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Technical Paper

Particulate Formation and Flame Structure in Diesel Engines

1989-02-01
890436
The present paper describes the particulate formation in diesel flames considering the flame structure and its similarity to that of gaseous turbulent diffusion flames. A comparison of spatial variations of soot concentration, equivalence ratio and flame temperature between diesel flames and turbulent diffusion flames reveals the facts that soot particles are mostly farmed in a region where the equivalence ratio is near stoichiometric and the flame temperature is the highest in both flames, and that in diesel flames this region exists generally near the flame tip. A close inspection of high speed photographs of diesel flames suggests the three major routes of soot emission from diesel engines: quenching of flamelets detached from the flame tip due to 1) the flame impingement onto the wall; and 2) cooling of the flamelets by the bulk air; and 3) survival of soot containing flamelets inside the flame.
Journal Article

Laser-Induced Phosphorescence Thermography of Combustion Chamber Wall of Diesel Engine

2008-04-14
2008-01-1069
In order to investigate the mechanism of heat transfer on the chamber wall of direct-injection diesel engines, 2-D temperature imaging and heat flux measurement in the flame impinging region on the chamber wall were conducted using laser-induced phosphorescence technique. The temperature of the chamber wall surface was measured by the calibrated intensity variation of the 355nm-excited laser-induced phosphorescence from an electrophoretically deposited thin layer of La2O2S:Eu phosphor on a quartz glass plate placed in a rapid compression and expansion machine (RCEM). Instantaneous 2-D images of wall temperature at different timings after start of injection and time-resolved (10kHz) heat flux near the flame impinging region were obtained for combusting and non-combusting diesel sprays with impinging distance of 23.4mm at different injection pressures (80 and 120MPa).
Journal Article

Microscopic Visualization of PM Trapping and Regeneration in Micro-Structural Pores of a DPF Wall

2009-04-20
2009-01-1476
Trapping and regeneration processes in a SiC wall-flow diesel particulate filter (DPF) without a catalyst were investigated in detail through microscopic visualization. By microscopic observation of the cross section and surface, the transition from depth filtration to surface filtration could be observed clearly. The open pores on the wall surface were strongly related to the filtration depth of diesel particulate matter (PM). During the regeneration process, after the soot cake was burnt out, the particulates trapped inside the surface pores were oxidized. As a result, the particulate trapping and oxidation behaviors were strongly dependent on the microstructural surface pores.
Technical Paper

Real Time Identification and Classification of Road Surface with Neural Network

1993-05-01
931344
Two methods have been developed for real time identification and classification of the roughness pattern of road surfaces using the neural network. These methods are directly available both for semi-active and active vibration controls of cars. Accelerations of the rear wheel axis under the suspension are used as the input data for real time identification. The neural network which has acquired the informations of the seven typical roughness patterns is used for real time classification of actual road surfaces during driving. Validity and usefulness of these methods are verified by simulation.
Technical Paper

Ignition, Combustion and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine Equipped with a Micro-Hole Nozzle

1996-02-01
960321
In an attempt to achieve lean combustion in Diesel engines which has a potential for simultaneous reduction in no and soot, the authors developed a micro-hole nozzle which has orifices with a diameter as small as 0.06 mm. Combustion tests were carried out using a rapid compression-expansion machine which has a DI Diesel type combustion chamber equipped with the micro-hole nozzle. A comparison with the result of a conventional nozzle experiment revealed that the ignition delay was shortened by 30 %, and in spite of that, both peaks of initial premixed combustion and diffusion combustion increased significantly. The combustion in the case of the micro-hole nozzle experiment was accompanied with a decrease in soot emission, whereas an increase in NO emission.
Journal Article

Investigation of Soot Oxidation Carried out on Membrane Filters Composed of SiC Nanoparticles

2015-09-01
2015-01-2015
The diesel particulate membrane filter (DPMF) is a good solution to the problem of high pressure drop that exists across diesel particulate filters (DPFs) as a result of the soot trapping process. Moreover, DPMFs that have a membrane layer composed of SiC nanoparticles can reduce the oxidation temperature of soot and the apparent activation energy. The SiC nanoparticles have an oxide layer on their surface, with a thickness less than 10 nm. From the visualization of soot oxidation on the surface of SiC nanoparticles by an environmental transmission electron microscope (ETEM), soot oxidation is seen to occur at the interface between the soot and oxide layers. The soot oxidation temperature dependency of the contact area between soot and SiC nanoparticles was evaluated using a temperature programmed reactor (TPR). The contact area between soot and SiC nanoparticles was varied by changing the ratio of SiC nanoparticles and carbon black (CB), which was used as an alternative to soot.
Journal Article

