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Technical Paper

Commercial Van Diesel Idle Sound Quality

1997-05-20
971980
The customer's perception of diesel sounds is receiving more attention since diesel engines are being used more frequently in recent years. This paper summarizes the results of a study investigating the sound quality of diesel idle sounds in eight vans and light trucks. Subjective evaluations were conducted both in the US and the UK so that a comparison could be made. Paired comparison of annoyance and semantic differential subjective evaluation techniques were used. Correlation analysis was applied to the subjective evaluation results to determine annoying characteristics. Subjective results indicated that most annoyance rankings were similar for both the US and UK participants, with some specific differences. Correlation of objective measures to annoyance indicated a high correlation to ISO 532B loudness, dBA and kurtosis in the 1.4 kHz to 4 kHz range (aimed at quantifying the impulsiveness perception).
Technical Paper

Requirement for Consistency in the Parallel Implementation of Explicit FEA Crash Simulation Programs

1997-04-08
971520
Failure to provide consistent results in the parallel implementation of a crash simulation can render the simulation code unusable as a design heuristic. This paper describes a parallel implementation of a crash simulation package, FCRASH, which was designed from inception for parallel implementation. An example will be given which illustrates the variation a CAE crash analyst may encounter if the problem of parallel consistency is ignored. Techniques used in FCRASH to deliver consistent results in a parallel environment on a CRAY T90 parallel supercomputer will be discussed. This work has resulted in a robust crash simulation code that delivers consistent results in parallel environments on a variety of shared memory processors. Finally, problems remaining for delivering the same level of robustness in a distributed memory message passing version of an explicit crash simulation program will be examined.
Technical Paper

Use of FCRASH in a Door Openability Simulation

1997-04-08
971526
During frontal and rear end type collisions, very large forces will be imparted to the passenger compartment by the collapse of either front or rear structures. NCAP tests conducted by NHTSA involve, among other things, a door openability test after barrier impact. This means that the plastic/irreversible deformations of door openings should be kept to a minimum. Thus, the structural members constituting the door opening must operate during frontal and rear impact near the elastic limit of the material. Increasing the size of a structural member, provided the packaging considerations permit it, may prove to be counter productive, since it may lead to premature local buckling and possible collapse of the member. With the current trend towards lighter vehicles, recourse to heavier gages is also counterproductive and therefore a determination of an optimum compartment structure may require a number of design iterations. In this article, FEA is used to simulate front side door behavior.
Technical Paper

An Upfront Analysis Driven Design Process for Product Development

1997-04-08
971539
In the current design process, the designer generates the detailed geometry of the component based on experience. Prototypes of this design are built and tested to verify the performance. This design - build - test iterative process is continued until performance targets/criteria are met. Computer Aided Engineering is often used to verify the design. This paper presents a new product development process to substantially reduce the number of design - analysis - build - test iterations. This Upfront Analysis Driven Design process incorporates several state of the art technologies in finite element structural analysis, optimization, and Computer Aided Design. This process ensures a near optimum design in the first design level itself.
Technical Paper

Effects of Injection Timing on Air-Fuel Mixing in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engine

1997-02-24
970625
Multidimensional modeling is used to study air-fuel mixing in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine. Emphasis is placed on the effects of the start of fuel injection on gas/spray interactions, wall wetting, fuel vaporization rate and air-fuel ratio distributions in this paper. It was found that the in-cylinder gas/spray interactions vary with fuel injection timing which directly impacts spray characteristics such as tip penetration and spray/wall impingement and air-fuel mixing. It was also found that, compared with a non-spray case, the mixture temperature at the end of the compression stroke decreases substantially in spray cases due to in-cylinder fuel vaporization. The computed trapped-mass and total heat-gain from the cylinder walls during the induction and compression processes were also shown to be increased in spray cases.
Technical Paper

Transient A/F Estimation and Control Using a Neural Network

1997-02-24
970619
A new estimator for IC engine A/F ratio is described. A/F ratio is important for engine operation since it determines the quantities of engine emissions, such as HC, CO, NOx, the conversion efficiency of catalyst systems, and the engine combustion stability. The A/F ratio estimator described in this paper is based on a fundamental metric that relies on inducing and detecting crankshaft speed fluctuations caused by modulating the engine's fuel injection pulse widths. Fuel pulse width modulation varies the instantaneous combustion A/F ratio crankshaft velocity. Synchronous measurement of crankshaft velocity provides a metric that, when used with other engine state variables as inputs to a conventional neural network, can accurately estimate A/F ratio. The estimator provides A/F information when a physical sensor is not available.
Technical Paper

Joint Alternatives for Dual Inlet Mufflers

1996-10-01
962167
A joint system for a dual inlet muffler has been designed which allows the muffler system to be better aligned during assembly. The system uses a slip-fit joint coupled with a ball-and-flair joint. This combination decreases variations in manufacturing and assembly thus, improving tailpipe variability in the vehicle build. The slip-fit/ball-flair joint was compared to conventional inlet systems of flat flanges and flex-couplings. A Variable Simulation Analysis (VSA) audit, finite element analysis of the joint strengths, and variable cost study all showed advantages for the slip-fit/ball-flair system.
Technical Paper

