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Technical Paper

Recent Progress on In-Situ Monitoring and Mechanism Study of Battery Thermal Runaway Process

2020-04-14
2020-01-0861
Lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) with relatively high energy, power density and eco-friendly characteristic are considered as a vital energy source in consumer market of portable electronics and transportation sector especially in electric vehicles (EVs). To meet the higher capacity requirements, the nickel-rich LIBs with higher capacity has been used as the commercial power batteries. However, the battery with higher energy density is more destructive, which could result in thermal runaway accidents and make the battery safety issues become more and more prominent. Thermal runaway of LIBs is one of the key scientific problems in safety issues. Until now, the inducement of thermal runaway process is complicated which perplex researchers and industry a lot. On the one hand, the internal mechanism about thermal runaway should be deeply studied. On the other hand, in-situ monitoring should be developed to supply the mechanism study and early warning.
Technical Paper

Parameter Identification for a Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell Model

2020-04-14
2020-01-0858
The proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC) system has emerged as the state-of-art power source for the electric vehicle, but the widespread commercial application of fuel cell vehicle is restricted by its short service life. An enabling high accuracy model holds the key for better understanding, simulation, analysis, subsystem control of the fuel cell system to extract full power and prolong the lifespan. In this paper, a quasi-dynamic lumped parameters model for a 3kW stack is introduced, which includes filling-and-emptying volume sub-models for the relationships between periphery signals and internal states, static water transferring sub-model for the membrane, and empirical electrochemical sub-model for the voltage response. Several dynamic experiments are carried out to identify unknown parameters of the model.
Technical Paper

Research on Fast Filling Strategy of Large Capacity On-Board Hydrogen Storage Tank for Highway Passenger Cars

2020-04-14
2020-01-0855
In order to study the fast filling problem of large-capacity on-board hydrogen storage tank for highway passenger cars, a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation model of 134L large-capacity hydrogen storage tank was established. By simulating different pre-cooling temperatures and mass flow rates, the temperature distribution and thermal transmission in the tank were observed. Due to the large ratio of length to diameter of the hydrogen tank, the temperature distribution is extremely uneven during the whole filling process, and the high temperature area is mainly concentrated in the tank tail. And the heat transfer between the gas and the tank wall is not obvious under the low and constant mass flow rate. The temperature rise process during the whole filling process under different mass flow conditions was simulated to satisfy the highest safe temperature limit.
Technical Paper

Investigation of the Operating Conditions on the Water and Thermal Management for a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane Fuel Cell by One-Dimensional Model

2020-04-14
2020-01-0856
Water and thermal management is an essential issue that influences performance and durability of a polymer electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC). Water content in membrane decides its ionic conductivity and membrane swelling favors the ionic conductivity, resulting in decreases in the membrane’s ohmic resistance and improvement in the output voltage. However, if excessive liquid water can’t be removed out of cell quickly, it will fill in the pores of catalyst layer (CL) and gas diffusion layer (GDL) then flooding may occur. It is essential to keep the water content in membrane at a proper level. In this work, a transient isothermal one-dimensional model is developed to investigate effects of the relative humidity of inlet gas and cell temperature on performance of a PEMFC.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Parametric Analysis of Battery Thermal Management System Using Phase Change Material

2020-04-14
2020-01-0866
The thermophysical parameters and amount of composite phase change materials (PCMs) have decisive influence on the thermal control effects of thermal management systems (TMSs). At the same time, the various thermophysical parameters of the composite PCM are interrelated. For example, increasing the thermal conductivity is bound to mean a decrease in the latent heat of phase change, so a balance needs to be achieved between these parameters. In this paper, a prismatic LiFePO4 battery cell cooled by composite PCM is comprehensively analyzed by changing the phase change temperature, thermal conductivity and amount of composite PCM. The influence of the composite PCM parameters on the cooling and temperature homogenization effect of the TMS is analyzed. which can give useful guide to the preparation of composite PCMs and design of the heat transfer enhancement methods for TMSs.
Technical Paper

Optimization of the Finite Hybrid Piezoelectric Phononic Crystal Beam for the Low-Frequency Vibration Attenuation

2020-04-14
2020-01-0913
This paper presents a theoretical study of a finite hybrid piezoelectric phononic crystal (PC) beam with shunting circuits. The vibration transmissibility method (TM) is developed for the finite system. The uniform and non-uniform configurations of the resonators, piezoelectric patches and shunting circuits are respectively considered. The properties of the vibration attenuation of the hybrid PC beam undergoing bending vibration are investigated and quantified. It is shown that the proper relaxation of the periodicity of the PC is conducive to forming a broad vibration attenuation region. The hybrid piezoelectric PC combines the purely mechanical PC with the piezoelectric PC and provides more tunable mechanisms for the target band-gap. Taking the structural and circuit parameters into account, the design of experiments (DOE) method and the multi-objective genetic optimization method are employed to improve the vibration attenuation and meet the lightweight demand of the attachments.
Journal Article

