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Technical Paper

Simulation of the Effect of Intake Pressure and Split Injection on Lean Combustion Characteristics of a Poppet-Valve Two-Stroke Direct Injection Gasoline Engine at High Loads

2018-09-10
2018-01-1723
Poppet-valve two-stroke gasoline engines can increase the specific power of their four-stroke counterparts with the same displacement and hence decrease fuel consumption. However, knock may occur at high loads. Therefore, the combustion with stratified lean mixture was proposed to decrease knock tendency and improve combustion stability in a poppet-valve two-stroke direct injection gasoline engine. The effect of intake pressure and split injection on fuel distribution, combustion and knock intensity in lean mixture conditions at high loads was simulated with a three-dimensional computational fluid dynamic software. Simulation results show that with the increase of intake pressure, the average fuel-air equivalent ratio in the cylinder decreases when the second injection ratio was fixed at 70% at a given amount of fuel in a cycle.
Technical Paper

Effects of Clamping Force on the Operating Behavior of PEM Fuel Cell

2018-09-10
2018-01-1718
Proton exchange membrane (PEM) fuel cell is widely recognized as an outstanding portable power plant and expected to be possibly commercialization in the near future. As is well known, mechanical stresses implemented on the bipolar plates during the assembly procedure should have prominent influences on mass and heat transfer behavior inside the cell, as well as the resultant performance. In this study, an analytical model is proposed to comprehensively investigate the influence of clamping force on the mass transport, electrochemical properties and overall cell output capability of a PEM fuel cell. The results indicate that proper clamping force not only benefits the gas leakage prevention but also increases the contact area between the neighboring components to decrease the contact ohmic resistance.
Technical Paper

Effects of Low Temperature Reforming (LTR) Products of Low Octane Number Fuels on HCCI Combustion

2018-09-10
2018-01-1682
In order to achieve high-efficiency and clean combustion in HCCI engines, combustion must be controlled reasonably. A great variety of species with various reactivities can be produced through low temperature oxidation of fuels, which offers possible solutions to the problem of controlling in-cylinder mixture reactivity to accommodate changes in the operating conditions. In this work, in-cylinder combustion characteristics with low temperature reforming (LTR) were investigated in an optical engine fueled with low octane number fuel. LTR was achieved through low temperature oxidation of fuels in a reformer (flow reactor), and then LTR products (oxidation products) were fed into the engine to alter the charge reactivity. Primary Reference Fuels (blended fuel of n-heptane and iso-octane, PRFs) are often used to investigate the effects of octane number on combustion characteristics in engines.
Technical Paper

Lane Detection System for Night Scenes

2018-08-07
2018-01-1617
Most of algorithms of lane detection mainly aim at the scenes of daytime. However, those algorithms are unstable for the lane detection at night because the camera is very sensitive to the light change. This paper proposed a lane detection algorithm that largely improves the detection system’s performance when it is used at night. The algorithm has two main stage: Image processing and Kalman filter (KF). The key process steps of Stage 1 are: extracting the Region of Interesting (ROI)→Edge Detection →Binarization→Hough→ Lane Selection→Lane fitting. First step, a ROI could be extracted according to the relatively fixed location of lanes. In step of edge detection, we use a creative filter named Correlation filter to remove image noise and remain the feature of lane. The filter matrix looks like “[0 1 1, −1 0 1; −1 −1 0]”. Next, the candidate lines are detected by the Hough transform, then, the equations of lane are acquired by fitting spots obtained from Hough.
Technical Paper

Effects of EGR on PN Emissions under Operating Parameters from DISI Engines

2017-10-08
2017-01-2399
Particulate matter emissions have become a concern for the development of DISI engines. EGR has been extensively demonstrated as a beneficial technology to migrate knock performance, improve fuel economy and reduce NOX emissions. Recently, the effect of EGR on particulate matter emissions is attracting increased attention. This work investigates the effects of EGR on PN emissions with the variations of engine operating parameters and aims to understand the role of EGR in PN emissions for DISI engines. A 1.8liter turbocharged engine with cooled EGR is used for this study. The engine is operated at steady-state conditions with EGR under various operating parameters including injection timing, excess air ratio, and spark timing to characterize the particle number emissions. The results indicates that there is a high sensitivity of PN emissions to EGR with the variations of those parameters.
Journal Article

