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Technical Paper

Modeling of a 6×4 Tractor and Trailers for Use in Real Time Hardware in the Loop Simulation for ESC Testing

2013-04-08
2013-01-0693
According to NHTSA's 2011 Traffic Safety Facts [1], passenger vehicle occupant fatalities continued the strong decline that has been occurring recently. In 2011, there were 21,253 passenger vehicles fatalities compared to 22,273 in 2010, and that was a 4.6% decrease. However; large-truck occupant fatalities increased from 530 in 2010 to 635 in 2011, which is a 20% increase. This was a second consecutive year in which large truck fatalities have increased (9% increase from 2009 to 2010). There was also a 15% increase in large truck occupant injuries from 2010. Moreover, the fatal crashes involving large trucks increased by 1.9%, in contrast to other-vehicle-occupant fatalities that declined by 3.6% from 2010. The 2010 accident statistics NHTSA's report reveals that large trucks have a fatal accident involvement rate of 1.22 vehicles per 100 million vehicle miles traveled compared to 1.53 for light trucks and 1.18 for passenger cars.
Technical Paper

Effects of ABS Controller Parameters on Heavy Truck Model Braking Performance

2006-10-31
2006-01-3482
This paper covers research conducted at the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration's Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC) examining the performance of semitrailer anti-lock braking systems (ABS). For this study, a vehicle dynamics model was constructed for the combination of a 4×2 tractor and a 48-foot trailer, using TruckSim. ABS models for the tractor and trailer, as well as brake dynamics and surface friction models, were created in Simulink so that the effect of varying ABS controller parameters and configurations on semitrailer braking performance could be studied under extreme braking maneuvers. The longitudinal and lateral performances of this tractor-trailer model were examined for a variety of different trailer ABS controller models, including the 2s1m, 4s2m, and 4s4m configurations. Also, alternative controllers of the same configuration were studied by varying the parameters of the 2s1m controller.
Journal Article

Comparison of Heavy Truck Engine Control Unit Hard Stop Data with Higher-Resolution On-Vehicle Data

2009-04-20
2009-01-0879
Engine control units (ECUs) on heavy trucks have been capable of storing “last stop” or “hard stop” data for some years. These data provide useful information to accident reconstruction personnel. In past studies, these data have been analyzed and compared to higher-resolution on-vehicle data for several heavy trucks and several makes of passenger cars. Previous published studies have been quite helpful in understanding the limitations and/or anomalies associated with these data. This study was designed and executed to add to the technical understanding of heavy truck event data recorders (EDR), specifically data associated with a modern Cummins power plant ECU. Emergency “full-treadle” stops were performed at many combinations of load-speed-surface coefficient conditions. In addition, brake-in-curve tests were performed on wet Jennite for various conditions of disablement of the braking system.
Technical Paper

Refinements of a Heavy Truck ABS Model

2007-04-16
2007-01-0839
In 2004, a model of a 6s6m ABS controller was developed in order to support NHTSA's efforts in the study of heavy truck braking performance. This model was developed using Simulink and interfaced with TruckSim, a vehicle dynamics software package, in order to create an accurate braking simulation of a 6×4 Peterbilt straight truck. For this study, the vehicle model braking dynamics were improved and the ABS controller model was refined. Also, the controller was made adaptable to ABS configurations other than 6s6m, such as 4s4m and 4s3m. Controller models were finally validated to experimental data from the Peterbilt truck, gathered at NHTSA's Vehicle Research and Test Center (VRTC).
Technical Paper

Development and Implementation of a Path-Following Algorithm for an Autonomous Vehicle

2007-04-16
2007-01-0815
This paper describes the development and implementation of an accurate and repeatable path-following algorithm focused ultimately on vehicle testing. A compact, lightweight, and portable hardware package allows easy installation and negligible impact on the vehicle mass, even for the smallest automobile. Innovative features include the ability to generate a smooth, evenly-spaced path vector regardless the quality of the given path. The algorithm proposed in this work is suitable for testing in a controlled environment. The system was evaluated in simulation and performed well in road tests at low speeds.
Technical Paper

