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Technical Paper

Acceptance of Nonplanar Rearview Mirrors by U.S. Drivers

1998-02-23
980919
Five different nonplanar mirrors were evaluated as driver-side rearview mirrors in a field test using Ford employees. Two were spherical convex (differing in radius of curvature), and three were aspheric (differing primarily in the proportion of their surfaces over which radius of curvature was variable). Each participant drove for four weeks with one of the nonplanar mirrors. At three times during the test the participants filled out questionnaires concerning their experience with the mirrors. Driver preferences for the experimental mirrors increased moderately between surveys at one week and at four weeks. At four weeks, all five nonplanar mirrors were preferred to the standard flat mirror by at least a small amount. For each of the five mirror designs there was a large range of opinion. Most notably, a small number of people strongly disliked the aspheric design that involved the largest variable-radius area.
Technical Paper

The Role of Binocular Information for Distance Perception in Rear-Vision Systems

2001-03-05
2001-01-0322
New developments in the use of two-dimensional displays to supplement driver vision have made it more important to understand the roles that various distance cues play in driver perception of distance in more conventional ways of viewing the road, including direct vision and viewing through rearview mirrors. The current study was designed to investigate the role of binocular distance cues for perception of distance in rearview mirrors. In a field experiment, we obtained data to estimate the importance of binocular cues for distance judgments under conditions representative of real-world traffic. The results indicate that, although binocular cues are potentially available to drivers, these cues probably play little or no role in distance judgments in rearview mirrors in normal driving situations.
Technical Paper

A Research Design to Collect Data for a Second Generation Eyellipse

1975-02-01
750362
Current automotive design practices related to driver visibility are based on static laboratory studies of mostly straight ahead viewing that were conducted by Meldrum and others beginning in 1962. These individual studies have never been replicated either in the lab or in actual driving situations to determine the validity of their procedures. After a thorough review of the literature related to driver eye location and a statistical analysis of previous static eye location data, an experimental design is proposed to determine dynamic eye location distribution characteristics. This design will provide information on: (a) the relationship of static anthropometric measurements to dynamic eye location; (b) the difference between dynamic on-the-road eye location versus static in-the-lab eye location distributions: (c) the effect of different types of vehicle seating package parameters on eye location; and, (d) a validation of previous static eye location studies.
Technical Paper

Factors Influencing Spark Behavior in a Spray-Guided Direct-Injected Engine

2006-10-16
2006-01-3376
The spark process has previously been shown to heavily influence ignition stability, particularly in direct-injected gasoline engines. Despite this influence, few studies have addressed spark behavior in direct-injected engines. This study examines the role of environmental factors on the behavior of the spark. Through measurement of the spark duration, by way of the ignition current trace, several observations are made on the influence of external factors on the behavior of the spark. Changing the level of nitrogen in the cylinder (to simulate EGR), the level of wetting and velocity imparted by the spray, the ignition dwell time and the orientation of the ground strap, observations are made as to which conditions are likely to produce unfavorable (shorter) spark durations. Through collection of a statistically significant number of sample spark lengths under each condition, histograms have been assembled and compared under each case.
Technical Paper

Posture and Motion Prediction: Perspectives for Unconstrained Head Movements

2006-07-04
2006-01-2330
The relationship between motion and posture was investigated from the kinematics of unconstrained head movements. Head movements for visual gazing exhibited an initial component whose amplitude does not exceed 20.3° for target eccentricity up to 120°. This component was truncated by subsequent corrective movements whose occurrence generally increases with target eccentricity, although with a large variability (R2 ≤ 0.46). The head is finally stabilized at 72% of target eccentricity (R2 ≥ 0.92). These results indicate that the final head posture can be achieved through a number of loosely-programmed kinematic variations. Based on these results, unconstrained head movements were simulated, within the context of application to posture prediction for estimation of the visual field.
Technical Paper

Cam-phasing Optimization Using Artificial Neural Networks as Surrogate Models-Fuel Consumption and NOx Emissions

2006-04-03
2006-01-1512
Cam-phasing is increasingly considered as a feasible Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology for production engines. Additional independent control variables in a dual-independent VVT engine increase the complexity of the system, and achieving its full benefit depends critically on devising an optimum control strategy. A traditional approach relying on hardware experiments to generate set-point maps for all independent control variables leads to an exponential increase in the number of required tests and prohibitive cost. Instead, this work formulates the task of defining actuator set-points as an optimization problem. In our previous study, an optimization framework was developed and demonstrated with the objective of maximizing torque at full load. This study extends the technique and uses the optimization framework to minimize fuel consumption of a VVT engine at part load.
Technical Paper