The Effects of EGR and Injection Timing on the Engine Combustion and Emission Performances Fueled by Butanol-Diesel Blends

2012-04-01
2011-01-2473
The combustion and emission characteristics of a diesel engine running on butanol-diesel blends were investigated in this study. The blending ratio of n-butanol to diesel was varied from 0 to 40 vol% using an increment of 10 vol%, and each blend was tested on a 2.7 L V6 common rail direction injection diesel engine equipped with an EGR system. The test was carried out under two engine loads at a constant engine speed, using various combinations of EGR ratios and injection timings. Test results indicate that n-butanol addition to engine fuel is able to substantially decrease soot emission from raw exhaust gas, while the change in NOx emissions varies depending on the n-butanol content and engine operating conditions. Increasing EGR ratio and retarding injection timing are effective approaches to reduce NOx emissions from combustion of n-butanol-diesel blends.
Journal Article

Thermodynamic Analysis of a Novel Combined Power and Cooling Cycle Driven by the Exhaust Heat Form a Diesel Engine

2013-04-08
2013-01-0858
A novel combined power and cooling cycle based on the Organic Rankine Cycle (ORC) and the Compression Refrigeration Cycle (CRC) is proposed. The cycle can be driven by the exhaust heat from a diesel engine. In this combined cycle, ORC will translate the exhaust heat into power, and drive the compressor of CRC. The prime advantage of the combined cycle is that both the ORC and CRC are trans-critical cycles, and using CO₂ as working fluid. Natural, cheap, environmentally friendly, nontoxic and good heat transfer properties are some advantages of CO₂ as working fluid. In this paper, besides the basic combined cycle (ORC-CRC), another three novel cycles: ORC-CRC with an expander (ORC-CRCE), ORC with an internal heat exchanger as heat accumulator combined with CRC (ORCI-CRC), ORCI-CRCE, are analyzed and compared.
Journal Article

Disturbance Estimation Based Modeling Technique for Control and Prediction in Controllable Mechanical Turbo-Compounding System

2016-04-05
2016-01-0023
Modeling techniques matter a lot in many fields of engine engineering. Models are requested not only for control design but also for dynamic prediction. However, problems might be encountered during modeling process either because of the system complexity or the unaffordable modeling cost. As a result, a new modeling technique based on disturbance estimation is proposed in this paper. By employing the proposed modeling technique, models are set up in real time with the online information from input and output. The uncertainties of system dynamics are handled as internal disturbance of the system, while the perturbation from outside are taken as the external disturbance, and the combination of the two can be estimated online by a kind of active observer called extended state observer (ESO).
Journal Article

Laminar Burning, Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Premixed Methane- Dissociated Methanol-Air Mixtures

2017-03-28
2017-01-1289
This research presents an experimental study of the laminar burning combustion and emission characteristics of premixed methane -dissociated methanol-air mixtures in a constant volume combustion chamber. All experiments were conducted at 3 bar initial pressure and 373K initial temperature. The dissociated methanol fractions were from 20% to 80% with 20% intervals, and the equivalence ratio varied from 0.6 to 1.8 with 0.2 intervals. The images of flame propagation were visualized by using a schlieren system. The combustion pressure data were measured and exhaust emissions were sampled with a portable exhaust gas analyzer. The results show that the unstretched laminar burning velocities increased significantly with dissociated methanol enrichment. The Markstein length decreased with increasing dissociated methanol fraction and decreasing equivalence ratio.
Journal Article

Numerical Study on Flash Boiling Spray of Multi-Hole Injector

2017-03-28
2017-01-0841
Flash boiling spray is effective in improving the atomization and evaporation characteristics for gasoline direct injection engines. However, for a multi-hole injector the morphology structure of spray has an obvious change with the fuel temperature increasing or the ambient pressure decreasing, which influences the process of mixture formation and flame propagation. Specially, the spray collapses with both long penetration and a narrow spray angle above certain high superheat degree, which deteriorates air/fuel mixing and hence increases emissions. It is not desired for engine applications while the mechanism of spray structure transformation for multi-hole injector still remains unclear. In the present study, a systematic flash boiling spray model for multi-hole injector is built to investigate the flash boiling spray of multi-hole injector.
Technical Paper

