for a high performance engine that uses, in addition to other usual signals, the throttle angle to enable predictive air mass flow rate estimation. The objective of the paper is to evaluate the possibility to achieve a finer air/fuel ratio control during transients that involve sudden variations in the physical conditions inside the intake manifold, due, for example, to fast throttle opening or closing actions. The air mass flow rate toward the engine cylinders undertakes strong variation in such transients, and its correct estimation becomes critical mainly because of the time lag between its evaluation and the instant when the air actually enters the cylinders.
Technical Paper

Airship and Hot Air Balloon Real Time Envelope Shape Prediction through a Cloth Simulation Technique

2015-09-15
2015-01-2578
The flight simulation of airships and hot air balloons usually considers the envelope geometry as a fixed shape, whose volume is eventually reduced by ballonets. However, the dynamic pressure or helium leaks in airships, and the release of air to allow descent in hot air balloons can significantly change the shape of the envelope leading to potential dangerous situations. In fact, in case of semi-rigid and non-rigid airships a reduction in envelope internal pressure can reduce the envelope bending stiffness leading to the loss of the typical axial-symmetric shape. For hot air balloons thing goes even worse since the lost of internal pressure can lead to the collapsing of the balloon shape to a sort of vertically stretched geometry (similar to a torch) which is not able to sustain the attached basket and its payload.
Technical Paper

An ATV Model for CarSim

2018-04-03
2018-01-0573
This paper presents the development of a CarSim model of an All-Terrain Vehicle (ATV) that can be used to predict the handling and stability characteristic of the vehicle. The inertia and suspension characteristics of a subject ATV are measured and a model of the ATV is built in CarSim based on the measurements. A simplified suspension model is developed to convert the suspension compliance measurements into parameters suitable to a CarSim model. Procedures used to apply vehicle mass, inertia and suspension kinematics data in CarSim are also shown. The model is evaluated using predictions of vehicle response during a constant radius circle test. The simulation results of the maneuver are compared with the field test results shown in a recent CPSC report on ATV’s. Similar cornering characteristics are found in both results. Modifications are made to the model to study how changes to the ATV affect performance.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Effect of Intake Primary Runner Blockages on Combustion and Emissions in SI Engines under Part-Load Conditions

2004-10-25
2004-01-2973
Charge motion is known to accelerate and stabilize combustion through its influence on turbulence intensity and flame propagation. The present work investigates the effect of charge motion generated by intake runner blockages on combustion characteristics and emissions under part-load conditions in SI engines. Firing experiments have been conducted on a DaimlerChrysler (DC) 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine, with spark range extending around the Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) timing. Three blockages with 20% open area are compared to the fully open baseline case under two operating conditions: 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure (bmep) at 1600 rpm, and 0.78 bar bmep at 1200 rpm. The blocked areas are shaped to create different levels of swirl, tumble, and cross-tumble. Crank-angle resolved pressures have been acquired, including cylinders 1 and 4, intake runners 1 and 4 upstream and downstream of the blockage, and exhaust runners 1 and 4.
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