Effectiveness of Countermeasures in Upper Interior Head Impact

1997-02-24
970391
Trim covers made of impact resistant polymers on vehicle interior sheet metal can contribute to reduction of HIC(d) (Head Injury Criterion, dummy) during headform impact. Air-gap between trim and interior sheet metal can also induce deceleration of striking headform before it forces trim to contact sheet metal surface. As evidenced from laboratory component testing, situations may arise where additional protective measures may need to be incorporated between trim and sheet metal in order to attain acceptable levels of HIC(d). Two such alternatives in the form of energy-absorbing foam, and trim with molded collapsible stiffeners are discussed in this paper. The effectiveness of these countermeasures is evaluated through nonlinear finite element analysis, and favorable comparison with laboratory results is reported.
Technical Paper

New 4.0L SOHC V6 Engine for the Ford Explorer

1996-10-01
962234
The 1997 Ford Explorer introduces a new two valve single overhead cam (SOHC) version of the 4.0L V6 engine. Maximum power output is increased to 153 KW net (205 HP) at 5000 rpm and 340 N-M of torque (250 lb-ft) at 3000 rpm, which represents a 28% increase in power and an 11% increase in torque over the existing 4.0L overhead valve (OHV) design. The new design's performance features are single overhead camshafts driven by a patented “Offset Y-drive” dual stage chain system, a plastic variable induction system, and aluminum cylinder heads. For quieter and smoother operation, a main bearing ladder frame and a unique second-order balance shaft (4x4 only) are added.
Technical Paper

Durability Analysis of Pickup Trucks Using Non-Linear FEA

1996-10-01
962223
One of the difficulties in predicting the structural behavior of vehicles such as the full size pickup trucks is the non-linearities involved during the course of the durability events. The current practice in durability and fatigue life prediction of vehicles is to conduct fatigue analysis on the structure using the measured road loads and estimate the fatigue incurred using the in-house and commercially available programs. In this paper the authors attempt to seek a different solution to the durability problem by conducting an upfront non-linear analysis. The results are then compared with the prediction by the fatigue life program in addition to the durability test results obtained on the early prototypes. To conduct the non-linear analysis ABAQUS FEA program is chosen for this investigation and for the linear analysis MSC/NASTRAN is utilized. Subsequently in-house fatigue program is used to predict the fatigue incurred.
Technical Paper

Friction and Wear Characteristics of Micro-Arc Oxidation Coating for Light Weight, Wear Resistant, Powertrain Component Application

1997-02-24
970022
An extremely tough alumina based ceramic coating produced by a modified anodizing process developed at Moscow Aviation Institute has been evaluated for light weight, wear resistant component applications in automotive powertrain. The process details and test results from comparative evaluation of friction and wear properties for cylinder bore application, referenced to cast iron baseline, are presented and discussed.
Technical Paper

Door Open Overload: Margin and Flushness Approach

1999-09-28
1999-01-3152
Since doors are repeatedly used by vehicle owner, they have a great influence on his or her perception of vehicle quality. The door open overload is an abusive load requirement for customer usage. The doors must withstand loads which force the door open against its stop, leading to concern over the effects of permanent set to the functioning of the door system and the margins/ flushness. Traditionally, the CAE is utilized to objectively evaluate the deflections and permanent set at the door latch to evaluate door open overload requirement. In this study, the FEA methodology has been applied to expand the scope beyond traditional method to simulate door open overload condition. The change in the margin and flushness due to the permanent set are evaluated using nonlinear analysis (ABAQUS). The results show that the method helps designers to ensure the door meets the margin/flushness criteria for door open overload condition during early stage of the door design process.
Technical Paper

Light Truck Aerodynamic Simulations Using a Lattice Gas Based Simulation Technique

1999-11-15
1999-01-3756
Several studies have been conducted in an effort to bring Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) out of the research arena (5) and into the product design environment as a useful aerodynamic design tool. The focus of these studies has ranged from extremely simple shapes to more complex geometries representative of real vehicles. This paper presents the results of real vehicle applications in which CFD was used to predict the aerodynamic effect of proposed surface modifications. The simulation data was generated using a numerical method derived from lattice gas theory to evaluate the aerodynamic effect of surface modifications. The commercial software Powerflow was used to prepare the model, perform the simulation and post-process the results. These case studies were performed in parallel with real vehicle development programs. The depth of experimental comparison data was limited by traditional vehicle program timing and budget constraints.
Technical Paper

Electromagnetically Controlled Distributor-Type Fuel Injection System

1989-02-01
890477
With the advent of electronic controls and development of electromagnetically controlled fuel injection pumps, the cost of fuel systems using plunger-type pumps was substantially reduced. Further reduction in cost can be achieved if fewer solenoid valves are used. A new type of injection pump combining electromagnetic spill control principle with distributor-type operation is described. Only one solenoid valve is required for a multi-cylinder engine. The pump was designed for port injection of gasoline, but with some modifications could be adapted to direct fuel injection. The fuel injection system includes a controller capable of electronic trimming of port-to-port fuel distribution for tight control of air to fuel ratios in all engine cylinders. A review of the basic concept and operating principles is given, and test results as well as cost considerations are discussed.
Journal Article

