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Journal Article

Development of Fuel Cell (FC) System for New Generation FC Bus

Toyota Motor Corporation has been actively pursuing the development of fuel cell vehicles (FCVs) to respond to global environmental concerns and demands for clean energy. Toyota developed the first fuel cell (FC) bus to receive vehicle type certification in Japan. Subsequently, a new FC bus has been developed, which adopts two FC systems and four high-voltage batteries to achieve the required high power performance and durability. For enhanced durability, the FC system is controlled to maximize usage of the high-voltage batteries and to reduce the number of electric potential changes of the fuel cell. To accomplish this, the voltage of the FC stack must be kept high and FC power must be kept low. The high-voltage batteries were used to actively minimize FC power during acceleration.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle in TOYOTA

The outline of the TOYOTA FCHV-adv is described in this paper. The TOYOTA FCHVadv achieved an approximately 25 percent improvement in vehicle fuel efficiency and about 1.9 times the amount of usable hydrogen in comparison with the previous model. These improvements have enabled almost 2.5 times longer practical cruising range, more than 500 km. The freeze start capabilities of the FCHV-adv were improved by modifying the FC stack and control system. As a result, the FCHV-adv has been capable of starting at a temperature of -30°C. In the future, TOYOTA intends to improve durability and reduce costs.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel-Cell Hybrid Vehicle

Toyota Motor Corporation developed the Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle (FCHV). The FCHV-4 is an evolution of the conventional fuel cell vehicle that has made immense improvements in efficiency. Both a fuel cell and a secondary battery are used as sources of energy for the hybrid system. By using these energy sources proportionally, the system can be kept at or near its optimum state. The FCHV-4's system is designed to improve the efficiency and aims for high responsiveness when the vehicle is in a transitional state. In the same way as most electric vehicles, and as in the gasoline powered hybrid “Prius”, the energy the traction motor creates during breaking can be used to regenerate the secondary. The fuel cell and traction motor inverter are connected directly, with the secondary battery connected through the DC/DC converter to the fuel cell in parallel.
Technical Paper

Development of High-Pressure Hydrogen Storage System for the Toyota “Mirai”

The new Toyota FCV “Mirai” has reduced the weight, size, and cost of the high-pressure hydrogen storage system while improving fueling performance. The four 70 MPa tanks used on the 2008 Toyota FCHV-adv were reduced to two new larger diameter tanks. The laminated structure of the tanks was optimized to reduce weight, and a high-strength low-cost carbon fiber material was newly developed and adopted. The size of the high-pressure valve was reduced by improving its structure and a high-pressure sensor from a conventional vehicle was modified for use in a high-pressure hydrogen atmosphere. These innovations helped to improve the weight of the whole storage system by approximately 15% in comparison with Toyota FCHV-adv, while reducing the number of component parts by half and substantially reducing cost. The time required to fuel the FCV was greatly reduced by chilling the filling gas temperature at the hydrogen filling station to −40°C (as per SAE J2601).
Technical Paper

Development of Hologram Head-Up Display

Instrument clusters used in automobiles play an important role as man-machine interface. A variety of information about the current driving situation is conveyed to the driver quickly and accurately. A great interest has been taken in the high visibility and legibility of the head-up display (subsequently abbreviated as HUD). Originally developed as display used in aeronautical applications, we have tried to exploit ways to adapt this device for automotive use. We have succeeded to produce a new HUD system, which has the following design features; (1) High brightness and high contrast display device using a liquid crystal display (subsequently abbreviated as LCD) and a halogen lamp illumination. (2) Long focus display in two colors using holographic lens. (3) Automatic dimming control system using an illuminance sensor. (see Fig. 1)
Technical Paper

Development of Hybrid System for SUV

Toyota Hybrid System (THS), that combines a gasoline engine and an electric motor was installed in the Prius, which was introduced in 1997 as the world's first mass-produced hybrid passenger car, and was vastly improved in 2003. The new Prius gained a status of highly innovative and practical vehicle. In 2005, combined with a V6 engine, THS had a further evolution as a Hybrid System for SUV, which was installed in the RX400h and Highlander Hybrid to be introduced into the world. This report will explain “new THS” which achieved both V8 engine power performance and compact class fuel economy, while securing the most stringent emission standard, SULEV.
Journal Article