Effect of Ashless Dispersant on the Morphology, Size, Nanostructure and Graphitization Degree of Diesel Exhaust Particles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0636
The aim of this research is to investigate the effects of ashless dispersant of lube oils on diesel exhaust particles. Emphasis is placed on particle size, morphology, nanostructure and graphitization degree. Three kinds of lube oils with different percentages of ashless dispersant were used in a two-cylinder diesel engine. Ashless dispersant (T154), which is widely used in petrochemical industry, were added into baseline oil at different blend percentages (4.0% and 8.0% by weight) to improve lubrication and cleaning performance. A high resolution Transmission Electron Microscope (HRTEM) and a Raman spectroscopy were employed to analyze and compare particle characteristics. According to the experiment results, primary particles diameter ranges from 3 nm to 65 nm, and the diameter distribution conformed to Gaussian distribution. When the ashless dispersant was used, the primary particles diameter decrease obviously at both 1600 rpm and 2200 rpm.
Journal Article

Three-Dimensional Simulation of Water Management for High-Performance Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

2018-04-03
2018-01-1309
Proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) is widely regarded as the most promising candidate for the next generation power source of automobile, after the pure battery electric vehicle. In this study, the gas and liquid two-phase flow in channels and porous electrodes inside PEMFC coupled with electrochemical reaction is simulated in detail, in which the anisotropic gas diffusion layer (GDL) is also considered. In the simulation, the inlet reactant gas molar concentration is calculated based on the real inlet pressure, which is more practical than specifying a constant value in previous simulation. Meanwhile, the effect of electro-osmotic drag on membrane water content distribution is treated to be a convection term in the conservation equation, instead of a source term as usually used.
Journal Article

Simultaneous Measurement of Natural Flame Luminosity and Emission Spectra in a RCCI Engine under Different Fuel Stratification Degrees

2017-03-28
2017-01-0714
Reactivity controlled compression ignition (RCCI) is a potential combustion strategy to achieve high engine efficiency with ultra-low NOx and soot emissions. Fuel stratification can be used to control the heat release rate of RCCI combustion. But the in-cylinder combustion process of the RCCI under different fuel stratification degrees has not been well understood, especially at a higher engine load. In this paper, simultaneous measurement of natural flame luminosity and emission spectra was carried out on a light-duty optical RCCI engine under different fuel stratification degrees. The engine was run at 1200 revolutions per minute under a load about 7 bar indicated mean effective pressure (IMEP). In order to form fuel stratification degrees from low to high, the common-rail injection timing of n-heptane was changed from -180° CA after top dead center (ATDC) to -10° CA ATDC, while the iso-octane delivered in the intake stroke was fixed.
Journal Article

Experimental Study on High-Load Extension of Gasoline/PODE Dual-Fuel RCCI Operation Using Late Intake Valve Closing

2017-03-28
2017-01-0754
The dual-fuel Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) combustion could achieve high efficiency and low emissions over a wide range of operating conditions. However, further high load extension is limited by the excessive pressure rise rate and soot emission. Polyoxymethylene dimethyl ethers (PODE), a novel diesel alternative fuel, has the capability to achieve stoichiometric smoke-free RCCI combustion due to its high oxygen content and unique molecule structure. In this study, experimental investigations on high load extension of gasoline/PODE RCCI operation were conducted using late intake valve closing (LIVC) strategy and intake boosting in a single-cylinder, heavy-duty diesel engine. The experimental results show that the upper load can be effectively extended through boosting and LIVC with gasoline/PODE stoichiometric operation.
Journal Article

Study on the Double Injection Strategy of Gasoline Partially Premixed Combustion under a Light-Duty Optical Engine

2016-10-17
2016-01-2299
Gasoline partially premixed combustion (PPC) is a potential combustion concept to achieve high engine efficiency as well as low NOx and soot emissions. But the in-cylinder process of PPC is not well understood. In the present study, the double injection strategy of PPC was investigated on a light-duty optical engine. The fuel/air mixing and combustion process of PPC was evaluated by fuel-tracer planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) and high-speed natural luminosity imaging technique, respectively. Combustion emission spectra of typical double injection case were analyzed. The primary reference fuel, PRF70 (70% iso-octane and 30% n-heptane by volume) was chosen as the lower reactivity fuel like gasoline. Double injection strategies of different first fuel injection timing and mass ratio of the two fuel injections were comparatively studied.
Technical Paper