Transient Clunk Response of a Driveline System: Laboratory Experiment and Analytical Studies

2007-05-15
2007-01-2233
A laboratory experiment is designed to examine the clunk phenomenon. A static torque is applied to a driveline system via the mass of an overhanging torsion bar and electromagnet. Then an applied load may be varied via attached mass and released to simulate the step down (tip-out) response of the system. Shaft torques and torsional and translational accelerations are recorded at pre-defined locations. The static torque closes up the driveline clearances in the pinion/ring (crown wheel) mesh. With release of the applied load the driveline undergoes transient vibration. Further, the ratio of preload to static load is adjusted to lead to either no-impact or impact events. Test A provides a ‘linear’ result where the contact stiffness does not pass into clearance. This test is used for confirming transient response and studying friction and damping. Test B is for mass release with sufficient applied torque to pass into clearance, allowing the study of the clunk.
Journal Article

Development of a Roll Stability Control Model for a Tractor Trailer Vehicle

2009-04-20
2009-01-0451
Heavy trucks are involved in many accidents every year and Electronic Stability Control (ESC) is viewed as a means to help mitigate this problem. ESC systems are designed to reduce the incidence of single vehicle loss of control, which might lead to rollover or jackknife. As the working details and control strategies of commercially available ESC systems are proprietary, a generic model of an ESC system that mimics the basic logical functionality of commercial systems was developed. This paper deals with the study of the working of a commercial ESC system equipped on an actual tractor trailer vehicle. The particular ESC system found on the test vehicle contained both roll stability control (RSC) and yaw stability control (YSC) features. This work focused on the development of a reliable RSC software model, and the integration of it into a full vehicle simulation (TruckSim) of a heavy truck.
Journal Article

The Influence of Disablement of Various Brakes on the Dry Stopping Performance and Stability of a Tractor-Semitrailer

2009-04-20
2009-01-0099
This research was performed using a designed experiment to evaluate the loss of dry surface braking performance and stability that could be associated with the disablement of specific brake positions on a tractor-semitrailer. The experiment was intended to supplement and update previous research by Heusser, Radlinski, Flick, and others. It also sought to establish reasonable limits for engineering estimates on stopping performance degradation attributable to partial or complete brake failure of individual S-cam air brakes on a class 8 truck. Stopping tests were conducted from 30 mph and 60 mph, with the combination loaded to GCW (80,000 lb.), half-payload, and with the flatbed semitrailer unladen. Both tractor and semitrailer were equipped with antilock brakes. Along with stopping distance, brake pressures, longitudinal acceleration, road wheel speed, and steering wheel position and effort were also recorded.
Journal Article

Vehicle Coast Analysis: Typical SUV Characteristics

2008-04-14
2008-01-0598
Typical factors that contribute to the coast down characteristics of a vehicle include aerodynamic drag, gravitational forces due to slope, pumping losses within the engine, frictional losses throughout the powertrain, and tire rolling resistance. When summed together, these reactions yield predictable deceleration values that can be related to vehicle speeds. This paper focuses on vehicle decelerations while coasting with a typical medium-sized SUV. Drag factors can be classified into two categories: (1) those that are caused by environmental factors (wind and slope) and (2) those that are caused by the vehicle (powertrain losses, rolling resistance, and drag into stationary air). The purpose of this paper is to provide data that will help engineers understand and model vehicle response after loss of engine power.
Journal Article

Semitrailer Torsional Stiffness Data for Improved Modeling Fidelity

2011-09-13
2011-01-2163
Vehicle dynamics models employed in heavy truck simulation often treat the semitrailer as a torsionally rigid member, assuming zero deflection along its longitudinal axis as a moment is applied to its frame. Experimental testing, however, reveals that semitrailers do twist, sometimes enough to precipitate rollover when a rigid trailer may have remained upright. Improving the model by incorporating realistic trailer roll stiffness values can improve assessment of heavy truck dynamics, as well as an increased understanding of the effectiveness of stability control systems in limit handling maneuvers. Torsional stiffness measurements were conducted by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) for eight semitrailers of different types, including different length box vans, traditional and spread axle flat beds, and a tanker.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Modeling of an Electromagnetic Valve Actuator

