Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

Investigation on Cylinder Bore Deformation under Static Condition Based on Fourier Decomposition

2017-03-28
2017-01-0366
Due to the mechanical forces under static conditions, the engine cylinders cross section will not be a round circle any more once they are installed. The deformation of an engine cylinder causes increasing lubricating oil consumption and abnormal wear, resulting in worse fuel economy and emissions. However, prediction of deformation on a liner has not been made because of the complication of conditions and structure. In this study, a V6-type engine body model was built and meshed with Hypermesh suit software. Then, cylinder deformation under static condition has been simulated and analyzed. First of all, experimental work was done to verify the engine model. Basically, few parameters like pre-tightened force, structure and distribution of bolts have been investigated to figure out how the cylinder bore deformation behaves via finite element analysis. Also, a simple Matlab program was developed to process the data.
Technical Paper

Pressure Drop and Soot Accumulation Characteristics through Diesel Particulate Filters Considering Various Soot and Ash Distribution Types

2017-03-28
2017-01-0959
Although diesel engines offer higher thermal efficiency and lower fuel consumption, larger amounts of Particulate Matters (PM) are emitted in comparison with gasoline engines. The Diesel Particulate Filters (DPF) have proved one of the most promising technologies due to the “particle number” emissions regulations. In this study, the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) multi-channel model of DPF was built properly by utilizing AVL-Fire software code to evaluate the pressure drop and soot accumulation characteristics of DPF. The main objective of this paper was to investigate the effects of soot (capacity and deposit forms) and ash (capacity and distribution factors) interaction on DPF pressure drop and soot accumulation, as well as the effects of DPF boundary conditions (inlet mass flow rate and inlet temperature) on pressure drop.
Technical Paper

A Numerical Study on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Marine Engine through Miller Cycle Coupled with EGR and Water Emulsified Fuel

2016-10-17
2016-01-2187
The combustion in low-speed two-stroke marine diesel engines can be characterized as large spatial and temporal scales combustion. One of the most effective measures to reduce NOx emissions is to reduce the local maximum combustion temperature. In the current study, multi-dimensional numerical simulations have been conducted to explore the potential of Miller cycle, high compression ratio coupled with EGR (Exhaust Gas Recirculation) and WEF (water emulsified fuel) to improve the trade-off relationship of NOx-ISFC (indicated specific fuel consumption) in a low-speed two-stroke marine engine. The results show that the EGR ratio could be reduced combined with WEF to meet the Tier III emission regulation. The penalty on fuel consumption with EGR and WEF could be offset by Miller cycle and high geometric compression ratio.
Technical Paper

Achievement of Diesel Low Temperature Combustion through Higher Boost and EGR Control Coupled with Miller Cycle

2015-04-14
2015-01-0383
Diesel engines generally tend to produce a very low level of NOx and soot through the application of Miller Cycle, which is mainly due to the low temperature combustion (LTC) atmosphere resulting from the Miller Cycle utilization. A CFD model was established and calibrated against the experimental data for a part load operation at 3000 r/min. A designed set of Miller-LTC combustion modes were analyzed. It is found that a higher boost pressure coupled with EGR can further tap the potential of Miller-LTC cycle, improving and expanding the Miller-LTC operation condition. The simulated results indicated that the variation of Miller timings can decrease the regions of high temperatures and then improve the levels and trade-off relationship of NOx and soot. The in-cylinder peak pressure and NOx emissions were increased dramatically though the problem of insufficient intake charge was resolved by the enhanced intake pressure that is equivalent to dual-stage turbo-charging.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Combustion Characteristics of Methane/Gasoline Dual-Fuel in a SI Engine at Different Load Conditions

