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Technical Paper

Effect of Piston Crevice on Transient HC Emissions of First Firing Cycle at Cold Start on LPG SI Engine

2007-10-29
2007-01-4015
By changing the top-land radial clearance, this paper presents the effect of the piston crevice on the transient HC emissions of the first firing cycle at cold start on an LPG SI Engine. A fast-response flame ionization detector (FFID) was employed to measure transient HC emissions of the first firing cycle. At the same time, the transient cylinder pressure and instantaneous crankshaft speed of the engine were measured and recorded. The results show that increasing 50% crevice volume leads to 25% increase of HC emissions in the lean region and 18% increase of HC emissions in the rich region, however, the 50% increase of crevice volume contributes to 32% decease of HC emissions in the stable combustion region. For LPG SI engine, the HC emissions of the first firing cycle during cold start are relatively low in a wide range of the excess air ratio.
Technical Paper

Numerical Investigation on Brake Noise Mechanism Incorporating Nonlinear Effects and Complex Eigenvalue Extraction

2008-10-12
2008-01-2535
Numerical simulation of instabilities of brake systems based on complex mode analysis is presented in this paper. The theoretical analysis shows that the friction-induced unsymmetrical system stiffness matrix results in instability, and nonlinear static analysis plays a key role in the overall analysis. The frictional study shows how unstable mode occurs, in addition to that the nonlinear effects are taken into considerations and the one variable regression function is employed to set up the relative predict functions.
Technical Paper

Speed Tracking Control for All-Terrain Vehicle Considering Road Slope and Saturation Constraint of Actuator

2017-09-23
2017-01-1953
In this paper, a speed tracking controller is designed for the All-terrain vehicles. The method of feedforward with state variable feedback based on conditional integrators is adopted by the proposed control algorithm. The feedforward is designed considering the influence of the road slope on the longitudinal dynamics, which makes the All-terrain vehicles satisfy the acceleration demand of the upper controller when it tracks the desired speed on the road with slope varying greatly. The road slope is estimated based on a combined kinematic and dynamic model. This method solves the problem that road slope estimation requires an accurate vehicle dynamic model and are susceptible to acceleration sensor bias. Based on the vehicle dynamic model and the nonlinear tire model, the method of conditional integration is used in the state variable feedback, which considers the saturation constraint of the actuator with the intention of preventing the divergent integral operation.
Technical Paper

Numerical Simulation and Optimization of the Underhood Fluid Field and Cooling Performance for Heavy Duty Commercial Vehicle under Different Driving Conditions

2015-09-29
2015-01-2902
As the commercial vehicle increases staggeringly in China, environmental pollution and excessively fuel consumption can't be neglected anymore. Vehicle thermal management has been adopted by many vehicle manufactures as an ideal alternative to reduce fuel consumption and exhaust emission by its cost-efficient and effective merit. In addition, the components in heavy duty commercial vehicle engine hood may suffer overheat harm. Hence investigating the thermal characteristics in engine hood can be an effective way to identify and dismiss the potential overheat harm. In terms of this, the paper has adopted CFD simulation method to obtain the comprehensive thermal flow field characteristics of engine hood in a heavy commercial vehicle. Then by analyzing the thermal flow field in engine hood, concerning optimization strategies were put forward to improve the thermal environment.
Technical Paper

Matching Optimum for Low HC and CO Emissions at Warm-up Phase in an LPG EFI Small SI Engine

2005-10-24
2005-01-3897
Based on a 125cm3 single cylinder SI engine, the designated idle speed was controlled by adjusting of cycle ignition advance angle. By analyzing the effects of different idle speed and throttle open position on three way catalyst (TWC) light-off time and conversion efficiency of HC and CO emissions, combined with the corresponding total HC and CO emissions level, the optimum idle speed and throttle open position at engine's warm-up phase were found by the matching optimum. The present method for engine control strategy is helpful to optimize the warm-up phase emission levels in SI engine with LPG fuel.
Journal Article