Visualization of Oxidation of Soot Nanoparticles Trapped on a Diesel Particulate Membrane Filter

2011-04-12
2011-01-0602
Through microscopic visualization experiments, a process generally known as depth filtration was shown to be caused by surface pores. Moreover, the existence of a soot cake layer was an important advantage for filtration performance because it could trap most of the particulates. We proposed an ideal diesel particulate filter (DPF), in which a silicon carbide (SiC) nanoparticle membrane (made from a mixture of 80 nm and 500 nm powders) instead of a soot cake was sintered on the DPF wall surface; this improved the filtration performance at the beginning of the trapping process and reduced energy consumption during the regeneration process. The proposed filter was called a diesel particulate membrane filter (DPMF). A diesel fuel lamp was used in the trapping process to verify the trapping and oxidation mechanisms of ultrafine particulate matter. Thus, the filtration performance of the membrane filters was shown to be better than that of conventional DPFs.
Technical Paper

Real-time Analysis of Benzene in Exhaust Gas from Driving Automobiles Using Jet-REMPI Method

2009-11-02
2009-01-2740
Real-time analysis of benzene in automobile exhaust gas was performed using the Jet-REMPI (supersonic jet / resonance enhanced multi-photon ionization) method. Real-time benzene concentration of two diesel trucks and one gasoline vehicle driving in Japanese driving modes were observed under ppm level at 1 s intervals. As a result, it became obvious that there were many differences in their emission tendencies, because of their car types, driving conditions, and catalyst conditions. In two diesel vehicle, benzene emission tendencies were opposite. And, in a gasoline vehicle, emission pattern were different between hot and cold conditions due to the catalyst conditions.
Journal Article

Scanning Electron Microscopic Visualization of Bridge Formation inside the Porous Channels of Diesel Particulate Filters

2016-10-24
2016-01-9079
Time-lapse images of particulate matter (PM) deposition on diesel particulate filters (DPFs) at the PM-particle scale were obtained via field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). This particle scale time-series visualization showed the detailed processes of PM accumulation inside the DPF. First, PM introduced into a micro-pore of the DPF wall was deposited onto the surface of SiC grains composing the DPF, where it formed dendritic structures. The dendrite structures were locally grown at the contracted flow area between the SiC grains by accumulation of PM, ultimately constructing a bridge and closing the porous channel. To investigate the dominant parameters governing bridge formation, the filtration efficiency by Brownian diffusion and by interception obtained using theoretical filtration efficiency analysis of a spherical collector model were compared with the visualization results.
Technical Paper

Soot Oxidation Characteristics of SiC Nanoparticle Membrane Filters

2012-04-16
2012-01-0848
A diesel particulate membrane filter (DPMF) has good trapping efficiency of soot and reduces the pressure loss through the soot accumulation process on the diesel particulate filter wall. The activation energy reduction effect of the soot oxidation reaction by DPMF was clarified. The membrane consists of SiC nanoparticles with a diameter of 10-100 nm. A thin oxide layer is formed on the SiC particle surface, and nanoscale noble metal particles are distributed on the surface. The reduction mechanism for the activation energy was investigated in detail. Nanoscale soot was accumulated on DPMF from a diesel lamp. Furthermore, the soot oxidation in the regeneration process was observed using an optical microscope. An Arrhenius plot was made from the change of the concentration of the product gases CO and CO₂ with respect to time. The performance and the temperature dependence of oxygen desorption on the oxide layer was measured by thermal desorption spectroscopy (TDS).
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Soot Oxidation at the Interface between Soot and Silicon-Oxy-Carbide with Embedded Single Nanosized Pt Particles

2013-04-08
2013-01-0516
A diesel particulate membrane filter (DPMF) offers good trapping efficiency of soot and reduces the pressure loss through the soot-trapping process. We found that one specific design of DPMF has the effect of reducing the apparent activation energy of the soot oxidation. The membrane is made of SiC nanoparticles with a diameter of 10-100 nm, which are covered with a thin silicon-oxy-carbide layer with a thickness of about 5 nm. The apparent activation energy of soot oxidation on the DPMF was reduced by 30-40 kJ/mol than conventional SiC-DPF. Furthermore, the light-off temperature of soot oxidation on the DPMF (with single nanosized Pt) is about 100°C lower than that of the DPMF (without Pt). The single nanosized Pt particles are embedded in the silicon-oxy-carbide layer. The formation of additional Pt is different from that which takes place in a conventional catalyzed soot filter (CSF). In a conventional CSF, the surface of the Pt particles is exposed to the atmosphere.
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