2018-04-03
2018-01-1140
Methane as an attractive alternative fuel offers the most potential in clean combustion and low CO2 emissions. In this work, combustion characteristics of methane/gasoline dual-fuel were investigated in a spark-ignited engine with port-injection of methane and direct-injection of gasoline, allowing for variations in methane addition and excess air coefficient. Engine experimental results showed that under low load conditions, as methane mass rate was raised, there was a promotion in methane/gasoline dual-fuel combustion, and this became more obvious at lean conditions. Similar observations were also obtained when the engine was operated at intermediate load conditions, but a prolonged combustion duration was found with the methane addition. Further analysis showed that the promotion of methane/gasoline dual-fuel combustion with methane addition mainly occurred in the early stage of combustion, especially for lean conditions.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Emission Characteristics of the Direct Injection Dimethyl Ether Enabled Micro-Flame Ignited (MFI) Hybrid Combustion in a 4-Stroke Gasoline Engine

2018-04-03
2018-01-1247
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), has the potential to improve gasoline engines’ efficiency and simultaneously achieve ultra-low NOx emissions. Two of the primary obstacles for applying CAI combustion are the control of combustion phasing and the maximum heat release rate. To solve these problems, dimethyl ether (DME) was directly injected into the cylinder to generate multi-point micro-flame through compression in order to manage the entire heat release of gasoline in the cylinder through port fuel injection, which is known as micro-flame ignited (MFI) hybrid combustion.
Journal Article

Study on the Double Injection Strategy of Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion under a Light-Duty Optical Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2299
Gasoline partially premixed combustion (PPC) is a potential combustion concept to achieve high engine efficiency as well as low NOx and soot emissions. But the in-cylinder process of PPC is not well understood. In the present study, the double injection strategy of PPC was investigated on a light-duty optical engine. The fuel/air mixing and combustion process of PPC was evaluated by fuel-tracer planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) and high-speed natural luminosity imaging technique, respectively. Combustion emission spectra of typical double injection case were analyzed. The primary reference fuel, PRF70 (70% iso-octane and 30% n-heptane by volume) was chosen as the lower reactivity fuel like gasoline. Double injection strategies of different first fuel injection timing and mass ratio of the two fuel injections were comparatively studied.
Journal Article

Experimental Study on High-Load Extension of Gasoline/PODE Dual-Fuel RCCI Operation Using Late Intake Valve Closing

2017-03-28
2017-01-0754
The dual-fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion could achieve high efficiency and low emissions over a wide range of operating conditions. However, further high load extension is limited by the excessive pressure rise rate and soot emission. Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODE), a novel diesel alternative fuel, has the capability to achieve stoichiometric smoke-free RCCI combustion due to its high oxygen content and unique molecule structure. In this study, experimental investigations on high load extension of gasoline/PODE RCCI operation were conducted using late intake valve closing (LIVC) strategy and intake boosting in a single-cylinder, heavy-duty diesel engine. The experimental results show that the upper load can be effectively extended through boosting and LIVC with gasoline/PODE stoichiometric operation.
Journal Article

Simultaneous Measurement of Natural Flame Luminosity and Emission Spectra in a RCCI Engine under Different Fuel Stratification Degrees

2017-03-28
2017-01-0714
Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is a potential combustion strategy to achieve high engine efficiency with ultra-low NOx and soot emissions. Fuel stratification can be used to control the heat release rate of RCCI combustion. But the in-cylinder combustion process of the RCCI under different fuel stratification degrees has not been well understood, especially at a higher engine load. In this paper, simultaneous measurement of natural flame luminosity and emission spectra was carried out on a light-duty optical RCCI engine under different fuel stratification degrees. The engine was run at 1200 revolutions per minute under a load about 7 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). In order to form fuel stratification degrees from low to high, the common-rail injection timing of n-heptane was changed from -180° CA after top dead center (ATDC) to -10° CA ATDC, while the iso-octane delivered in the intake stroke was fixed.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation of the Intake Flow of a Four-Valve Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2211
The intake process plays an important role in the operation of internal combustion engines. In the present study, a three-dimensional transient simulation of a four-valve diesel engine was performed using Large Eddy Simulation (LES) model based on software CONVERGE. The mean velocity components in three directions through the intake valve curtain, the flow separation around the intake valves, the influences of inlet jet on turbulence flow field and cycle-to-cycle variation were investigated in this work. The result shows that the mean velocity distributes non-uniformly near the valve curtain at high valve lifts. In contrast, the mean velocity distribution is uniform at low valve lifts. It is found that the flow separation occurs at valve stem, valve seat and valve sealing through the outlet of the helical port. In contrast, flow separation is only observed in the valve seat through the outlet of the tangential port.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Rail Pressure Fluctuations under Two-Injection Conditions and the Control Strategy Based on ANN