2006-04-03
2006-01-0043
This paper presents the modeling of an Electromagnetic Valve Actuator (EMV). A nonlinear model is formulated and presented that takes into account secondary nonlinearities like hysteresis, saturation, bounce and mutual inductance. The uniqueness of the model is contained in the method used in modeling hysteresis, saturation and mutual inductance. Theoretical and experimental methods for identifying parameters of the model are presented. The nonlinear model is experimentally validated. Simulation and experimental results are presented for an EMV designed and built in our laboratory. The experimental results show that sensorless estimation could be a possible solution for position control.
Technical Paper

Corner Design in Deep Drawn Rectangular Parts

1997-02-24
970437
The influence of die corner geometry on the attainable draw depth of rectangular parts was investigated using 3-D FEM and optimum rectangular blanks. Axisymmetric cup analysis was not adequate because a corner assist effect promotes corner draw. Guidelines for selecting corner radius were developed and the sensitivities of the maximum part depth to other process variables, such as drawbead restraint force; die clearance gap; friction coefficient; strain rate sensitivity; material anisotropy; and strain hardening exponent, were simulated. The results are much more conservative than handbook rules, which to not to take into account the details of blank size, drawbead restraint, die geometry, material properties, and friction.
Technical Paper

Scenario Regeneration using a Hardware-in-the-loop Simulation Platform to Study ABS and ESC Performance Benefits

2015-09-29
2015-01-2835
This study was performed to showcase the possible applications of the Hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) simulation environment developed by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA), to test heavy truck crash avoidance safety systems. In this study, the HIL simulation environment was used to recreate a simulation of an actual accident scenario involving a single tractor semi-trailer combination. The scenario was then simulated with and without an antilock brake system (ABS) and electronic stability control (ESC) system to investigate the crash avoidance potential afforded by the tractor equipped with the safety systems. The crash scenario was interpreted as a path-following problem, and three possible driver intended paths were developed from the accident scene data.
Technical Paper

Application of the Extended Kalman Filter to a Planar Vehicle Model to Predict the Onset of Jackknife Instability

2004-03-08
2004-01-1785
The widely used Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is applied to a planar model of an articulated vehicle to predict jackknifing events. The states of hitch angle and hitch angle rate are estimated using a vehicle model and the available or “measured” states of lateral acceleration and yaw rate from the prime mover. Tuning, performance, and compromises for the EKF in this application are discussed. This application of the EKF is effective in predicting the onset of instability for an articulated vehicle under low-μ and low-load conditions. These conditions have been shown to be most likely to render heavy articulated vehicles vulnerable to jackknife instability. Options for model refinements are also presented.
Technical Paper

The Development of a Heavy Truck ABS Model

2005-04-11
2005-01-0413
This paper discusses the improvement of a heavy truck anti-lock brake system (ABS) model currently used by the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) in conjunction with multibody vehicle dynamics software. Accurate modeling of this complex system is paramount in predicting real-world dynamics, and significant improvements in model accuracy are now possible due to recent access to ABS system data during on-track experimental testing. This paper focuses on improving an existing ABS model to accurately simulate braking under limit braking maneuvers on high and low-coefficient surfaces. To accomplish this, an ABS controller model with slip ratio and wheel acceleration thresholds was developed to handle these scenarios. The model was verified through testing of a Class VIII 6×4 straight truck. The Simulink brake system and ABS model both run simultaneously with TruckSim, with the initialization and results being acquired through Matlab.
Technical Paper

Delta-V, Barrier Equivalent Velocity and Acceleration Pulse of a Vehicle During an Impact