Acoustic Characteristics Prediction and Optimization of Wheel Resonators with Arbitrary Section

2020-04-14
2020-01-0917
Tire cavity noise of pure electric vehicles is particularly prominent due to the absence of engine noise, which are usually eliminated by adding Helmholtz resonators with arbitrary transversal section to the wheel rims. This paper provides theoretical basis for accurately predicting and effectively improving acoustic performance of wheel resonators. A hybrid finite element method is developed to extract the transversal wavenumbers and eigenvectors, and the mode-matching scheme is employed to determine the transmission loss of the Helmholtz resonator. Based on the accuracy validation of this method, the matching design of the wheel resonators and the optimization method of tire cavity noise are studied. The identification method of the tire cavity resonance frequency is developed through the acoustic modal test. A scientific transmission loss target curve and fitness function are defined according to the noise characteristics.
Technical Paper

Drivable Area Detection and Vehicle Localization Based on Multi-Sensor Information

2020-04-14
2020-01-1027
Multi-sensor information fusion framework is the eyes for unmanned driving and Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) to perceive the surrounding environment. In addition to the perception of the surrounding environment, real-time vehicle localization is also the key and difficult point of unmanned driving technology. The disappearance of high-precision GPS signal suddenly and defect of the lane line will bring much more difficult and dangerous for vehicle localization when the vehicle is on unmanned driving. In this paper, a road boundary feature extraction algorithm is proposed based on multi-sensor information fusion of automotive radar and vision to realize the auxiliary localization of vehicles. Firstly, we designed a 79GHz (78-81GHz) Ultra-Wide Band (UWB) millimeter-wave radar, which can obtain the point cloud information of road boundary features such as guardrail or green belt and so on.
Technical Paper

A Novel Asynchronous UWB Positioning System for Autonomous Trucks in an Automated Container Terminal

2020-04-14
2020-01-1026
As a critical technology for autonomous vehicles, high precise positioning is essential for automated container terminals to implement intelligent dispatching and to improve container transport efficiency. Because of the unstable performance of global positioning system (GPS) in some circumstances, an ultra wide band (UWB) positioning system is developed for autonomous trucks in an automated container terminal. In this paper, an asynchronous structure is adopted in the system, and a three-dimensional (3D) localization method is proposed. Other than a traditional UWB positioning system with a server, in this asynchronous system, positions are calculated in the vehicle. Therefore, propagation delays from the server to vehicles are eliminated, and the real-time performance can be significantly improved. Traditional 3D localization methods based on time difference of arrival (TDOA) are mostly invalid with anchors in the same plane.
Technical Paper

A Road Load Data Processing Method for Transmission Durability Optimization Development

2020-04-14
2020-01-1062
With increasing pressure from environment problem for reduction in CO2 emissions and stricter fuel targets from road vehicles, new transmission technologies are gaining more attention in different main market. To get suitable road load data for transmission durability development is becoming increasingly important and can shorten the development time of new transmission. This paper presents the procedure and methods of road load data development for durability design of transmission product and optimization based on the real road data measurement, statistical characteristics evaluation and fatigue damage equivalency. Apply this road load data method procedure on 3 type of vehicle which represent conventional vehicle, BEV and HEV.
Technical Paper

3-Dimensional Numerical Simulation on CuO Nanofluids as Heat Transfer Medium for Diesel Engine Cooling System

2020-04-14
2020-01-1109
CuO-water nanofluids was utilized as heat transfer medium in the cooling system of the diesel engine. By using CFD-Fluent software, for 0.5%, 1%, 3% and 5% mass concentration of nanofluids, 3-dimensional numerical simulation about flow and heat transfer process in the cooling system of engine was actualized. According to stochastic particle tracking in turbulent flow, for solid-liquid two phase flow discrete phase, the moving track of nanoparticles was traced. By this way, for CuO nanoparticles of different mass concentration nanofliuds in the cooling jacket of diesel engine, the results of the concentration distribution, velocity distribution, internal energy variation, resident time, total heat transfer and variation of total pressure reduction between inlet and outlet were ascertained.
Technical Paper

Online Estimation of Membrane Water Content in Vehicular PEMFC by Complex Morlet Wavelet Transformations

2020-09-15
2020-01-2255
The amount of water content in membrane electrode assembly (MEA) is an important factor affecting the efficiency and life of proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC), and there are several methods to measure it. However, it’s widely believed that the most feasible method to measure the water content in the MEA is an indirect way as described below: measure the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and take advantage of the positive correlation between the proton’s conductivity, which is reciprocal of specific resistance, and the water content in MEA. The traditional EIS measurement method has the shortcoming of high cost and slow speed, especially in low frequency bands, so this method is unsuitable for high-power vehicle fuel cell systems. In this paper, a measuring method which does not require a large number of experiments and only need to perform Morlet wavelet transform on the PEMFC voltage signal as well as current signal is proposed.
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