2017-10-08
2017-01-2212
High-pressure common rail (HPCR) fuel injection system is the most widely used fuel system in diesel engines. However, when multiple injection strategy is used, the pressure wave fluctuation is un-avoided due to the opening and closing of the needle valve which will affect the subsequent fuel injection and combustion characteristics. In this paper, several parameters: injection pressure, injection intervals, the main injection pulse widths are investigated on a common rail fuel injection test rig with two injection pulses to explore their effect on the fuel injection rate and fuel quantity. The result showed that the longer injection interval between the pilot and main injections will lead to a rail pressure drop at the beginning of the main injection so that a smaller fuel quantity will be delivered. The main injection pulse width also influences fuel injection rate and the main fuel quantity.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Scavenging Process in a Large Marine Two-Stroke Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2201
For uniflow scavenged two-stroke marine diesel engines, the main function of scavenging process is to replace the burned gas with fresh charge. The end state of scavenging process is integral to the subsequent compression and combustion, thereby affecting the engine’s fuel economy, power output and emissions. In this paper, a complete working cycle of a large marine diesel engine was simulated by using the 3D-CFD software CONVERGE. The model was validated by mesh sensitivity test and experiment data. Based on this calibrated model, the influences of swirl ratio and exhaust valve closing (EVC) timing on the scavenging process were investigated. The parameters evaluating the performance of scavenging process were introduced. The results show that, by adjusting the swirl orientation angle(SOA) from SOA=10° to SOA=30°, different swirl ratios are generated and have obvious differences in flow characteristics and scavenging performance.
Technical Paper

Effects of Butanol Isomers on the Combustion Characteristics and Particle Number Emissions of a GDI Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2323
Butanol is a promising alcohol fuel. Previous studies on combustion and diesel engines showed different trends in sooting tendencies of the butanol isomers (n-butanol, iso-butanol, sec-butanol and tert-butanol).The impact of butanol isomers on the particulate emissions of GDI (Gasoline Direct Injection) engines, however, has not been reported. This work examines the combustion performance and particle number emissions of a GDI engine fueled with gasoline/butanol blends in steady state modes. Each isomer was tested at blend ratios from 10% to 50% by volume. Spark timings for all the fuels are set to obtain the maximum break torque (MBT), i.e. the MBT spark timings. Results show that the particle number concentration is reduced significantly with increasing butanol content for all the isomers.
Technical Paper

Study on Dynamic Characteristics of High-Speed Solenoid Injectors by Means of Contactless Measurement

2017-10-08
2017-01-2313
In-cylinder direct-injected technology provides a flexible and accurate optimization for internal combustion engines to reduce emission and improve fuel efficiency. With increasingly stringent requirements for the emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx) and CO2, the content of injections in an engine combustion cycle has reached 7 to 9 times in gasoline direct injection (GDI) and the diesel engine with high-pressure common rail (HPCR). Accurate control of both time and quantity of injection is critical for engine performance and emissions, while the dynamic response of injector spray characteristics is a key factor. In this paper, a test bench was built for monitoring the dynamic response of solenoid injectors with high-speed micro-photography and synchronous current collection system. Experimental studies on the dynamic response of GDI and HPCR solenoid injectors were carried out.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on Effects of Combustion Chamber Structure and Intake Air Humidification on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Marine Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2254
In order to improve the combustion and emissions for high-speed marine diesel engines, numerical investigations on effects of different combustion chamber structures combined with intake air humidification have to be conducted. The study uses AVL Fire code to establish three-dimensional combustion model and simulate the in-cylinder flow, air-fuel mixing and combustion process with the flow dynamics metrics such as swirl number and uniformity index, analyze the interactional effects of combustion chamber structures and intake air humidification against the experimental data for a part load operation at 1350 r/min, find the optimized way to improve engine performance as well as decrease the NOx and soot emissions. The novelty is that this study is to combine different air humidifying rates with different combustion chamber structures including the re-entrant chamber, the straight chamber and the open chamber.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR and Injection Strategies on the Performance and Emissions of a Two-Stroke Marine Diesel Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2249
Clean combustion is critical for marine engines to meet the Tier III emission regulation. In this paper, the effects of EGR and injection strategies (including injection pressure, injection timing as well as multiple injection technology) on the performance and emissions of a 2-stroke, low speed marine diesel engine were investigated by using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations to reach the IMO Tier III NOx emissions target and reduce the fuel consumption rate. Due to the large length scale of the marine engine, RANS simulation was performed in combination with the CTC-SHELL combustion model. Based on the simulation model, the variation of the cylinder pressure curve, the average temperature in the cylinder, the combustion heat release rate and the emission characteristics were studied.
Technical Paper

