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Technical Paper

Development of Automatic Transmission Fluid for Slip-Controlled Lock-Up Clutch Systems

1995-10-01
952348
Slip-controlled lock-up clutch systems are very efficient and greatly improve fuel economy. On the other hand, these systems can cause unstable vibrations including those known as “shudder vibrations”. In this study, the authors made a theoretical analysis of these unstable vibrations to clarify the fundamental frictional properties of automatic transmission fluids (ATFs) required for slip-controlled lock-up clutch systems. Based on this analysis, we established lubricant technology having a sufficient anti-shudder property and high torque capacity. Further, we developed a new test apparatus to evaluate the anti-shudder durability for lubricant development.
Technical Paper

Lubricant Technology to Enhance the Durability of Low Friction Performance of Gasoline Engine Oils

1995-10-01
952533
This paper describes lubricant technology to enhance the durability of the low friction performance of gasoline engine oils which were formulated with molybdenum dithiodicarbamates (MoDTCs) as friction modifiers. This paper also describes an evaluation method which consists of three tests: (1) Our in-house rig test to simulate oil deterioration in an engine stand; (2) Quantitative analysis of MoDTC and ZnDTP in oils and; (3) A friction test (SRV). It was found that the low friction performance of fuel economy engine oils deteriorated primarily due to the consumption of MoDTC and ZnDTP. Calcium salicylates had better durability of low friction performance than calcium sulfonates. Furthermore, sulfurized compounds enhanced the durability. Based on these findings, an experimental oil was formulated.
Technical Paper

Development of Toyota Plug-in hybrid system

2011-05-17
2011-39-7219
Toyota has been introducing several hybrid vehicles (HV) as a countermeasure to concerns related to the automotive mobility like CO2 reduction, energy security, and emission reduction in urban areas. A next step towards an even more effective solution for these concerns is a plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV). This vehicle combines the advantages of electric vehicles (EV), which can use clean electric energy, and HV with it's high environmental potential and user-friendliness comparable to conventional vehicles such as a long cruising range. This paper describes a newly developed plug-in hybrid system and its vehicle performance. This system uses a Li-ion battery with high energy density and has an EV-range within usual trip length without sacrificing cabin space. The vehicle achieves a CO2 emission of 59g/km and meets the most stringent emission regulations in the world. The new PHV is a forerunner of the large-scale mass production PHV which will be introduced in a year.
Technical Paper

Research into All Solid Secondary Lithium Battery

2011-05-17
2011-39-7234
It may be possible to simplify the structure and control systems of a lithium-ion battery by replacing the conventional liquid electrolyte with a solid electrolyte, resulting in higher energy density. However, power performance is a development issue of batteries using a solid electrolyte. To increase battery power performance, in addition to lithium ionic conductivity within the bulk of the electrolyte, it is also necessary to boost the lithium ionic conductivity at the interface between the electrode active material and the electrolyte, and to boost electron and lithium ionic conductivity within the cathode and anode active material. This research studied the mechanism of resistance reduction by electrode surface modification. Subsequently, this research attempted to improve electron conductivity by simultaneously introducing oxygen vacancies and carrying out nitrogen substitution in the crystalline structure of the Li4Ti5O12 anode active material.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle in TOYOTA

2011-05-17
2011-39-7238
The outline of the TOYOTA FCHV-adv is described in this paper. The TOYOTA FCHVadv achieved an approximately 25 percent improvement in vehicle fuel efficiency and about 1.9 times the amount of usable hydrogen in comparison with the previous model. These improvements have enabled almost 2.5 times longer practical cruising range, more than 500 km. The freeze start capabilities of the FCHV-adv were improved by modifying the FC stack and control system. As a result, the FCHV-adv has been capable of starting at a temperature of -30°C. In the future, TOYOTA intends to improve durability and reduce costs.
Technical Paper

Classification and View of Automotive Power Supply Voltage for HEV, PHEV and EV

2011-05-17
2011-39-7227
In the twenty-first century, the development of vehicles has been proceeding towards electronics, electric propulsion and system integration in 5 big trends. Environment, Safety, Market Change, Energy Security and Natural Resources. Especially, “Electric Propulsion of Vehicles” is rapidly accelerated for countermeasure of global warming. In this paper, we will propose the current status analysis for automotive high power supply voltage and classification for future view of HEV(Hybird Electric Vehicle). PHEV(Plug-in Hybrid Electric Vehicle) and EV(Electric Vehicle).
Technical Paper

Research on Metal Air Battery

2011-05-17
2011-39-7233
Plug-in hybrid vehicles (PHVs) and/or electric vehicles (EVs) as sustainable mobility rapidly penetrate into a new market. Cruising ranges of PHVs and EVs strongly depend on the energy density of batteries. In this paper, we briefly introduce our achievements of metal air batteries as one of the innovative batteries with high energy density.
Technical Paper