Bioengineering of Impact Survival in Business Aircraft

1969-02-01
690335
Aircraft used for business (executive corporate transportation or personal business) and utility purposes now represent about one-third of the total United States aircraft inventory. Data from accident investigation of business aircraft involved in survivable accidents indicate serious injuries and fatality to the occupants occur most frequently as a result of the unprotected head and neck or chest flailing in contact with aircraft controls, instrument panel, or structure. Improvement of current aircraft to provide increased occupant safety and survival during crash impacts is both necessary and feasible. Design considerations include folding seat back locks to prevent collapse, increased seat tie-down to structure, instrument panels and glare shields designed to absorb energy through structural design and padding, stronger seat structure, lateral protection, design and packaging of knobs and projections to minimize injury in contact, and installation of upper torso restraint.
Journal Article

Cycle-Resolved NO Measurements in a Spray-Guided SIDI Engine using Fast Exhaust Measurements and High-Speed OH* Chemiluminescence Imaging

2008-04-14
2008-01-1072
A potential correlation between OH* chemiluminescence and exhaust NO concentration is investigated to pursue a simple diagnostic technique for measurements of NO cycle-to-cycle fluctuations. Previous investigations of NO formation in a direct-injection gasoline engine have indicated that there may be a correlation between the concentration of NO and OH* chemiluminescence. Shortcomings of this work, namely phase-locked measurements, were overcome in the present study by using highspeed imaging capability to obtain chemiluminescence within the entire engine cycle and from entire engine cylinder volume. Cycle-resolved NO exhaust gas detection were performed synchronously with the chemiluminescence measurements on an optical spark-ignited engine with spray-guided direct-injection. A quartz cylinder liner, head and piston windows provide optical access for a highspeed CMOS camera and image intensifier to capture OH* images.
Technical Paper

Basic Physiology of Carbon Monoxide

1971-02-01
710300
The physiology of carbon monoxide is discussed in the human respiratory system. The details of the relationship of carbon monoxide and hemoglobin are outlined, and the effects of specific concentrations of CO are shown. Acute and chronic exposures to CO create certain effects on the various bodily systems, and these are described in detail.
Technical Paper

Health Aspects of Atmospheric Exposure to Lead

1971-02-01
710302
The paper discusses how atmospheric exposure to lead affects health. Sources of lead in the atmosphere are explored, lead aerosol is described, and the importance of lead in the diet is discussed. Methods of detecting lead in the human system are detailed. The paper suggests that a threshold limit of atmospheric lead be firmly established.
Technical Paper

Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System

1971-02-01
710297
The anatomy of the human respiratory system is detailed. The function of the entire system is shown from inspiration to expiration. Equations are given to illustrate flow-pressure relationships in the airways. Specifics of gas transfer are shown. All these details of physiology and function are necessary for an understanding of the effects of air pollution upon the human respiratory system.
Technical Paper

DAMN - Digital Computer Program for the Dynamic Analysis of Generalized Mechanical Systems

1971-02-01
710244
Effective computer-aided design of engineering systems requires comprehensive computer-application software that conveniently adapts to the particular engineering design considered. This paper discusses the theoretical background and initial experience with a program intended for computer-aided design of machine-like mechanical systems, and outlines the use of a time-shared graphic terminal for schematic display of program output. The program is applicable to three types of mechanical systems: linear and nonlinear unconstrained dynamic systems, kinematic systems (that is, constrained systems), and multifreedom, constrained systems.
Technical Paper

A Field Study of Distance Perception with Large-Radius Convex Rearview Mirrors

1998-02-23
980916
One of the primary reasons that FMVSS 111 currently requires flat rearview mirrors as original equipment on the driver's side of passenger cars is a concern that convex mirrors might reduce safety by causing drivers to overestimate the distances to following vehicles. Several previous studies of the effects of convex rearview mirrors have indicated that they do cause overestimations of distance, but of much lower magnitude than would be expected based on the mirrors' levels of image minification and the resulting visual angles experienced by drivers. Previous studies have investigated mirrors with radiuses of curvature up to 2000 mm. The present empirical study was designed to investigate the effects of mirrors with larger radiuses (up to 8900 mm). Such results are of interest because of the possible use of large radiuses in some aspheric mirror designs, and because of the information they provide about the basic mechanisms by which convex mirrors affect distance perception.
Technical Paper

Impact of Fluorescence Tracers on Combustion Performance in Optical Engine Experiments

2004-10-25
2004-01-2975
For applications of planar laser induced fluorescence (PLIF) to measure the fuel or equivalence ratio distributions in internal combustion (IC) engines it is typically assumed that the addition of a fluorescence tracer to a base fuel does not alter the combustion performance. We have investigated the impact on combustion performance through the addition of various amounts of 3-pentanone or toluene to iso-octane fuel. Correlations between equivalence ratio for a range of fuel/tracer mixtures and engine parameters, like peak pressure, location of peak pressure, indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP), and peak burn rate are discussed for data obtained in a spark-ignition direct-injection (SIDI) gasoline engine operated with near homogeneous charge. For typical tracer concentrations the impact on combustion performance is mostly negligible.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Redesign of Battery Handling using Jack™ and HUMOSIM Motions