A Study on the Bench Test of Friction-Induced Hot Spots in Disc Brake

2015-09-27
2015-01-2694
During light to moderate braking at high speed, the local high temperature phenomenon can be observed on the brake disc surfaces, known as hot spots. The occurrence of hot spots will lead to negative effects such as brake performance fade, thermal judder and local wear, which seriously affect the performance of vehicle NVH. In this paper, based on the bench test of a ventilated disc brake, the basic characteristics of hot spots is obtained and the evolution process of temperature field and disc deformation is analyzed in detail. In temperature field, hot bands appear first and grow, migrate from inner and outer radius to the middle, with the growing temperature fluctuation and finally hot spots appear in the middle radius of the brake disc. The stable SRO waviness forms much earlier than the temperature fluctuation. In the stop brake studied in this paper, the SRO waviness stabilizes in main 7 order state which is lower than the final hot spot order.
Journal Article

The Influences of the Subframe Flexibility on Handling and Stability Simulation When Using ADAMS/Car

2016-04-05
2016-01-1637
To analyze the K&C (kinematics and compliance), handling and stability performance of the vehicle chassis, some simulations are usually performed using a multi-body dynamics software named ADAMS. This software introduces assumptions that simplify the components of the suspension as rigid bodies. However, these assumptions weaken the accuracy of the simulation of ADAMS. Therefore the use of flexible bodies in K&C and handling and stability simulation in ADAMS is needed to conduct more precise suspension system designs. This paper mainly analyses the influences of the subframe flexibility on handling and stability simulation in ADAMS/Car. Two complete vehicle models are built using ADAMS/Car and Hypermesh. The only difference between the two models is the subframe of the front McPherson suspension. One of the subframes is simplified as a rigid body. The other one is a flexible body built using the MNF file from Hypermesh.
Technical Paper

Experimental Investigation on Particle Number and Size Distribution of a Common Rail Diesel Engine Fueling with Alternative Blended Diesel Fuels

2011-04-12
2011-01-0620
An EURO 3 certified common rail diesel engine was fueled with pure petroleum diesel (EURO 4 standard) and three different alternative blended diesel fuels, 10% biodiesel blended diesel (B10), 10% gas to liquid blended diesel (G10) and 10% water emulsified diesel (E10). Tests were performed at different engine speeds and load states. Particle number concentration and size distribution data were obtained from an engine exhaust particle sizer (EEPS). Over all the working conditions, total particle and nucleation mode particle number concentration among these fuels from high to low were in this order: B10, E10, pure diesel and G10. Proportions for nucleation mode particle over all the operating states in that order were 89%, 82%, 59% and 66%. Particle size distributions of B10 and E10 presented bimodal logarithmic distributions with outstanding nucleation mode peaks at all working conditions.
Technical Paper

Material Compatibilities of Biodiesels with Elastomers, Metals and Plastics in a Diesel Engine

2009-11-02
2009-01-2799
The effects of biodiesel on the swelling of the elastomers and plastics and the corrosion of metals are studied by the immersion tests. The results indicate that biodiesels make little corrosion effect on aluminum, steel and little swelling impact on plastics, but a significant corrosion may be taken place on cooper and brass for some sourced biodiesels. For nitrile-butadiene rubber, the variation of swelling properties in biodiesels is slightly higher than that in diesel. For the non-diesel-resistant elatomers, the variation of swelling properties is lower than those in diesel. The production process and biodiesel source have an influence on the result of elastomer swelling and corrosion. The relationship between the impact of biodiesel on materials and biodiesels properties are also discussed.
Technical Paper

Particle Number and Size Distribution from a Diesel Engine with Jatropha Biodiesel Fuel

2009-11-02
2009-01-2726
A biodiesel fuel, obtained from Jatropha seed in China, was tested in a direct injection, high pressure common-rail diesel engine for passenger cars. Effects of biodiesel on particle number and size distribution of the diesel engine are studied using an Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS). Base petroleum diesel fuel, 10% and 20% v/v biodiesel blends with the base petroleum diesel fuel, the biodiesel fuel (B0, B10, B20 and B100 fuels) were tested without engine modification. For all test fuels, the particle number and size distribution show unimodal or bimodal log-normal distribution, with a nucleation mode peak value in 6.04nm to 10.8nm particle diameter, and with an accumulation mode peak value in 39.2nm to 60.4nm particle diameter.
Technical Paper