The i-REAL Personal Mobility Vehicle

2011-05-17
2011-39-7242
The need for small personal mobility vehicles is growing as urbanization, the aging of society, traffic congestion, and parking become major issues, particularly in inner-city areas. The aging of society also means that more short trips within communities will be made. The i-REAL personal mobility vehicle is a next-generation single-passenger electric vehicle that enables the driver to move around town using a smaller amount of energy. This compact EV has three wheels: two front wheels driven by in-wheel motors and one rear wheel. According to the driver's needs, the i-REAL switches driving modes by changing its wheelbase. It can go slowly, allowing the driver to meet the eyes of passers-by when driving in parks, on sidewalks, or inside shopping malls. When on the road, it can lower its height and drive quickly like a bicycle or motorcycle. The body of the i-REAL leans automatically based on the speed and the turn angle to maintain the balance of the vehicle for any driver.
Technical Paper

The application of VHDL-AMS multi-domain HV simulation to the power performance and the fuel economy during warming up process

2011-05-17
2011-39-7245
In order to reduce CO2, EV and Hybrid Vehicle (HV) are effective. Those type vehicles have different power train from conventional vehicle. Those new power trains drastically improve their efficiency from conventional vehicle with keeping same or superior power performance. On the other hand, those vehicles have the issue for thermal energy shortage during warming up process. The thermal energy is very large. The thermal energy seriously affect on the fuel economy for HV and the mileage for EV. In this paper, the power performance, the fuel economy and the effect of heat energy recovery from the exhaust gas are discussed for HV. For the power performance, the simulated acceleration time of 0-100km/h was 11.8sec and the measured vehicle time was 11.9sec. The error between simulation and actual measurement result was 1.2%. As for the fuel economy, the energy management using exhaust gas heat exchange system improved 10.3% of the fuel consumption during warming up.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Dynamics Innovation with In-Wheel Motor

2011-05-17
2011-39-7204
In-wheel motors (IWM) will be a key technology that contributes to the popularization of electric vehicles. Combining electric drive with IWM enables both good vehicle dynamics and a roomy interior. In addition, the responsiveness of IWM is also capable of raising dynamic control performance to an even higher level. IWM enable vertical body motion control as well as direct yaw control, electric skid control, and traction control. This means that IWM can replace most control actuators used in a vehicle chassis. The most important technology for IWM is to enable the motor to coexist with the brake and the suspension arms inside the wheel. The IWM drive unit described in this paper can be installed with a front double wishbone suspension, the most difficult configuration.
Journal Article

Study of Diesel Engine System for Hybrid Vehicles

2011-08-30
2011-01-2021
In this study, we combined a diesel engine with the Toyota Hybrid System (THS). Utilizing the functions of the THS, reducing engine friction, lowering the compression ratio, and adopting a low pressure loop exhaust gas recirculation system (LPL-EGR) were examined to achieve both low fuel consumption and low nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions over a wide operating range. After applying this system to a test vehicle it was verified that the fuel economy greatly surpassed that of a conventional diesel engine vehicle and that NOx emissions could be reduced below the value specified in the Euro 6 regulations without DeNOx catalysts.
Journal Article

Decoupled 3D Moment Control for Vehicle Motion Using In-Wheel Motors

2013-04-08
2013-01-0679
Vehicles equipped with in-wheel motors are being studied and developed as a type of electric vehicle. Since these motors are attached to the suspension, a large vertical suspension reaction force is generated during driving. Based on this mechanism, this paper describes the development of a method for independently controlling roll and pitch as well as yaw using driving force distribution control at each wheel. It also details the theoretical calculation of a method for decoupling the dynamic motions. Finally, it describes the application of these 3D dynamic motion control methods to a test vehicle and the confirmation of the performance improvement.
Journal Article

Development of New Hybrid Transmission for Compact-Class Vehicles

2009-04-20
2009-01-0726
A new hybrid transmission has been developed for New compact class vehicles. The development of this transmission has been aimed at improving fuel economy and achieving the weight reduction and compact size. In order to achieve these goals, the gear train and motor have been newly designed and advanced technology applied. This paper describes the major features and performance of this transmission in detail.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Fuel Compounds on Pre-ignition under High Temperature and High Pressure Condition

2011-08-30
2011-01-1984
Turbocharged (TC) engines have been introduced these days to improve the fuel economy. It is considered that one possible issue of the TC engine is a pre-ignition at high engine speed because of high temperature and high pressure in the combustion chamber. This study shows the effect of fuel compounds on pre-ignition at 4400rpm. The experimental engine is a naturally-aspirated (NA) engine which is customized to imitate the cylinder temperature and pressure of TC engines. It is known that research octane number (RON) describes anti-knock quality well. Meanwhile the results show that pre-ignition characteristic at high engine speed is dominated by motor octane number (MON) and auto-ignition temperature (AIT) rather than RON.
Technical Paper