2004-06-15
2004-01-2145
The evaluation of maintenance tasks is increasingly important in the design and redesign of many industrial operations including vehicles. The weight of subsystems can be extreme and often tools are developed to abate the ergonomic risks commonly associated with such tasks, while others are unfortunately overlooked. We evaluated a member of the family of medium-sized tactical vehicles (FMTV) and chose the battery handling from a list of previously addressed concerns regarding the vehicle. Particularly in larger vehicles, similar to those analyzed in this paper, batteries may exceed 35 kg (77 lbs). The motions required to remove these batteries were simulated using motion prediction modules from the Human Motion Simulation (HUMOSIM) laboratory at the University of Michigan. These motions were visualized in UGS PLM Solutions' Jack™ and analyzed with the embedded 3-D Static Strength Prediction program.
Technical Paper

Failure of Laser Welds in Aluminum Sheets

2001-03-05
2001-01-0091
In this paper, the formability of AA5754 aluminum laser-welded blanks produced by Nd:YAG laser welding is investigated under biaxial straining conditions. The mechanical behavior of the laser-welded blanks is first examined by uniaxial tensile tests conducted with the weld line perpendicular to the tensile axis. Shear failure in the weld metal is observed in the experiments. Finite element simulations under generalized plane strain conditions are then conducted in order to further understand the effects of weld geometry and strength on the shear failure and formability of these welded blanks. The strain histories of the material elements in the weld metal obtained from finite element computations are finally used in a theoretical failure analysis based on the material imperfection approach to predict the failure strains for the laser-welded blanks under biaxial straining conditions.
Technical Paper

Using Neural Networks to Compensate Altitude Effects on the Air Flow Rate in Variable Valve Timing Engines

2005-04-11
2005-01-0066
An accurate air flow rate model is critical for high-quality air-fuel ratio control in Spark-Ignition engines using a Three-Way-Catalyst. Emerging Variable Valve Timing technology complicates cylinder air charge estimation by increasing the number of independent variables. In our previous study (SAE 2004-01-3054), an Artificial Neural Network (ANN) has been used successfully to represent the air flow rate as a function of four independent variables: intake camshaft position, exhaust camshaft position, engine speed and intake manifold pressure. However, in more general terms the air flow rate also depends on ambient temperature and pressure, the latter being largely a function of altitude. With arbitrary cam phasing combinations, the ambient pressure effects in particular can be very complex. In this study, we propose using a separate neural network to compensate the effects of altitude on the air flow rate.
Technical Paper

A Pilot Study of the Effects of Vertical Ride Motion on Reach Kinematics

2003-03-03
2003-01-0589
Vehicle motions can adversely affect the ability of a driver or occupant to quickly and accurately push control buttons located in many advanced vehicle control, navigation and communications systems. A pilot study was conducted using the U.S. Army Tank Automotive and Armaments Command (TACOM) Ride Motion Simulator (RMS) to assess the effects of vertical ride motion on the kinematics of reaching. The RMS was programmed to produce 0.5 g and 0.8 g peak-to-peak sinusoidal inputs at the seat-sitter interface over a range of frequencies. Two participants performed seated reaching tasks to locations typical of in-vehicle controls under static conditions and with single-frequency inputs between 0 and 10 Hz. The participants also held terminal reach postures during 0.5 to 32 Hz sine sweeps. Reach kinematics were recorded using a 10-camera VICON motion capture system. The effects of vertical ride motion on movement time, accuracy, and subjective responses were assessed.
Technical Paper

Crush Strength of Aluminum 5052-H38 Honeycomb Materials under Combined Compressive and Shear Loads

2003-03-03
2003-01-0331
The crush strength of aluminum 5052-H38 honeycomb materials under combined compressive and shear loads are investigated here. The experimental results indicate that both the peak and crush strengths under combined compressive and shear loads are lower than those under pure compressive loads. A yield function is suggested for honeycomb materials under the combined loads based on a phenomenological plasticity theory. The microscopic crush mechanism under the combined loads is also investigated. A microscopic crush model based on the experimental observations is developed. The crush model includes the assumptions of the asymmetric location of horizontal plastic hinge line and the ruptures of aluminum cell walls so that the kinematic requirement can be satisfied. In the calculation of the crush strength, two correction factors due to non-associated plastic flow and different rupture modes are considered.
Technical Paper

Crank-Angle Resolved Imaging of Fuel Distribution, Ignition and Combustion in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3753
A combination of imaging techniques for investigations of highly transient processes and cyclic variations in internal combustion engines is presented. The single high-speed camera setup uses a CMOS camera combined with a two-stage image-intensifier and two excimer lasers. Fuel mixing, ignition and combustion were monitored via planar laser induced fluorescence imaging of toluene as a tracer that was added to iso-octane in combination with the simultaneous recording of light emission from the spark plasma and OH* chemiluminescence of the developing flame. Image frame rates of 12 kHz for hundreds of cycles were achieved. Application to misfire events in a spray-guided gasoline direct-injection engine is described to illustrate the merits of the technique.
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