Combustion Characteristics of Wall-Impinging Diesel Fuel Spray under Different Wall Temperatures

2017-10-08
2017-01-2251
The flame structure and combustion characteristics of wall-impinging diesel fuel spray were investigated in a high-temperature high-pressure constant volume combustion vessel. The ambient temperature (Ta) was set to 773 K. The wall temperatures (Tw) were set to 523 K, 673 K and 773 K respectively. Three different injection pressures (Pi) of 600 bar, 1000bar and 1600bar, two ambient pressures (Pa) of 2 MPa and 4 MPa were applied. The flame development process of wall-impinging spray was measured by high-speed photography, which was utilized to quantify the flame luminosity intensity, ignition delay and flame geometrical parameters. The results reveal that, as the wall temperature increases, the flame luminosity intensity increases and the ignition delay decreases.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Effects of Injection Strategy on Combustion and Emission in a Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine Fueled with Gasoline

2017-10-08
2017-01-2266
Gasoline partially premixed combustion shows the potential to achieve clean and high-efficiency combustion. Injection strategies show great influence on in-cylinder air flow and in-cylinder fuel distribution before auto-ignition, which can significantly affect the combustion characteristics and emissions. This study explored the effects of various injection strategies, including port fuel injection (PFI), single direct injection (DIm), double direct injection (DIp+DIm) and port fuel injection coupled with a direct injection (PFI+DIm) on the combustion characteristics and emissions in a modified single cylinder heavy-duty diesel engine fueled with 92# gasoline at low load. The investigation consists of two parts. Firstly, the comparison among PFI, PFI+DIm, and DIp+DIm strategies was conducted at a fixed CA50 to explore the effects of PFI+DIm and DIp+DIm strategies on the thermal efficiency and combustion stability.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on Effects of Oxygen-Enriched Air and Intake Air Humidification on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Marine Diesel Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1788
In order to meet the increasingly stringent emissions restriction, it is indispensable to improve the combustion and emissions technology of high-speed marine diesel engines. Oxygen-enriched combustion and intake air humidification are effective ways to control pollution from diesel engines and improve combustion of diesel engines. In this study, the combustion and emission characteristics of supercharged intercooled marine diesel engine with humidity ratio and intake oxygen concentration were investigated by using multi-dimensional CFD model. The combustion model was established by AVL Fire code. The combination strategy of intake air humidification and oxygen-enriched combustion were optimized under partial load at 1350 rpm.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on Effects of Combustion Chamber Structure and Oxygen Enriched Air on Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Marine Diesel Engine

2018-09-10
2018-01-1786
In order to improve the combustion and emissions for high-speed marine diesel engines, numerical investigations on effects of different combustion chamber structures combined with oxygen enriched air have to be conducted. The study uses AVL Fire code to establish three-dimensional combustion model and simulate the in-cylinder flow, air-fuel mixing and combustion process with the flow dynamics metrics such as swirl number and uniformity index, analyze the interactional effects of combustion chamber structures and oxygen enriched air against the experimental data for a part load operation at 1350 r/min, find the optimized way to improve engine performance as well as decrease the NOx and soot emissions. The novelty is that this study is to combine different oxygen concentration with different combustion chamber structures including the re-entrant chamber, the straight chamber and the open chamber.
X