Laboratory Investigation on Emission Characteristics of a Diesel Car Fuelled with Biodiesel Blends

2012-04-16
2012-01-1063
Based on pure diesel, pure biodiesel, and two biodiesel blends at volumetric mixture ratio of 10% and 20%, NEDC emission tests were carried out on a Euro 3-compliant diesel car. Results showed that pure biodiesel and biodiesel blends had decreasing effects on CO and HC emissions under warm-up situations, but deteriorations of CO and HC emissions were observed under cold start-up and low vehicle speed operating conditions, and this caused increasing results of CO and HC emission factors in NEDC tests when substituting pure diesel with both of pure biodiesel and biodiesel blend of 20%. Pure biodiesel aroused an increase in NOX emissions compared with pure diesel, but the two low mixture ratio biodiesel blends were observed in different increasing effects and even decreasing effects on NOX emissions. Only pure biodiesel had limited increasing effects on CO₂ emissions.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Control of Integrated Electronic Hydraulic Brake System based on Command Feed-Forward

2016-04-05
2016-01-1658
With the development of vehicle electrification, electronic hydraulic brake system is gradually applied. Many companies have introduced products related to integrated electronic hydraulic brake system (I-EHB). In this paper, an I-EHB system is introduced, which uses the motor to drive the reduction mechanism as a power source for braking. The reduction mechanism is composed of a turbine, a worm, a gear and a rack. A control method based on command feed-forward is proposed to improve the hydraulic pressure control of I-EHB. Based on previous research, we simplify the system to first order system, and the theoretical design of the command feed-forward compensator is carried out. The feed-forward controller is applied, including the velocity feed-forward and the acceleration feed-forward, to improve the response speed and tracking effect of the system.
Technical Paper

Combination of Front Steering and Differential Braking Control for the Path Tracking of Autonomous Vehicle

2016-04-05
2016-01-1627
In order to improve the robustness and stability of autonomous vehicle at high speed, a path tracking approach which combines front steering and differential braking is investigated in this paper. A bicycle model with 3-DOFs is established and a linear time-varying predictive model using front steering as its control input can be derived. Based on model predictive theory, the path tracking issue using linear time-varying model predictive control can be transformed into an online quadratic programming problem with constraints. The expected front steering angle can be obtained from online moving optimization. Then the direct yawing control is adopted to treat two types of differential braking control. The first one investigates steady-state gain of yaw rate in linear 2-DOFs vehicle model, and designs a stable differential braking controller which is based on reference yaw rate.
Technical Paper

The Design and Evaluation of EMB Actuator Scheme

2017-09-17
2017-01-2509
Electromechanical Braking System (EMB) stops the wheel by motor and related enforce mechanism to drive braking pads to clamp the friction plate. It is compact in sized as well as faster in response, which solves the issue of potential leakage and slows response of traditional hydraulic brake system. The institutions at home and abroad have put forward all kinds of new structural schemes of EMB. At present, there are various EMB structural schemes, but the analysis and evaluation of these schemes are relatively few. In this paper, on the basis of a large number of research, the EMB actuator is modular decomposed according to function ,then the parametric 3D model library of each function module is established. According to brake requirements of the target vehicle, a development platform is set up to match EMB actuator structure scheme quickly.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Control of Integrated Electronic Hydraulic Brake System Based on LuGre Friction Model

2017-09-17
2017-01-2513
In this paper, an integrated electronic hydraulic brake(I-EHB) system is introduced, which is mainly composed of a motor, a worm gear, a worm, a gear, a rack etc. The friction leads the system to the creeping phenomenon and the dead zone. These phenomenon seriously affect the response speed and the hydraulic pressure control .In order to realize the accurate hydraulic pressure control of I-EHB system, a new friction compensation control method is proposed based on LuGre dynamic friction model. And the theoretical design of adaptive control method is designed based on the feedback of the master cylinder pressure and the operating state of the system. Then the stability of the control method is proved by Lyapunov theorem. A co-simulation model is built with Matlab/Simulink and AMESim, so as to prove the validity of the control method.
Technical Paper