2005-04-11
2005-01-1187
Delta-V and Barrier Equivalent Velocity (BEV) are terms that have been used for many years to describe aspects of what happened to a vehicle when an impact occurred. That is, they are used to describe some physical change in the vehicle state before the impact as compared to after the impact. Specifically, the Delta-V describes the change in the vehicle velocity vector from just before the impact until just after the impact. The BEV attempts to quantify the energy required to cause the damage associated with an impact. In order to understand what happens to a vehicle and its occupants during an impact, it is necessary to examine the acceleration pulse undergone by the vehicle during the impact. The acceleration pulse describes, in detail, how the Delta-V occurs as a function of time, and is related with the deformation of the vehicle as well as the object contacted by the vehicle during an impact.
Technical Paper

New Model for Simulating the Dynamics of Pneumatic Heavy Truck Brakes with Integrated Anti-Lock Control

2003-03-03
2003-01-1322
This paper introduces a new nonlinear model for simulating the dynamics of pneumatic-over-mechanical commercial vehicle braking systems. The model employs an effective systems approach to accurately reproduce forcing functions experienced at the hubs of heavy commercial vehicles under braking. The model, which includes an on-off type ABS controller, was developed to accurately simulate the steer, drive, and trailer axle drum (or disc) brakes on modern heavy commercial vehicles. This model includes parameters for the pneumatic brake control and operating systems, a 4s/4m (four sensor, four modulator) ABS controller for the tractor, and a 2s/2m ABS controller for the trailer. The dynamics of the pneumatic control (treadle system) are also modeled. Finally, simulation results are compared to experimental data for a variety of conditions.
Technical Paper

The Balance Between Durability, Reliability, and Affordability in Structural Composites Manufacturing: Preliminary Results

2003-03-03
2003-01-0459
Fiber reinforced structural composites will play a key role in the development of the next generation of transportation vehicles (passenger cars, vans, light trucks and heavy trucks) due to their high strength-to-weight and stiffness-to-weight ratio compared to metals. An integrated assessment of the durability, reliability, and affordability of these materials is critical to facilitate the inclusion of these materials into new designs. The result of this assessment should provide information to find the balance between the three performance measures. This paper describes a method to develop this assessment in the fabrication of sheet molding compound (SMC) parts, and discusses the concept of Preform Insert Assembly (PIA) for improved affordability in the manufacturing of composite parts.
Journal Article

A Primer on Building a Hardware in the Loop Simulation and Validation for a 6X4 Tractor Trailer Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-0118
This research was to model a 6×4 tractor-trailer rig using TruckSim and simulate severe braking maneuvers with hardware in the loop and software in the loop simulations. For the hardware in the loop simulation (HIL), the tractor model was integrated with a 4s4m anti-lock braking system (ABS) and straight line braking tests were conducted. In developing the model, over 100 vehicle parameters were acquired from a real production tractor and entered into TruckSim. For the HIL simulation, the hardware consisted of a 4s4m ABS braking system with six brake chambers, four modulators, a treadle and an electronic control unit (ECU). A dSPACE simulator was used as the “interface” between the TruckSim computer model and the hardware.
Journal Article

Impact of Different Desired Velocity Profiles and Controller Gains on Convoy Driveability of Cooperative Adaptive Cruise Control Operated Platoons

2017-03-28
2017-01-0111
As the development of autonomous vehicles rapidly advances, the use of convoying/platooning becomes a more widely explored technology option for saving fuel and increasing the efficiency of traffic. In cooperative adaptive cruise control (CACC), the vehicles in a convoy follow each other under adaptive cruise control (ACC) that is augmented by the sharing of preceding vehicle acceleration through the vehicle to vehicle communication in a feedforward control path. In general, the desired velocity optimization for vehicles in the convoy is based on fuel economy optimization, rather than driveability. This paper is a preliminary study on the impact of the desired velocity profile on the driveability characteristics of a convoy of vehicles and the controller gain impact on the driveability. A simple low-level longitudinal model of the vehicle has been used along with a PD type cruise controller and a generic spacing policy for ACC/CACC.
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