Development of the Combustion System for a Flexible Fuel Turbocharged Direct Injection Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0585
Gasoline turbocharged direct injection (GTDI) engines, such as EcoBoost™ from Ford, are becoming established as a high value technology solution to improve passenger car and light truck fuel economy. Due to their high specific performance and excellent low-speed torque, improved fuel economy can be realized due to downsizing and downspeeding without sacrificing performance and driveability while meeting the most stringent future emissions standards with an inexpensive three-way catalyst. A logical and synergistic extension of the EcoBoost™ strategy is the use of E85 (approximately 85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) for knock mitigation. Direct injection of E85 is very effective in suppressing knock due to ethanol's high heat of vaporization - which increases the charge cooling benefit of direct injection - and inherently high octane rating. As a result, higher boost levels can be achieved while maintaining optimal combustion phasing giving high thermal efficiency.
Journal Article

Extending Tensile Curves beyond Uniform Elongation Using Digital Image Correlation: Capability Analysis

2010-04-12
2010-01-0981
A uniaxial stress-strain curve obtained from a conventional tensile test is only valid up to the point of uniform elongation, beyond which a diffuse neck begins to develop, followed by localized necking and eventual fracture. However Finite Element Analysis for sheet metal forming requires an effective stress-strain curve that extends well beyond the diffuse necking point. Such an extension is usually accomplished by analytical curve fitting and extrapolation. Recent advancement in Digital Image Correlation (DIC) techniques allows direct measurement of full-range stress-strain curves by continuously analyzing the deformation within the diffuse neck zone until the material ruptures. However the stress-strain curve obtained this way is still approximate in nature. Its accuracy depends on the specimen size, the gage size for analysis, and the material response itself.
Journal Article

Modeling of an Advanced Steering Wheel and Column Assembly for Frontal and Side Impact Simulations

2014-04-01
2014-01-0803
This paper presents the final phase of a study to develop the modeling methodology for an advanced steering assembly with a safety-enhanced steering wheel and an adaptive energy absorbing steering column. For passenger cars built before the 1960s, the steering column was designed to control vehicle direction with a simple rigid rod. In severe frontal crashes, this type of design would often be displaced rearward toward the driver due to front-end crush of the vehicle. Consequently, collapsible, detachable, and other energy absorbing steering columns emerged to address this type of kinematics. These safety-enhanced steering columns allow frontal impact energy to be absorbed by collapsing or breaking the steering columns, thus reducing the potential for rearward column movement in severe crashes. Recently, more advanced steering column designs have been developed that can adapt to different crash conditions including crash severity, occupant mass/size, seat position, and seatbelt usage.
Journal Article

NVH Development of the Ford 2.7L 4V-V6 Turbocharged Engine

2015-06-15
2015-01-2288
A new turbocharged 60° 2.7L 4V-V6 gasoline engine has been developed by Ford Motor Company for both pickup trucks and car applications. This engine was code named “Nano” due to its compact size; it features a 4-valves DOHC valvetrain, a CGI cylinder block, an Aluminum ladder, an integrated exhaust manifold and twin turbochargers. The goal of this engine is to deliver 120HP/L, ULEV70 emission, fuel efficiency improvements and leadership level NVH. This paper describes the upfront design and optimization process used for the NVH development of this engine. It showcases the use of analytical tools used to define the critical design features and discusses the NVH performance relative to competitive benchmarks.
Journal Article

Instrumentation, Acquisition and Data Processing Requirements for Accurate Combustion Noise Measurements

2015-06-15
2015-01-2284
The higher cylinder peak pressure and pressure rise rate of modern diesel and gasoline fueled engines tend to increase combustion noise while customers demand lower noise. The multiple degrees of freedom in engine control and calibration mean there is more scope to influence combustion noise but this must first be measured before it can be balanced with other attributes. An efficient means to realize this is to calculate combustion noise from the in-cylinder pressure measurements that are routinely acquired as part of the engine development process. This publication reviews the techniques required to ensure accurate and precise combustion noise measurements. First, the dynamic range must be maximized by using an analogue to digital converter with sufficient number of bits and selecting an appropriate range in the test equipment.
Journal Article

Blowdown Interference on a V8 Twin-Turbocharged Engine

2011-04-12
2011-01-0337
The exhaust blowdown pulse from each cylinder of a multi-cylinder engine propagates through the exhaust manifold and can affect the in-cylinder pressure of other cylinders which have open exhaust valves. Depending on the firing interval between cylinders connected to the same exhaust manifold, this blowdown interference can affect the exhaust stroke pumping work and the exhaust pressure during overlap, which in turn affects the residual fraction in those cylinders. These blowdown interference effects are much greater for a turbocharged engine than for one which is naturally aspirated because the volume of the exhaust manifolds is minimized to improve turbocharger transient response and because the turbines restrict the flow out of the manifolds. The uneven firing order (intervals of 90°-180°-270°-180°) on each bank of a 90° V8 engine causes the blowdown interference effects to vary dramatically between cylinders.
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