LES Analysis on Cycle-to-Cycle Variation of Combustion Process in a DISI Engine

2019-01-15
2019-01-0006
Combustion cycle-to-cycle variation (CCV) of Spark-Ignition (SI) engines can be influenced by the cyclic variations in charge motion, trapped mass and mixture composition inside the cylinder. A high CCV leads to misfire or knock, limiting the engine’s operating regime. To understand the mechanism of the effect of flow field and mixture compositions on CCV, the present numerical work was performed in a single cylinder Direct Injection Spark-Ignition (DISI) engine. A large eddy simulation (LES) approach coupled with the G-equation combustion model was developed to capture the CCV by accurately resolving the turbulent flow field spatially and temporally. Further, the ignition process was modeled by sourcing energy during the breakdown and arc phases with a line-shape ignition model which could move with the local flow. Detailed chemistry was solved both inside and outside the flame front. A compact 48-species 152-reactions primary reference fuel (PRF) reduced mechanism was used.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on the Failures of Engine Piston Subjected to Severe Knock

2019-04-02
2019-01-0705
The previous study indicates that the detonation waves generated by acetylene/oxygen mixture can converge in the combustion chamber. In order to verify the destructive effect of detonation wave convergence on piston materials, the detonation bomb device was modified to fundamentally investigate the material failures of aluminum alloy for pistons. The results show that the specimens are destroyed in the middle and edge region after dozens of detonations, which is consistent with the typical characteristics of the piston failures in engines. Therefore, the hypothesis that failures of piston material is caused by the detonation wave convergence is verified.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation of Combustion and Emission Characteristics of Stoichiometric Stratified Flame Ignited (SFI) Hybrid Combustion in a 4-Stroke PFI/DI Gasoline Engine

2019-04-02
2019-01-0960
Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI), also known as Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), can improve the fuel economy of gasoline engines and simultaneously achieve ultra-low NOx emissions. However, the difficulty in combustion phasing control and violent combustion at high loads limit the commercial application of CAI combustion. To overcome these problems, stratified mixture, which is rich around the central spark plug and lean around the cylinder wall, is formed through port fuel injection and direct injection of gasoline. In this condition, rich mixture is consumed by flame propagation after spark ignition, while the unburned lean mixture auto-ignites due to the increased in-cylinder temperature during flame propagation, i.e., stratified flame ignited (SFI) hybrid combustion.
Technical Paper

Three-Dimensional Multi-Scale Simulation for Large-Scale Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

2019-04-02
2019-01-0381
PEMFC (proton exchange membrane or polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell) is a potential candidate as a future power source for automobile applications. Water and thermal management is important to PEMFC operation. Numerical models, which describe the transport and electrochemical phenomena occurring in PEMFCs, are important to the water and thermal management of fuel cells. 3D (three-dimensional) multi-scale CFD (computational fluid dynamics) models take into account the real geometry structure and thus are capable of predicting real operation/performance. In this study, a 3D multi-phase CFD model is employed to simulate a large-scale PEMFC (109.93 cm2) under various operating conditions. More specifically, the effects of operating pressure (1.0-4.0 atm) on fuel cell performance and internal water and thermal characteristics are studied in detail under two inlet humidities, 100% and 40%.
Technical Paper

A Quasi-2D Transient Multiphase Modeling of Cold Start Processes in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

2019-04-02
2019-01-0390
It’s well known that startup process of proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs) under subzero temperature is extremely significant because of its influence on fuel cell performance and durability. In the study, a quasi-2D numerical model is developed and dynamic equations of mass conservation, energy conservation, membrane water conservation, ice conservation, species conservation are all considered. Three different hydrogen supply modes are studied in detail: flow-through anode (FTA) mode, dead-ended anode (DEA) mode and off-gas recirculation (OR) mode. It is found that the local current density (LCD) and temperature distribution vary remarkably along flow channel in OR mode as t > 500s due to nitrogen crossover and accumulation. During the cold start operation, the DEA mode and OR mode hold more water in anode catalyst layer (ACL) which reduces the effects of hydraulic permeation, resulting in more ice formation in cathode catalyst layer (CCL) and slower temperature rising.
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