Development of Ignition Technology for Dilute Combustion Engines

In recent years, from a viewpoint of global warming and energy issues, the need to improve vehicle fuel economy to reduce CO2 emission has become apparent. One of the ways to improve this is to enhance engine thermal efficiency, and for that, automakers have been developing the technologies of high compression ratio and dilute combustion such as exhaust gas recirculation (EGR), and lean combustion. Since excessive dilute combustion causes the failure of flame propagation, combustion promotion by intensifying in-cylinder turbulence has been indispensable. However, instability of flame kernel formation by gas flow fluctuation between combustion cycles is becoming an issue. Therefore, achieving stable flame kernel formation and propagation under a high dilute condition is important technology.
Technical Paper

Development of Innovative Dynamic Torque Vectoring AWD System

This paper describes the development of an innovative AWD system called Dynamic Torque Vectoring AWD for all-wheel drive (AWD) vehicles based on a front-wheel drive configuration. The Dynamic Torque Vectoring AWD system helps to achieve high levels of both dynamic performance and fuel efficiency. Significant fuel economy savings are achieved by using a new compact disconnection mechanism at the transfer and rear units, which prevents any unnecessary rotation of the propeller shaft. In addition, the system is also capable of independently distributing torque to the rear wheels by utilizing electronically controlled couplings on the left and right sides of the rear differential. This greatly enhances both on-road cornering performance and off-road driving performance.
Technical Paper

Development of Methanol Lean Burn System

A methanol fueled, lean burn system has been developed to improve both specific fuel consumption and NOx emissions. A 1.6L four-cylinder engine with increased compression ratio has been used to develop this system. Three major components of the Toyota Lean Combustion System (T-LCS) have been applied: (1) A helical port with a swirl control valve (2) A lean mixture sensor (3) Timed, multi-point fuel injection. A 2250 lb. Inertia Weight test vehicle has been fitted with this engine, and fuel system materials have been modified. This methanol, lean burn system has improved the fuel economy by about 12% still satisfying the 1986 emission standards of the U.S.A. and Japan. Aldehyde emissions have also been evaluated.
Technical Paper

Development of New Automatic Transmission Fluid for Fuel Economy

It is important to reduce the viscosity of automatic transmission fluid (ATF) in order to improve fuel economy. However, in general, low viscosity fluid can cause metal fatigue, wear, and seizure. It is necessary to increase the viscosity of the fluid at higher temperatures to maintain the durability of the automatic transmission (AT). The key point is the selection of the base oil and the viscosity index improver (VII) with both a high viscosity index (VI) and excellent shear stability. On the basis of this concept, a new generation high performance ATF named WS was developed. WS can achieve the highest level of fuel economy, while maintaining the durability of the AT.
Technical Paper

Development of New Concept Iridium Plug

In the field of automotive gasoline engines, new products aiming at greater fuel economy and cleaner exhaust gases are under development with the aim of preventing environmental destruction. Severe ignition environments such as lean combustion, stronger charge motion, and large quantities of EGR require ever greater combustion stability. In an effort to meet these requirements, an iridium plug has been developed that achieves high ignitability and long service life through reduction of its diameter, using a highly wear-resistant iridium alloy as the center electrode.(1)(2) Recently, direct injection engines have attracted attention. In stratified combustion, a feature of the direct injection engine, the introduction of rich air-fuel mixtures in the vicinity of the plug ignition region tends to cause carbon fouling. This necessitates plug carbon fouling resistance.
Technical Paper

Development of New Concept Three-Way Catalyst for Automotive Lean-Burn Engines

A new 3-way catalyst with NOx conversion performance for lean-burn engines has been developed. The catalyst oxidizes NOx and stores the resulting nitrate, which is then reduced by HC and CO during engine operation around the stoichiometric air/fuel ratio. Both the composition of the storage component and the particle sizes of the noble metal were optimized. In addition, a special air fuel mixture control has been developed to make the best of the NOx storage-reduction function. The present catalyst showed 90% conversion efficiency and improved fuel economy by 4% in the Japanese 10-15 mode test cycle. The efficiency remained at 60% or more after durability test.
Technical Paper

Development of New Continuously Variable Transmission for 2.0-Liter Class Vehicles

In response to increasing demands for measures to conserve the global environment and the introduction of more stringent CO2 emissions regulations around the world, the automotive industry is placing greater focus on reducing levels of CO2 through the development of fuel-efficient technologies. With the aim of improving fuel economy, a new continuously variable transmission (CVT) has been developed for 2.0-liter class vehicles. This new CVT features various technologies for improving fuel economy including a coaxial 2-discharge port oil pump system, wider ratio coverage, low-viscosity CVT fluid, and a flex start system. This CVT is also compatible with a stop and start (S&S) system that reduces fuel consumption by shutting off the engine while the vehicle is stopped. In addition, the development of the CVT improves driveability by setting both the driving force and engine speed independently.
Technical Paper