Influences of Pad Backplate on Thermo-Mechnical Coupling in Disc Brake

2016-04-05
2016-01-1354
The transient thermo-mechanical coupling dynamic model of ventilated disc brake with asymmetrical outer and inner thickness was established by means of Msc-marc software. In the model, pad backplate is simplified as a rigid surface with the same shape of brake lining and is bonded together with brake lining. Control node is associated with the rigid surface and the equivalent force that replaces the pressure is applied on the control nodes, of which the degrees of freedom in radial and rotational directions are constrained. With distribution characteristics of disc temperature field, normal stress field and lateral thermo-elastic deformation and thickness for the evaluation, the impacts of brake pad constraints on brake thermomechanical coupling characteristics were analyzed. The simulation results show that the brake pad back plate is an important structure in brake thermo-mechanical coupling analysis, which can’t be ignored in simulation computing.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation Considering the Tire Pneumatic Trail Variation

2018-04-03
2018-01-0571
Vehicle sideslip angle is significant for electronic stability control devices and hard to estimate due to the nonlinear and uncertain vehicle and tire dynamics. In this paper, based on the two track vehicle dynamic model considering the tire pneumatic trail variation, the vehicle sideslip angle estimation method was proposed. First, the extra steering angle of each wheel caused by kinematics and compliance characteristics of the steering system and suspension system was analyzed. The steering angle estimation method was designed. Since the pneumatic trail would vary with different tire slip angle, distances between the center of gravity (COG) and front&rear axle also change with the tire slip angle. Then, based on the dynamic pneumatic trail and estimated steering angle, we modified the traditional two track vehicle dynamic model using a brush tire model. This model matches the vehicle dynamics more accurately.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Sideslip Angle Estimation: A Review

2018-04-03
2018-01-0569
Vehicle sideslip angle estimation is of great importance to the vehicle stability control as it could not be measured directly by ordinary vehicle-mounted sensors. As a result, researchers worldwide have carried out comprehensive research in estimating the vehicle sideslip angle. First, as the attitude would affect the acceleration information measured by the IMU directly, different kinds of vehicle attitude estimation methods with multi-sensor fusion are presented. Then, the estimation algorithms of the vehicle sideslip angle are classified into the following three aspects: kinematic model based method, dynamic model based method, and fusion method. The characteristics of different estimation algorithms are also discussed. Finally, the conclusion and development trend of the sideslip angle estimation are prospected.
Technical Paper

Braking Pressure Tracking Control of a Pressure Sensor Unequipped Electro-Hydraulic Booster Based on a Nonlinear Observer

2018-04-03
2018-01-0581
BBW (Brake-by-wire) can increase the vehicle safety performance due to high control accuracy and fast response speed. As one solution of BBW, the novel Integrated-electro-hydraulic brake system (I-EHB) is proposed, which consists of electro-hydraulic booster and hydraulic pressure control unit. The electro-hydraulic booster is activated by an electric motor that driving linear motion mechanism to directly produce the master cylinder pressure. With electro-hydraulic booster as an actuator, the hydraulic pressure control problem is a key issue. Most literatures deal with the pressure control issue based on the feedback pressure signal measured by pressure sensor. As far as the authors are aware, none of the proposed techniques takes into account the pressure sensor unequipped BBW. In this paper, there is no pressure feedback signal, but there is only position feedback signal measured by position sensor for control law design.
Technical Paper

Optimal Torque Allocation for Distributed Drive Electric Skid-Steered Vehicles Based on Energy Efficiency

2018-04-03
2018-01-0579
Steering of skid-steered vehicles without steering mechanism is realized by differential drive/brake torque generated from in-wheel motors at left and right sides. Compared to traditional Ackerman-steered vehicles, skid-steered vehicles consume much more energy while steering due to greater steering resistance. Torque allocation is critical to the distributed drive skid-steered vehicles, since it influences not only steering performance, but also energy efficiency. In this paper, the dynamic characteristics of six-wheeled skid-steered vehicles were analyzed, and a 2-DOF vehicle model was established, which is important for both motion tracking control and torque allocation. Furthermore, a hierarchical controller was proposed. Considering tire force characteristics and tire slip, the upper layer calculates the generalized force and desired yaw moment based on anti-windup PI (proportion-integral) control method.
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