Development of New Automatic Transmission Fluid for Fuel Economy

2003-10-27
2003-01-3258
It is important to reduce the viscosity of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) in order to improve fuel economy. However, in general, low viscosity fluid can cause metal fatigue, wear, and seizure. It is necessary to increase the viscosity of the fluid at higher temperatures to maintain the durability of the automatic transmission (AT). The key point is the selection of the base oil and the viscosity index improver (VII) with both a high viscosity index (VI) and excellent shear stability. On the basis of this concept, a new generation high performance ATF named WS was developed. WS can achieve the highest level of fuel economy, while maintaining the durability of the AT.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Engine Oil Effect on Abnormal Combustion in Turbocharged Direct Injection - Spark Ignition Engines (Part 2)

2013-10-14
2013-01-2569
As one of spark ignition (SI) engine solutions to improve fuel economy while maintaining drivability, concept of combing turbocharging and direct injection (DI) fuel injection system with engine down-sizing has increased its application in the market. Abnormal combustion phenomena referred to as Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) has been recognized as potential restriction to improve low speed engine torque that contributes fuel economy improvement. As reported in the part 1 [1], the study showed that engine oil composition had significant influence on the frequency of LSPI in both preventive and contributory effects. Further investigation was conducted to evaluate engine oil formulation variables and other factors that may have influences on the LSPI, such as engine oil degradation. Engine test that consisted of 2 phases was designed in order to confirm the correlation between LSPI frequency and engine oil degradation.
Technical Paper

The World's First Transverse 8-Speed Automatic Transmission

2013-04-08
2013-01-1274
We have developed the world's first 8-speed automatic transmission for transverse FWD/4WD vehicles. The aim of this new automatic transmission was to achieve world-class fuel economy while offering both smooth gear shift and sporty shift feeling suitable for luxury cars. This has been accomplished using wide spread gear ratio, outstanding low drag components and highly efficient hydraulic control system. In addition, we have achieved the compactness similar to current 6-speed automatic transmission by adopting new gear train and compact clutch layout. In this paper, the detail of this automatic transmission is introduced.
Technical Paper

Alert Method for Rear Cross Traffic Alert System in North America

2013-04-08
2013-01-0732
In recent years, a number of different Blind Spot Monitor (BSM) systems have become more and more popular in North American automotive market. The BSM system advises the driver of vehicles travelling in adjacent lanes when these vehicles are also in the driver's outside rearview mirror blind spots. Similarly, when the vehicle is backing up from a parking spot, cross-traffic vehicles can be in the driver's outside mirror blind spots. In this situation, the Rear Cross Traffic Alert (RCTA) system alerts the driver when the driver shifts the vehicle in the reverse gear and there are approaching cross-traffic vehicles. The benefits of RCTA system was presented by [1]. The RCTA alert studied in this paper is given by playing an audible sound and by flashing the outside mirror indicators. The RCTA and BSM systems share the same vehicle sensors and most of their vehicle components.
Technical Paper

Validation Test Result Analysis of Plug-in Hybrid Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-1464
In recent years, many various energy sources have been investigated as replacements for traditional automotive fossil fuels to help reduce CO2 emissions, respond to instabilities in the supply of fossil fuels, and reduce emissions of air pollutants in urban areas. Toyota Motor Corporation considers the plug-in hybrid vehicle (PHV), which can efficiently use electricity supplied from infrastructure, to be the most practical current solution to these issues. For this reason, Toyota began sales of the Prius Plug-in Hybrid in 2012 in the U.S., Europe and Japan. This is the first PHV to be mass-produced by Toyota Motor Corporation. Prior to this, in December 2009, Toyota sold 650 PHVs through lease programs for validation testing in the U.S., Europe and Japan. Additional 30 PHVs were introduced in China in March 2011 for the same objective.
Technical Paper

Development of 3.5L V6 Gasoline Direct Injection Engine - ESTEC 2GR-FKS/FXS -

2015-09-01
2015-01-1972
The new 2GR-FKS / FXS engines were developed to achieve stringent fuel economy and emission targets and respond to recent innovations in the field. The major parts of the 2GR-FKS/FXS engines were re-designed based on the well-received dynamic performance and fuel economy aspects of the 2GR-FE engine. The aims of this development were as follows. 1 Best-in-class power performance 2 Environmental performance that maximizes thermal efficiency and complies with fuel economy and emission regulations in each country by a wide margin 3 Engine response typical of V6 engines through drastic weight reduction of moving parts To achieve these conflicting aims, the developed engines use a modified version of the D-4S fuel injection system, which enables selective use of direct and port injection, in addition to advanced technologies such as variable valve technology (VVT) with a mid-position lock system and an exhaust port cooling system.
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