Development of New Control Methods to Improve Response of Throttle Type Traction Control System

A description is made of new control methods to improve response of wheel slip regulation. These methods enabled a new Traction Control (TRC) system based on throttle control rather than brake pressure to be developed. Major points are as follows: (1) Use of fuel injection cut-off to minimize delay (2) Additional adaptive throttle control logic By these means, a response nearly equal to that with brake pressure control is achieved at lower cost and with a considerable weight saving. Furthermore, the system, by suppressing noise and vibration, enhances the driver's control ability.
Technical Paper

Development of New Generation Continuously Variable Transmission

In response to global demands for environmental conservation, the automotive industry is placing greater focus on the development of fuel-efficient technologies to help reduce global CO2 emissions. With the aim of simultaneously improving fuel economy and driveability, TOYOTA has developed a new continuously variable transmission (CVT) vehicles in North America equipped with a 1.8-liter engine [1]. This new CVT features various technologies for improving fuel economy, including: the world's first coaxial 2-discharge port oil pump system, wider ratio coverage, a flex start system, low-viscosity CVT fluid, and a higher final gear ratio. This paper outlines the configuration, characteristics, performance, and new technologies of this CVT.
Journal Article

Development of New Hybrid Transmission for Compact-Class Vehicles

A new hybrid transmission has been developed for New compact class vehicles. The development of this transmission has been aimed at improving fuel economy and achieving the weight reduction and compact size. In order to achieve these goals, the gear train and motor have been newly designed and advanced technology applied. This paper describes the major features and performance of this transmission in detail.
Technical Paper

Development of New Manual Transmission Gear Oil for Fuel Economy

We developed a new Manual Transmission Gear Oil (MTF) named LV for improved fuel economy and CO2 reduction. MTF LV is a low viscosity fluid to reduce stir losses at lower temperatures. In general, low viscosity fluids can cause metal fatigue, wear and seizure. The MTF LV was designed to overcome these problems by maintaining the oil film thickness after it is deteriorated and improving the wear characteristics with additives. As a result, the MTF LV provides equal or better durability than the current MTF. In addition, it also has good performance at low temperatures, better shift feeling characteristics, and improved oxidation stability.
Technical Paper

Development of New Sports Shift Control System for Toyota's Automatic Transmission

Toyota has developed a new sports shift control system introduced in the world's first eight-speed automatic transmission (AA80E), which is implemented in the “LS 460” and has been adopted in the “IS F” (upcoming 2008 model). This enables the IS F to be a vehicle that also permits the enjoyment of driving on circuits as well as achieving that “fun-to-drive” image. In sports driving, as achieved by the conventional torque converter-type automatic transmissions, shift response performance for shift operation and linearity performance for accelerator operations were challenges to tackle. On the contrary, the newly developed sports shift control system has resolved these challenges and enables the IS F to be capable of responding to a driver's intention quickly and accurately, letting the driver truly experience satisfaction.
Technical Paper

Development of New-Generation Hybrid System THS II - Drastic Improvement of Power Performance and Fuel Economy

Toyota Hybrid System (THS), the powertrain that combines a gasoline engine and an electric motor was first introduced in December 1997. It became the first mass-produced hybrid passenger vehicle in the world, gaining a reputation as a highly innovative vehicle, and its cumulative worldwide sales have exceeded 120,000 units. In 2003, THS had a further evolution. The “new-generation Toyota Hybrid System (THS II)” would be introduced on the new Prius. This report shall explain “THS II”, which achieved drastic improvements in power performance and fuel economy, while securing the most stringent emission standard Advanced Technology Partial Zero Emission Vehicle (ATPZEV).
Technical Paper

Development of Novel Friction Modifier Technology Part 2: Vehicle Testing

Requirements to reduce emissions and improve vehicle fuel economy continue to increase, spurred on by agreements such as the Kyoto Protocol. Lubricants can play a role in improving fuel economy, as evidenced by the rise in the number of engine oil specifications worldwide that require fuel economy improvements. A novel friction modifier technology has been developed to further improve vehicle fuel economy. The development of this novel friction modifier technology which contains only N,O,C,H was previously published along with the initial demonstration of performance in motorized Toyota engines. In order to validate this performance in fired engine tests, oil was evaluated in a Toyota Corolla Fielder with a 1500 cc gasoline engine. Testing was conducted in the Japanese 10-15 and JC08 modes, as well as the European EC mode, and the US FTP mode.